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  • The effect of summer pruning on solar radiation conditions in apple orchards

    The aim of this study was to measure the solar radiation conditions in the tree and around the tree of pruned (summer pruning) and unpruned trees in an intensive apple orchard. When observing the daily trend of global radiation measured, there was a great reduction at midday hours due to the shadowing effect of the canopy. The reduction reached 70-75% before pruning, while after pruning it was only 20-25%. The relative radiation supply of the canopy space on cloudy days in the morning and late afternoon hours was higher than that of the sunny days. Mean differences between the day and night temperature reduced greatly in the period of intensive fruit colouration in August and September both in the plant stock and outside the plant stock.

  • Eco-friendly methods to control infection of Botrytis cinerea during propagation of grapevines

    Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) is a pathogenic fungus which causes damage to the production of grapevine nursery plant materials especially on the stored canes or on graftings during the callusing period. The conditions, increased temperature and humidity, are ideal for the pathogen during the pre-forcing stage and in the storage Botrytis cinerea can easily infect the outbursting buds as large amounts of grapevine canes are stored in a relatively small place. The fungicide-based management is general in the prevention of gray rot infection but the palette of authorised chemical compounds is narrowed year by year due to the regulations of the European Union. Our aim is to develop an eco-friendly method which combines the use of natural materials with techniques used in organic farming. Effect of the ultraviolet-c light on the Botrytis cinerea was studied. The development characteristics of the pathogen were examined under daylight and dark conditions and experiments were set up with cow’s milk and acetic acid. UV-C light destroyed the developed conidia, however, the radiation stimulates the development of immature propagules. Larger quantities of conidiophores and conidia were formed in daylight compared to culture in the dark, while different conditions did not signifi cantly change the mycelial growth characteristics. The developed bacteria prevented the spread of pathogen mycelia during the test with cow’s milk in Petri dishes, although the smooth development of propagules that occurred did not change the vitality of the fungal colony. Furthermore the growth of Botrytis cinerea fungus mycelia was strongly inhibited by acetic acid.

  • Effect of variety and cultivation technology on phenols and antioxidant activity of sweet and sour cherry

    The goal of the present work was to compare different sweet and sour cherry cultivars and cultivation methods (bio/integrated) with respect to polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The concentration of total polyphenols ranged between 880–1050 mg kg-1 of fresh fruit, whereas antioxidant activity expressed as TEAC was found to be between 5.4 and 10.3 mmol kg-1 for the sweet cherry cultivars examined. In case of sour cherry the level of polyphenols ranged between 1283 and 3490 mg/kg fresh edible part of the fruit. Antioxidant activity was recorded between 15–32 mmol kg-1 for the different sour cherry cultivars included in this work. After one-month storage at low temperature, the total phenols and antioxidant activity decreased by 2–40% in the sour cherry cultivars studied. The anthocyanin content in cherry cultivars was less (131–312 mg kg-1) than the135–1893 mg kg-1 found in sour cherries. Anthocyanin level was higher in samples produced under organic farming conditions than in those produced with integrated cultivation.

  • Apricot fruit chilling injuries during the cold storage affected by harvest maturity

    The study aimed to find the effect of different maturity classes (up to the days after full blossom) on the post-harvest life of 3 different apricot varieties Gold Cot, Bergarouge and Flavor Cot in Hungary. The fruit harvested in a particular time 65, 75 and 85 days after full blossom and divided to three maturity classes (Class 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Fruit stored in cold storage for 7 days at temperature 1 °C. Fruits were investigated in regard to physical parameters (weight loss, fruit firmness and soluble solid content SSC) and chilling injuries. The results showed that the varieties followed different ways in regard to response to different maturity classes. The maturity class I for all the tested varieties recorded the lowest weight loss, while with the increasing maturity stage the weight loss percentage for all the varieties recoded high values. The firmness decreased with delayed harvesting for all the varieties. Data of the chilling injuries showed that all the fruits which harvested at maturity I, recorded the highest percentage of fruit with CI (chilling injuries) at 0 (48.5, 37.25 and 38.75%) and CI class I (44.75, 35.75 and 39.75%) for Bergarouge, Gold Cot, and Flavor Cot.

