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Rootstocks for Cherries from the Department of Fruit Science Budapest
Published August 13, 2004
63-66.

Cherry rootstock breeding started at the Department of Fruit Science, SSU Budapest by the late 50-s and the activity can be divided into three main groups. In the first stage the activity was focused on collection of native mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L.) varieties lead by L. Sebők. After evaluation in the nursery and orchard tests... there are four promising rootstock cultivars selected from this material: 'Korponay' used as self fertile seed tree, its seedlings are recommended for sour cherries. The mahaleb varieties 'Bogdány' (vigorous), 'Egervár' and 'Magyar' (medium vigour) are propagated by cuttings. The next project has started in 1979 with the aim to select self fertile mahaleb seed trees producing homogeneous seedling populations with reduced vigour. Inbred populations from isolated flowering self fertile trees were produced and planted out in 1980. The inbreeding of 'Korponay' self fertile P. mahaleb variety resulted in specimens with different fruit colour (yellow, red, black), fruit shape and size. From among them self fertile trees were selected with various growth characteristics. Seedlings of that self fertile mother trees (S2 population) were tested in seedbed, they showed homogeneous phenotype characteristics as liners in the nursery. As rootstock of 'Érdi bőtermő' sour cherry in the orchard most of the S2 lines proved to be less vigorous in comparison to SI popuplations. 'Érdi bőtermő' trees budded on certain S2 lines in the orchard are more productive than those on S1 ('Korponay' seedling). Characteristics of the S2 generation as seed tree were studied as well. We expect to get morphologically homogeneous seedling populations with different growth vigour and good productivity in the later inbred generations. In the last couple of decades the research activity concerning ground-cherry and its hybrids resulted in dwarfing rootstocks. Prunus fruticosa Pall. hybrids from the natural flora of Hungary were collected and artificial hybrids were created between P. fruticosa and mahaleb cherry. Most of them are in the initial tests, only one of them is before registration, named 'Prob', which is a dwarf rootstock for sweet cherry. By the screening of new hybrids medium vigorous or semi dwarfing and precocious rootstocks seem to be promising for the cherry industry.

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First results of varios sour cherry cultivar on Oblacsinska as interstocks and Prunus mahaleb rootstocks
Published March 25, 2009
87-90.

At the experiment orchard of the Fruit Research and Extension Institute, Újfehértó, Hungary in spring 2000 a trial was designed included: Erdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, and Csengődi sour cherry (Prunus avium L) cultivars which were budded at 1999 on Oblacsinska sour cherry (as a dwarf inter stock), which had been budded on ...m>Prunus mahaleb seedlings at 1998 with the aim to investigate the dwarfing effects of Oblacsinska sour cherry cultivars on scion cultivars. Trees of each cultivar directly on Prunus mahaleb seedling, severd as controls. Use of Oblacsinska as an interstock reduced the rootstock trunk diameter. Trees of Debreceni bőtermő, and Cseng6di sour cherry cultivars with Oblacsinska interstock were smaller than similar trees grafted directly onto Prunus mahaleb as a rootstock. Trees of Erdi bőtermő grafted on Oblacsinska interstock which buded on Prunus mahaleb were the smallest. Growth of the trees was reduced also by using of the Oblacsinszka as interstock for other examined cultivars.

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Sex expression of flowers in cultivated sweet and sour cherries
Published February 23, 2000
50-52.

During the period of 1968-1972 nine sweet cherry varieties were investigated by the author on mazzard seedling rootstock, more­over cv. Germersdorfi óriás and cv. Münchebergi korai sweet cherry cultivars grafted on mahaleb, cv. Korponai and cv. Sukorói cherries were observed on rootstocks of cv. Cig...nymeggy sour cherry seedling, too.

Yet, there are other relations between the different parts of sweet cherry flowers too, which perhaps indicate the effect of rootstocks in Cerasus scions. The flower structure shows feminine character on mahaleb, the effect is intermediate on mazzard, however, the sour cherry rootstock strengthens the male character.

