Published December 19, 2019
Seed protectant potential of Mitracarpus villosus and Phyllanthus fraternus extracts on germinative capability of stored food grains
Seed storage is an essential post-harvest operation that decides the success of seeds viability and germination in next generation. The study explored Mitracarpus villosus and Phyllanthus fraternus extracts as bio-insecticides seed treatments on stored wheat and green gram seeds viability and germination. M. villosus and P. fraternus plants powder... were sequentially extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (Petroleum ether, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and methanol), concentrated and tested for insecticidal activity by fumigant toxicity. The extract which showed maximum activity, was selected for seed viability and germination test. Five replications each were made for the treatment and the control. The plant extracts strengthen the non-phytotoxic nature of plant products against seed viability and germination. Seeds treated with extracts (50-400 μg seed-1) did not lose their viability as it resulted in successful and normal germination within the range of 90 – 97.67% irrespective of the extracts concentration. While, seeds in control recorded 95.55 and 100% germination which were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared to the treated seeds. Based on findings from the study, potential exploitation of M. villosus and P. fraternus as food grains protectant in insect pest management strategies is recommended for the resource poor farmers. However, further investigations are suggested on biosafety and effects of the extracts on the organoleptic contents of the grains prior to consumption.
A preliminary study on some features of two new resistant apple cultivars in a multi-row planting system
The aim of this work was to report preliminary results on some features of two new resistant apple cultivars (cvs. ‘Galiwa’ and ‘Story Inored’) in multi-row system in the early bearing years of the orchard. Trees were planted in spring of 2015 in double row design (3.5 m+1.4 m x 1.0 m) with planting density of 5357 tree/ha. According to ou...r results cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented more vigorous growth, than cv. ‘Galiwa’. Trees of cv. ‘Story Inored’ reached 2.7 m in the third year, but cv. ‘Galiwa’ could reach only 1.95 meter. Due to late spring frost 100% yield loss was observed in the second year. In 2017 cv. ‘Galiwa’ produced 5.3 kg/tree (25 fruit/tree), while cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented 7.7 kg/tree (50 fruit/tree). Average yield was 28.4 t/ha for cv. ‘Galiwa’, as ‘Story Inored’ reached 41.3 t/ha in the third year. Cultivar ‘Galiwa’ reached the required fruit size (79.1 mm), but its coloration was weaker (43% fruit surface color). Cultivar ‘Story Inored’ can be described with smaller fruit size (69 mm) and higher percentage of surface color (93%).
In vitro effect of different cytokinin types (BAP, TDZ) on two different Ocimum basilicum cultivars explants
Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an economically and ethnobotanically important aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and culinary herb, with a very wide gene pool, that is sensitive to cold and prone to several plant pathogens that can demolish harvest and lessen yield. In this research, the effects of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and TDZ (Thidiazuron...) on different genotypes for in vitro cloning were determined, in order to provide a detailed protocol guide concerning Ocimum basilicum L. propagation. The results from the O. basilicum seed propagations revealed that the best condition for the secondary shoot growth is with 5.0 mg/l TDZ or 1.5 mg/l BAP on all types of explants except the root, the secondary root growth can be obtained on all types explant with any BAP concentration and all cytokinins can induce callus on all types of explants. On the whole, it shows that multiple secondary shoot induction and regeneration in Ocimum basilicum L. is regulated by appropriate cytokinin concentration.
Relationship between zinc and cadmium contents and cultivating conditions of gourmet and medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens
Almoust half of the world’s population is at risk for inadequate zinc (Zn) intake, a strategic trace element that is necessary for a healthy immune system. A lack of zinc can make a person more susceptible to disease and illness. There is a need of defining additional sources of zinc in diet. Cadmium (Cd), however, and its toxicity in food chain... receives considerable public and scientific attention. Cd is primarily toxic to kidney and can cause bone demineralization. In many areas in the EU, intake of Cd is not far from maximum tolerable. Mushrooms are well known for accumulating metal ions such as zinc and cadmium. Objective of this study was to define relationship between cultivation systems and conditions on zinc and cadmium content in fruit bodies of Agaricus subrufescens grown on different substrates. Cultivation was performed on mushroom composts based on increasing amount of digestate from anaerobic digestion treatment processes mixed with wheat straw and paper. The Zn and Cd concentration was defined in fruiting bodies, correlated with yield, flush and element concentration in substrates. Results showed percentage of food waste digestate and other components used in experiment had influence on concentration of Zn and Cd in mushroom compost and in A. subrufescens. Zn accumulated in collected mushrooms in amounts reaching from 42.8 to 126.9 mg kg-1 Cd content ranged 2.6 to 17.9 mg kg-1. Significant correlations for Zn concentration between mushrooms and substrates showed increase of Zn in mushrooms when cultivated on substrates with higher amount of digestate.