Vol 16, No 5 (2010)

Published September 6, 2010



Mushrooms as functional foods

In this study I compared the nutritional composition of the commonly consumed fruits and vegetables with three of the most important cultivated mushrooms: white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus LANGE/IMBACH), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp. JACQ. P. KUMM.) and shiitake (Lentinula edodes BERKELY/PEGLER). I compared the energy content and some ...mineral values (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and selenium), as these play a major role in the nutritional value of mushrooms. The focus was on the vitamin B group and the vitamin D content in mushrooms, which is especially important due to the fact that fruits and vegetables do not contain this vitamin. Nowadays one of the main research and experimental topic is finding possible ways for enhancing the vitamin D content in cultivated mushrooms by UV-light. The Corvinus University of Budapest is running a project in this research area as well. Based on the data presented in this study we can say that mushrooms and therefore the cultivated mushrooms have an honourable place within the group of functional foods.

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Effect of water supply on canopy temperature, stomatal conductance and yield quantity of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most extensively cultivated horticultural crops in the world.Water supply is important for yield quantity and quality. The aims of the present study were 1) to evaluate the canopy temperature and the stomatal conductance on processing tomato substances with different water supply, 2) to inves...tigate the effect of different water supply on yield quantity. There were two irrigated treatments, one of them was the reguralry irrigated plant stand which got 333 mm water during investigated period, including the precipitation and the other was the cut off substance which means the irrigation (drip) was stopped at the beginning of the ripening process and there was a control as well which got 189 mm precipitation. The canopy temperature was measured row by row with a Raytek MX 4 type infrared remote thermometer. The stomatal conductance was measured by Delta-T AP4 type porometer. There were significant differences between the control and irrigated plants according to the water supply which was formulated the canopy values. The plants with a deficient water supply were decreased the transpiration rate, therefore its cooling effect didn’t show up. The regularly irrigated tomato plants’ yield exceeded the unirrigated ones more than twice. It is emerged from the study that the irrigation has a positive effect on the amount of the harvestable yield in this year type.

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Influence of environment in electro-chemical quality of tomato

The aim of the research was to investigate the impact of different cultivation environments of tomato cultivars, the electro-chemical and the qualitative traits of the tomato fruits. The quality of tomato fruit harvesting was evaluated at the Laboratory of Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture University of Natural Resources and Applied Lif...e Sciences, Vienna. Two hybrids of tomatoes were tested Belle-F1 and AmaF1, in two locations and two different treatments (open field and plastic tunnels). Model of experimental fields was based on random method and included three replications. Following parameters were analyzed and tested: pH, Rh, P-Value, Nitrates and the content of vitamin C. The values of pH for treatment in the open field and indoor production system were not significant (4.47 to 5.05). For P-Value derived from the two treatments the maximal values were without significant differences, while minimal values were significant. Study has shown also that the highest values of nitrate content (16.34 mg, open field) compared to average value differences were + 0.384 mg or 43.83% higher. In indoor production the nitrate content was lower in compared with plants cultivated in open fields, so these differences were +3.81 mg or 26.4 0%, and highly significant for both levels. In relation to vitamin C content, the highest value was identified in the indoor systemof 298.6mg, with variations from the overall average of 16.43% or + 42.15 mg. The coefficient of variation values for both levels was of 29.96 respectively 27.31%.

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Effects of different levels of NaCl and CaCl2 on seed germination characteristics of Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L.

More than 15 million hectares of Iran’s land areas are suffering from salinity.We investigated the effects of two types of salt (NaCl, CaCl2) in different levels on the germination and initial growth of two medicinal and aromatic plants, Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L. The experiment was carried out in Qazvin Agriculture and Na...tural Resource Research Center based on a randomized complete block design, for 14 days in a germinator. Sweet basil germinated above 50% in each saline treatment (EC=10 dSm-1), in alkali treatment (CaCl2=18800 mg/L) and in sodic-saline treatment (Ec=10 dSm-1; SAR=5.6), however at the highest concentrations germination was slowed down. Lemon balm showed a higher sensitivity: except the lowest NaCl treatment, each other ones inhibited germination and its rate to some extent. The combined treatments of both salts increased the stress reactions. However, seedling growth was less effected. The results showed a stimulating effect of NaCl treatment in 2500 mg/L (EC<5 dSm-1) for both species concerning germination and seedling growth.

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The examination of the broadleaf evergreen ornamental shrub species in Keszthely

The examination of production possibilities of woody ornamental shrubs (originating from warmer regions than our country) commenced with the financial support of the INTERREG IIIA Slovenia – Hungary – Croatia programme at the Department of Horticulture of the University of Pannonia’s Georgikon Faculty in spring 2007. Our examinations focu...sed on the appearance of species in our country as well as on their frost resistance abilities. The species participating in the experiment are as follows: Abelia grandiflora, Aucuba japonica ’Rozzanie’, Calycanthus floridus, Cotoneaster franchettii, Elaeagnus pungens ’MaculataAurea’, Ilex cornuta, Ligustrum sinense, Ligustrum texanum, Nandina domestica, Osmanthus heterophyllus, Perovskia atriplicifolia, Phyllyrea angustifolia, Photinia fraseri ’Red Robin’, Prunus lusitanica, Sarcococca hoockeriana, Spartium junceum, Teucrium fruticans, Viburnum cinnamonifolium, Viburnum tinus.