Four sour cherry varieties as cv. Cigánymeggy C. 404. cv. Érdi nagygyümölcsű, cv. Meteor korai and cv. Pándy C. 101 were studied on three rootstocks: mazzard, mahaleb and Cigánymeggy C. 215 seedling rootstocks between 1976 and 1980.

The pistil length, stamen number and relative stamen number diverged significantly on different rootstocks. The results revealed a close negative correlation between the pistil length and stamen number, furthermore noticing that, in the self-fertile cv. Meteor korai and cv. Újfehértói fürtös presented increasing of the relative stamen number, so the fertility decreased, while in the case of self-sterile varieties the change was favourable.

Summing up the results, it is obvious, that the fertility of flowers can be modified by rootstocks and the ecological factors cause sex reversions on different combinations.

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Comparative study of cherry varieties used in intense culture
Published September 2, 2009
71-74.

Research in sweet cherry production is intensely stimulated worldwide. The programs started also in Hungary to develop technologies and to find suitable varieties for the purpose of intense cultivation. It means that dimension of crowns should be smaller, with higher number of plants per hectare. Understocks, which let grow the trees slower, ar...e scarce in this species. On the one hand, the braking effect of the respective stocks is insufficient, they get old pretty soon, loose ramification, yield too small fruits and do not comply with the aims of intense cultivation. Experiences prove the necessity of stocks for intense culture, which are vital, growing, easily regenerating, and freely branching. Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb), a strong growing stock, is still suitable. Further improvement is expected from the contribution of technological elements and the choice of variety. In the present paper, a 9-year old plantation is shown with trees trained to (slender) spindle, and the yield and fruit quality of the year 2009 has been analysed with 6 varieties involved.

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Growth and yield of sweet cherry trees on different roostocks
Published September 13, 1999
98-101.

The first nine years' results of sweet cherry rootstock trial from Hungary are presented with the aim to select efficient rootstocks for the local ecological conditions. The trials were established in 1989 with 'Van' and 'Germersdorfi óriás' cultivars on the following rootstocks: mahaleb Sainte Lucie 64, Colt, MxM 14, MxM 97. All the trees we...re headed at 80 cm and trained to a modified Brunner-spindle system. Tree size and yield was measured every year, and the cumulative yield efficiency was calculated.

Based upon the results, mahaleb cherry SL 64 is a vigorous rootstock with good compatibility and productivity. In comparison to SL 64. the trunk cross-sectional area and canopy spread of the 'Van' trees decreased by 10-15% on rootstock Colt, while the trees of 'Germersdorfi orias' on Colt roostock grew even larger than on SL 64. Considerable 30-40 % reduction of tree size was achieved on trees grafted on M x M hybrids. Trees of `Germersdorfi óriás' showed a similar tendency without significant differences. The cumulative yield efficiency of `Van' trees after nine years was highest on rootstock MxM 14, followed by Sainte Lucie 64. Trees on Colt and MxM 97 rootstocks showed low productivity. `Germersdorfi óriás' produced the highest cumulative yield efficiency on SL 64, followed by MxM 14 and Colt and last MxM 97. Biennial bearing index of heavy cropping 'Van' trees was smaller than that of `Germersdorfi óriás'. The trees of 'Van' on MxM 97 showed higher biennial bearing index, while 'Germersdorfi orias' on different rootstocks showed similar tendency, but without significant differences.

MxM 14 and MxM 97 rootstocks reduced the crotch angle of the shoots on both sweet cherry varieties which is disadvantegous to spindle training. Slight suckering (1-3/year) of the rootstocks Colt, MxM 14 and MxM 97 were observed during the first few years.

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Effect of foliar fertilization on leaf mineral composition, sugar and organic acid contents of sweet cherry
Published February 19, 2008
45-48.