  • Fruit production and research in Hungary - An overview

    Hungary is traditionally a food producer country. 63% of its total land area can be cultivated. Horticulture is one of the fundamental agricultural branches. The country has a moderate continental climate, with a mean temperature of 10 °C. The average hours of sunshine ranges 1,700 to 2,100 hours. Under the geographical condition in the Carpathian Basin the chemical composition of the fruits has a good harmony. The total fruit acreage is 97,000 ha with a crop of 800,000 to 900,000 tons yearly. In 1982 1,934,000 tons of fruit crop were produced since then it has decreased. The most important fruits are apple, European plum, sour cherry and raspberry. The percentage of apple reaches almost up to 60%. In the new plantings sour cherry, apple and black elderberry is popular. The most important fruit-producing region is situated at the North-eastern part of the country. More than 40% of Hungary's fruit production is concentrated there. In ranking the 2nd place is taken by fruit growing area in the middle of Hungary, where the production of stone fruits and small fruits has a considerable proportion.

    In the 70s and 80s of last century there was a developed research structure and wide range of research activity in Hungary. From that time the research capacity has considerably decreased first of all in the field of technological development. The main research area is fruit breeding and variety evaluation.

    Fruit scientists and fruit grower specialists are held together by the Hungarian. Society for Horticultural Sciences which has a membership in ISHS. Fruit researches and scientists having academic degree are belonged to the Horticultural Board of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  • Response of sour cherry cultivar `Érdi jubileum' fruits to modified atmosphere packaging after ethephon spraying

    Sour cherries are not adapted to long storage. The largest percentage of sour cherries reaches the consumer either directly or indirectly through the tin can or the frozen pack. Different concentrations of ethephon usually are used commercially to facilitate harvesting sour cherry fruits that this hormone influences on fruit quality. The objective of this study was effect of ethephon preharvest application on sour cherry fruits quality during storage period at modified atmosphere packaging was investigated. Modified atmosphere packaging used with 10, 15 and 75 percent for 02, CO, and N2 respectively that those held at 0 °C. This gas compounds synchronous to 0 °C temperature caused to increase shelf life postharvest of fruits. Fruit samples were evaluated at harvest date and after 6 weeks in storage. Skin fruit colour, pH, total soluble solids, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, firmness were monitored. Ethephon concentration influenced on total soluble solid, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio and L* value. In more case, 225 ppm ethephon's concentration has no observable different to control samples. Thus, the best ethephon's concentration was 225 ppm ethephon's concentration.

  • Pollen viability of ‘Besztercei plum' clones depending on the effect of the year

    The percentage of dark staining pollen grains was higher in spring of 1996 than in the previous year. Data in 1998 resemble those of 1995, concerning the large amount of medium staining pollen grains in the majority of clones. Some clones produced excellent quality pollen also in the third year. whereas there were significant differences in other clones in various years.

    The warmer February-March period in 1995 induced an early blooming, and frost affected the orchard not only in winter months, but also immediately before and during blooming. Thus, frost was the possible cause of weaker quality pollen this year. In 1996 warming began a bit late, but it was not broken by drastic falls in temperature, except for the middle of April, when a smaller frost affected the orchard. It is likely that this frost did not influence pollen quality of `Besztercei' and 'Early Besztercei' plum clones significantly. In 1998 warming was continuous and steady, the orchard was not affected by frost immediately before blooming. In March, however, there was frost almost every day, according to daily minimum temperatures.