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The impacts of different habitats on the development of Telekia speiosa (Schreb.) Baumg.

Telekia speiosa (Schreb.) Baumg. is a 100-150 cm high bushy perennial, which has yellow flowers and smells good. According to the descriptions (Farkas, 1999), it can be detected in two smaller areas within Hungary, namely in the Bükk hills and on the Szatmár-Bereg Plain. By the time of writing this paper, the population around Tiszabecs has a...lready got extinct. Therefore, it is a protected relict species. It is named in honour of Sámuel Teleki, chancellor of Transylvania.Within the frame of the experiment, the Telekia speciosa (Schreb.) Baumg. was planted to places differently illuminated (sunny, semi shadow, shade), then the morphological changes brought about the various light conditions were investigated. The experiment was launched with a stock sown in October 2008. The seedlings were planted to three beds with diverse light conditions. The area of each bed was 1 m2, and ten seedlings were planted per m2. The parameters investigated are as follows: the length of leaf blade, the width of leaf blade, the length of petiole, the number of leaves per plant, and the alterations of leaves. As a result of our research, we can state that semi shadow is the optimal habitat for the plant. Under such ecological conditions the highest leaf production was observed, the leaves were species specific, healthy and big. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 16.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 13 cm, while the mean length of petiole was 14.2 cm. In the shade the plants grew poorly and the size of leaves were smaller. The mean number of leaves per plant was 4.1, the mean length of blade was 8.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 7.1 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 9.4 cm. In the sunny habitat a similarly high leaf production was observed as in the semi shadow; however, the leaves had brownish spots, they shriveled, feel rough, so they revealed a reduced aesthetical value. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 17.8 cm, the mean width of blade was 11.3 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 13.1 cm.

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The effect of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) on the development of Saintpaulia ionantha

In recent work the effect of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) agent (commercial name Pentakeep-V) was examined on the chlorophyll content, growth and development of Saintpaulia ionantha. The newly re-rooted potted plants were irrigated or sprayed with 0.3‰ or 0.5‰ Pentakeep-V solution, and plus 30% long lasting fertilizer was added to half of th...e all treatments. Control plants were sprayed with tap water. Best result were obtained on the field of flowering. All the treatments promoted chlorophyll-content in the leaves especially spraying with 0.3‰concentration. Plants treated with Pentakeep-V in both concentrations and independently from the spraying or irrigation flowered more than two weeks earlier than control and those that got plus 30% fertilizer. Besides in the case of some treatments the diameter of leaf rosette, the number and surface size of leaves grew comparing to the control. The longlasting fertilizer had positive effect on the fresh weight but none of treatments had effect on the dry weight.

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Growing greenhouse cut flower in hydro-culture

The importance of hydro-cultural growing is significantly increasing.We have been dealing with the hydro-cultural growing of cut flowers at the Department of Ornamental Plant Growing and Maintenance of Gardens at the College Faculty of Horticulture at Kecskemét College since 1988.We started our experiments by growing carnation in growing estab...lishment without soil then we introduced other species of cut flowers and potted ornamental plants into our research work.

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Generative propagation of Robinia x ambigua POIR. – Pink locust

The genus Robinia is a small group of about 10 species of trees and shrubs indigenous only to NorthAmerica. Two species are endemic to Mexico, one being confined to south-western part of the country, while the rest are endemic to the south-eastern part of USA. Of the most important species and varieties of genus Robinia, Robinia x ambigua Poir....(Robinia viscosa x R. pseudo-acacia)-pink locust can be considered as the most significant one for bee-forage and decorative planting. In this paper a generative propagation method is presented for pink locust.

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Comparative anatomical study of leaf tissues of scab resistant and susceptible apple cultivars

According to previous studies some anatomical features seem to be connected with resistance or susceptibility to scab caused by Venturia ineaqulis (Cke./Wint.) in case of a given cultivar. Study of leaf anatomy of three scab resistant (‘Prima’, ‘Florina’, MR–12) and two susceptible (‘Watson Jonathan’, ‘Golden Delicious Reinders...) apple cultivars have been made. Preserved preparations made of leaves has been studied by light microscope. Studied parameters were: thickness of leaf blade, thickness of palisade and spongy parenchyma, thickness of epidermal cells, thickness of the cuticle. By measuring leaf thickness and epidermal cell thickness visible differences appeared in certain cultivars, while most conspicuous difference has been shown in thickness of the cuticle.

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Comparison of three soil cultivation method in case of grape

Our results show that the different cultivation methods have effect on the yield and the grape quality as well. In 2008 and 2009 the straw mulch proved to be the best solution regarding the yield. The soil compaction was reduced in these plots and the photosintetical activity was also higher. Straw mulch could conserve the moisture content of t...he soil. The less yield was observed in case of barely covered vines and also the vegetative growth of the grape was less intensive in case of these vines, but it seems to be contributed to the conformation of suitable microclimate for Botrytis infection.

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