Influence of a three-year-long foliar fertilization on mineral composition of leaf, content of sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose and sucrose) and organic acids (citric, malic and fumaric acid) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruits was studied. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdor...fi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock, planted in 1999. Trees spaced 7 x 5 m, and growing in a calcareous chernozem soil. Trees were foliar-fertilized with potassium (K) as KNO3 and calcium (Ca) as Ca(NO3)2. Potassium spraying was carried out 3 (K1) and 5 (K2) while calcium was applied at 3 (Ca 1), 5 (Ca2) and 6 (Ca3) weeks after full bloom. Beside fruit analysis, complete soil and leaf analysis were done to study the rate of nutrient uptake and its effects on fruit quality. Contents of nutrients of soil and leaf were determined by atomic absorption and spectrophotometric method, while sugars and organic acids in fruit were determined by HPLC. The applied treatments (except K1) had been increasing leaf K significantly compared to the control till ripening. Most of treatments had no significant effect on Ca content of leaf till ripening. From applied treatments only the boron treatments had significant increasing effect on contents of all examined sugars, compared the control. Furthermore, the effect of calcium spraying on the contents of organic acids was significant.

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Training and maintaining spindle crowns in cherry production
Published May 10, 2010
51-53.

In cherry production all over the world, intensification of the technology is the main objective of research. Small crowns and high planting densities are aimed to attain high yields per hectare and easier harvesting. Rootstocks of reduced vigour for cherries are more difficult to find than in other fruit species, and the rejuvenation of fruiti...ng structures by pruning is aggravated by the reduced vigour. Intensity of the technology ought to be achieved by a thoughtful application of the technological elements (timing of pruning by various intensity) moreover, by finding different policies for individual varieties. Sweet cherry varieties dominating the assortment proved to be very variable regarding their growing habits. In our experiment, we dealt with the slender spindle and free spindle forms, and how to train the trees to develop and to maintain the desirable form depending on the respective variety in order to achieve the right load of flower buds and yields repeatedly. In this paper, we examine the most important practical issues with the training and maintaining of the crowns of cherries with circular projection and central axis grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstocks

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Some biological properties of new sweet cherry cultivars in Bulgaria and their susceptibility to Blumeriella jaapii
Published September 19, 2007
95-97.

Investigations were made on 12 sweet cherry cultivars (‘13-S-22-8’, 'Sunburst', `Kozerska'., 'NY 13791', 'Royalton', 'NY 13688', 'Hartland', `Sumerset', 'Pollax', 'Patriotka Krima', 'Castor', and `Lapins') in an experimental orchard of cherry cultivar collection in the Institute of Agriculture at Kyustendil, Bulgaria during the period of 19...97-2003. The trees were planted in 1996. All cultivars were grafted on Prunus mahaleb. Four biological properties of the cultivars were assessed such as blooming time, resistance to late spring frost, fruit ripening and fruit mass. Among cultivars, a good resistance to late spring frost was observed on cultivar 'Sunburst'. The fruit mass varied between 4.2 g (cv. 'Patriotka Krima') and 8.5 g (cv. `Sunburst'). The susceptibility of the cherry cultivars to cherry leaf spot caused by Blumeriella jaapii was assessed in mid-September in each year. The estimation of the rate of attack was made according to the grade of Townsend and Neuberger. All cultivars showed symptoms of cherry leaf spot but the degree of susceptibility was different. Cultivar `Patriotka Krima' was the least susceptible, while cultivar `Somerset' was the most susceptible to Blumeriella jaapii.

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Effect of N, P, K and Mg fertilizers on some vegetative and generative parameters of a sweet cherry cultivar
Published July 29, 2020
27-30.

This two-year-study was aimed to provide results on the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium fertilizer treatments (control, NP, NPK, NPKMg) on vegetative and generative features of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Carmen’. Examinations were performed in an orchard planted in 2012 on Prunus mahaleb rootstock with spaci...ng of 5 x 2.5 m. All treatments improved the vegetative features of the sweet cherry trees in both years of 2016 and 2017. Fertilizer treated trees increased trunk cross section area (TCSA) with 51.3-63.1%, while control trees showed 48.3% trunk growth increase. Yields of control trees were lower in both years (5.9-7.2 kg/tree), than that of the fertilized trees (7.8-11.3 kg/tree). Treatments also increased the phosphorus (16-22%), magnesium (12-20%) and potassium content (3.5-18%) of the fruits compared to control treatments.