  • Simultaneous impact of the different water supply and year type on processing tomato yield

    A two year (2008 and 2009) open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation on the yield parameters and fruit components of processing tomato. Two different treatments were applied: regularly irrigated (RI), irrigation cut-off 30 days before harvest (CO), compared with unirrigated control (RF). The optimal water supply was calculated from average daily temperature. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different water supply on yield quantity. The regularly irrigated plant stands gave significantly higher yield, and unirrigated plants showed yield loss.Water supply had strong positive (R2=0.81) effect on marketable yield and average fruit weight (R2=0.78). Linear regression showed, that 46.5 mm more water supply caused 10 t/ha more marketable yield, and 13.4 mm more water supply caused 1 g more in the average fruit weight. The irrigation increased the Brix yield as well.

  • Phenological and fl ower morphological studies on different plum and prune cultivars

    20–22 and 5–7 years of kind collection of 100 cultivars studied phenology and fl oral morphological basis of characteristics in 1994–1998 and 2009–2011. The varieties were collected 3–5 trees in the gene garden, all were on C. 359 myrobalan seedling. Detecting differences between the test cultivars are suitable for stamps, and also show that relatively short-term observations are useful for describing the comparison, to distinguish varieties. The taxonomic ordination of cultivars and groups of fruits suitable to distinguish colors shown that the fl owering and ripening time, the nature of the reproductive organs and even Sharka-rate sensitivity is associated with those groups. Differences between the age of trees mainly sexual organs and fertility were shown. Affecting rate of climatic effects was not as large as the first line of erratic rainfall, air temperature spikes or possible values would be expected. The results of the breed, a gene bank of perception, in particular, the localization of hybrids, clone-type variants are useful in the analysis. Among other things – this is due to late-maturing, relatively well-stored temporarily, and not-blue plums, Sharka-infected tolerant or resistant varieties selection (cf. SURÁNYI 2013a-c) and will be disseminate in Hungary.

  • The effects of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase) gene down regulation on ethylene production and fruit softening in transgenic apple

    A detailed examination of the production of ethylene and other ripening parameters during storage period has been undertaken in transgenic apple fruits, where the ethylene biosynthesis was inhibited by antisense ACS (l-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase) gene. Data indicate down regulation of ethylene production, softening and spoilage in some transgenic lines. In some cases ethylene production was inhibited for over 90 percent, considerable reduction of softening and spoilage was observed probably due to the reduced activity of cell wall degradable enzymes. ACS activity was also monitored during ripening. The fruits of the best transgenic lines could be stored for minimum 4-5 months longer under 5 °C cold room storage conditions and one month longer at normal room temperature. This molecular approach can provide an alternative way to replace the commonly used and costly atmospheric storage of fruits.

  • Blooming time of some apricot varieties of different origin in Hungary

    There are a number of self-incompatible and partially self-compatible apricot varieties which need cross pollination for suitable yield. We have to know their blooming time to select the appropriate pollen donor cultivars. The blooming period of 20 apricot varieties was observed in four subsequent years. Blooming time was affected by temperature conditions very much. Varieties studied were assigned to three groups according to their blooming time. The rate of overlapping of important variety combinations was observed. Sufficient overlapping of blooming period for safe pollination is usually ensured within the same group of varieties or between varieties of the neighbouring blooming time groups.


  • Yield and composition of supercritical fluid extracts of different Lamiaceae herbs: Satureja hortensis L., Ocimum basilicum L. and Melissa officinalis L.

    In our work the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was studied on volatile and nonvolatile components of Lamiaceae herbs. The aim of our investigations was to determine the optimal extraction parameters yielding high amount of volatiles and nonvolatiles in a desirable composition. As plant materials, dried and powdered cude drugs of Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum and Melissa officinalis were chosen. Pressure (8-50 MPa), temperature (35-60 °C), time (5-60 min) and the ratio of modifier (5-50% methanol) of extraction were regulated. Results obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were compared to that of the conventional extraction procedure, hydrodistillation (HD). In the case of Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum and Melissa officinalis extract yield of SFE was comparable to the essential oil amount obtained by hydrodistillation from the same drug. Essential oil rich extracts were analysed by GC-FID, while extracts rich in nonvolatile compounds were analysed by HPLC. We have found that yield and quality of SFE extracts highly depend on the conditions of extraction.