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Floral biology of tree fruit rootstocks
Published April 19, 2006
153-161.

The modern nursery industry requires seed sources of a high quality and regular quantity year by year. Besides the seed sources of processed cultivars (Bartlett pear, Shipley, Elberta peach) special seed orchards are planted with selected seed trees producing high quality and genetically determined seed (hybrid seed or inbred lines). Seedlings ...are still the most common commercial source of rootstocks for stone fruits (almond, apricot, peach, plum, prune and walnut). Although clonal rootstocks are spreading, usage of seedlings is still predominant at stone fruits and nuts. For successful seed production and planning of seed orchard the knowledge on floral biology, flower fertility, pollination, blossom time of trees (selected clone or cultivars) used for seed production is essential. In this field very little systematic research was carried out most of the papers were published in the second half of the 20th century. Our mini review gives an overview on the importance of flower fertility in the mating systems applied in seed orchards, and the research results on floral biology of fruit tree rootstocks propagated by seed (Prunus avium, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus insititia, Prunus amygdalus, P persica, P amygdalopersica, Pyrus pyraster, Pyrus communis and Pyrus betulifolia) over the last decades.

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Terminology of fruit set and fruit drop of sour cherry cultivars
Published September 2, 2009
33-36.

Fruit set and fruit drop rates of 9 sour cherry cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermő’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’, ‘Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Éva’, ‘Petri’ ‘Oblocsinszka’, ‘Pandy 279’ and ‘Csengôdi’) of eight years-old trees grown in Újfehértó, located in the Eastern north part of Hungary which graft...ed on Prunns mahaleb have been studied. Significant differences have been found in fruit set among cultivars. The average percentage of fruit set was 18.3%, which the ‘Oblacsinszka’ by 32.6% the highest fruit set, while ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ is very similar to ‘Pandy279’ showed lowest (12%) fruit set. Seasonal changes of fruit set and drop shows that there are four abscission peaks. The first fruit abortion wave appears during second week after pollination Thereafter, the second and third dropping period was found during the third and forth weeks after pollination. The forth abscission happened on the forth week after pollination. The highest fruit drop happened on ‘Pandy279’ (92.4%) very similar to ‘Éva’ (90%) while the lowest fruit drop observed in ‘Oblocsinszka’ (71.5%)

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Vegetative parameters of sweet cherry (Cerasus avium L.) cultivars in two training systems
Published July 29, 2019
42-45.

Hungarian sweet cherry production has been changed recently. Thanks to the favourable selling prices many new plantations were established in the last years. In the new orchards mainly spindle canopy are trained, although many type of crown forms are used all over the world. In our study slender spindle and bush canopy were evaluated with three... cultivars (‘Petrus’, ‘Vera’, ‘Carmen’) grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock. Vigor of the 3-4 years old trees showed spectacular differences. The highest vigor with Spanish bush was found for cv. ‘Vera’, but on slender spindle canopy the thickness values were medium. Meanwhile cv. ‘Petrus’ showed the highest trunk thickness with spindle canopy, but the lowest with Spanish bush. On spindle canopy cv. ‘Carmen’ presented the highest ramification ability, but its 2-3 years old twigs started to bald very early, which can be considered an unfavorable phenomenon. Bush canopy still can be described with strong vegetative growth on 3-4 years old trees, as vigor of spindle trees are more moderate.

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Rootstock evaluation in intensive sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) orchard
Published May 20, 2009
7-12.

During 2000 and 2007, rootstocks of different vigor have been tested in a high density sweet cherry orchard with 'Vera '® and 'Axel'® cultivars at 4 x 2 meter row and plant distance. Trees are trained to Hungarian Spindle with permanent basal branches; in the alley way naturally grown grass is managed by mowing. The first considerable fruitin...g was in 2004. Every year we measured trunk and canopy parameters of the trees, productivity and fruit size. Our conclusion is that the rootstocks considerably affected the growth, precocity, as well as tree and orchard productivity, fruit weight of sweet cherry cultivars, but these rootstock effects are modified by cultivars, except for growth vigor. According to our results Cema, SL 64, and Bogdany are vigorous rootstocks, moderate vigorous are MaxMa 97, Pi-Ku I , and Tabel® Edabriz, Gisela® 5 and Prob are dwarfing rootstocks. Besides the precocious Gisela® 5 also mahaleb rootstocks CEMA, Bogdany and SL 64 showed considerable precocity, which can be explained by the larger bearing surface to the time of turning to bearing, and a similar or relative large density of burse shoots on fruiting branches. Cumulative yield of 'Axel'® was the highest on Bogdany and on Cerna, contrary to Gisela® 5, which produced only 50% of the previous ones. Cumulative yield of 'Vera'® was the highest on SL 64, and no significant difference was found, compared to trees on rootstocks Cema, Bogdany and Pi-Ku I . Cumulative yield production of trees was smaller on Gisela® 5, Prob, Max Ma 97 and Tabel® Edabriz rootstocks. Corresponding to the literature data of yield efficiency calculated on TCSA basis was highest on Gisela® 5 rootstock. but the efficiency calculated on canopy volume of 'Axel•® trees was similarly high on CEMA and Bogdany, and that of 'Vera'® trees relatively high on CEMA, Bogdany, SL 64 and PiKu I rootstocks. When calculating orchard efficiency al spacing 4 x 2 meters (1250 tree/ha), we received highest yield values on Bogdany, CEMA, SL 64, and PiKu I rootstocks, with large fruit weight. Rootstocks also affect fruit weight. We measured the largest fruit weight on trees on Bogdany.

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Security of growing habits and bud formation of German sour cherry varieties
Published December 4, 2011
45-48.

Intensive sour cherry production is concerned to find the most productive varieties under special growing conditions. High planting density, adapted to manual picking or on the other hand to mechanical harvesting. Almost as important is the prolongation of the ripening season by enlarging the choice of varieties. Unfortunately, three of our fou...r leading commercial varieties are ripe almost at the same date.
Therefore, new varieties ought to be examined thoroughly. In the Pallag Experimental Station of the Debrecen University, five European varieties have been grown (’Schattenmorelle’, ’PI-SA 12,100’, ’Jade’, ’Gerema’, ’Achat’) and a Hungarian one, ’Debreceni bôtermô’ used as a check for the experiments to compare their growing and yielding habits in 2010. The plantation was three years old, standing on Prunus mahaleb rootstocks, in high density (5 x 2 m) and trained to slender spindle crowns. The results are proving that some of the varieties in
question are suitable to prolong the harvesting season. Growing habits and yields of the varieties related to the variety ’Debreceni bôtermô’ were similar or even better as ’Jade’, ’Gerema’ and ’Achat’. The ’Jade’ excelled with its vitality and ’Gerema’ with its generative character. Further studies are expected to prove the utility of
one of them at least to enlarge the ripening season on the fruit market.

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Summer pruning of sweet cherry trees and an inquiry of winter frost damages
Published December 4, 2011
41-44.

One of the most demanded research projects is the intensification of fruit production. The use of dwarfing stocks is a moderate solution as their effect is scarcely satisfactory. Climatic conditions of Hungary are continental in Eastern Europe, where Atlantic and Mediterranean effects are interacting with the continentals in a kind of basin wit...h characters of its own. Capricious meteorological episodes are often disturbing the security of development and fruiting of trees:
• winter frosts are damaging the cambium and fruiting structures of trees
• late spring frosts destroy cambium and flowers
• early autumn frosts hurt the leaves
• excessive precipitation impairs the growing fruits
• drought periods during the summer caused water stress disturbing water husbandry.

Vigorous stocks still prevail in the practice, and they ought to withstand challenges of weather hazards. The strong vigour of plants delaysthe process of senescence and the tendency of getting bald, and regeneration of plants is a sign of vitality. In present research, the trees have been trained on vigorous Prunus mahaleb stocks. Summer pruning was one of the important tools of intensive growing techniques. They were compared with traditional techniques and with plastic foil protected trees observing the vegetative as well as generative growth of them.

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Factors affecting rhizogenesis in vitro and acclimatisation of three cherry rootstocks
Published February 23, 2000
40-46.

Factors affecting rhizogenesis in vitro and acclimatisation of three rootstocks of cherry, i.e. Mahaleb, Maxma-14 and Weiroot -10 were investigated.

Rooting was easily achieved within 2-4 weeks on MS-based liquid or agar-gelled media containing auxins IBA at conc. 0.49 or 2.45 pM or NAA at conc. of 0.49 pM. On liquid media with... 2.45 pM IBA, a maximum rooting efficiency of 95-100% was obtained. However, high concentrations of auxin delayed the time of root initiation for 3-5 days.

Rooted plantlets were transplanted into pots with a mixture of 3:1 (v/v) peat:perlite and acclimatised gradually to field conditions with efficiency of 60%.

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Impact of boron foliar fertilization on annual fluctuation of B in sweet cherry leaves and fruit quality
Published May 19, 2008
27-30.

The goal of the study was to examine response of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) to boron (B) fertilization. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdorfi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock.

Sweet cherry trees planted on a calcareous chernozem soil. Tree...s were foliar-fertilized with B. Foliar B sprays were performed: (1) in the spring, at the stage of white bud, beginning of flowering (B1), and (2) repeated 5 weeks after full bloom (B2). In each of spring spray treatments, B was applied at a rate of 0.15 kg ha-I. Trees untreated with B served as a control.

The results showed that B fertilization had effect on B concentration in leaf tissues, mostly after ripening. B was present significantly higher amount in leaf in treated samples after ripening.

Mean fruit weight was slightly increased by B fertilization. Fruit sensitivity to cracking was not influenced by B fertilization. Nevertheless, from our data it can be conclude that the sensitivity of fruit to cracking is improved when the fruit is riper, the fruit density and fruit weight are higher. The soluble solids varied between 15.0 and 15.9% according to the treatments. Our results for the monosaccharides investigated varied between 5.1 and 7.2 as glucose and fructose as well. Galactose and sucrose was detected very small amount in the unprocessed cherries. Applied B treatments increased sugar contents but decreased organic acid contents in sweet cherry fruits.

It is concluded that under conditions of this experiment, B fertilization can be recommended in sweet cherry culture to improve fruit quality and their appearance.

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New sweet cherry cultivars in intensive plantings
Published March 15, 2011
13-16.

The study took place in the largest sweet cherry plantation in West Hungary. The purpose has been the identification of those varieties, which will be suitable for intense cultivation, early fruiting and excellent fruit quality, moreover, the selection of the optimal phytotechnical procedures. At the same time, scion-rootstock combinations have... been tested also from the point of view of growing intensity and fruiting in high-density plantation. The dense planting is induced to start fruiting early and yield regularly by special methods.Yielding was stimulated by maintaining the balance of vegetative-generative growth by binding the shoots, by summer pruning, by cuts on the trunk and root pruning. Best experiences have been found in yield and quality in the following varieties: Canada Giant, Carmen, Firm Red, Giant Red, Katalin, Kordia, Regina. Dense planting has been feasible also on vigorous rootstock, like P. mahaleb. Dwarfing rootstocks like P-HL-A, Gisela 6, accelerate the formation of flower buds and yielding earlier with fruits of adequate size. ‘Firm Red’ and ‘Giant Red’ excelled with their large fruit (>27 mm diameter) in all combinations, thus being promising under Hungarian conditions.

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