Vol 25, No 3-4 (2019)

Published December 19, 2019



Seed protectant potential of Mitracarpus villosus and Phyllanthus fraternus extracts on germinative capability of stored food grains

Seed storage is an essential post-harvest operation that decides the success of seeds viability and germination in next generation. The study explored Mitracarpus villosus and Phyllanthus fraternus extracts as bio-insecticides seed treatments on stored wheat and green gram seeds viability and germination. M. villosus ...and P. fraternus plants powder were sequentially extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (Petroleum ether, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and methanol), concentrated and tested for insecticidal activity by fumigant toxicity. The extract which showed maximum activity, was selected for seed viability and germination test. Five replications each were made for the treatment and the control. The plant extracts strengthen the non-phytotoxic nature of plant products against seed viability and germination. Seeds treated with extracts (50-400 μg seed-1) did not lose their viability as it resulted in successful and normal germination within the range of 90 – 97.67% irrespective of the extracts concentration. While, seeds in control recorded 95.55 and 100% germination which were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared to the treated seeds. Based on findings from the study, potential exploitation of M. villosus and P. fraternus as food grains protectant in insect pest management strategies is recommended for the resource poor farmers. However, further investigations are suggested on biosafety and effects of the extracts on the organoleptic contents of the grains prior to consumption.

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A preliminary study on some features of two new resistant apple cultivars in a multi-row planting system

The aim of this work was to report preliminary results on some features of two new resistant apple cultivars (cvs. ‘Galiwa’ and ‘Story Inored’) in multi-row system in the early bearing years of the orchard. Trees were planted in spring of 2015 in double row design (3.5 m+1.4 m x 1.0 m) with planting density of 5357 tree/ha. According to... our results cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented more vigorous growth, than cv. ‘Galiwa’. Trees of cv. ‘Story Inored’ reached 2.7 m in the third year, but cv. ‘Galiwa’ could reach only 1.95 meter. Due to late spring frost 100% yield loss was observed in the second year. In 2017 cv. ‘Galiwa’ produced 5.3 kg/tree (25 fruit/tree), while cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented 7.7 kg/tree (50 fruit/tree). Average yield was 28.4 t/ha for cv. ‘Galiwa’, as ‘Story Inored’ reached 41.3 t/ha in the third year. Cultivar ‘Galiwa’ reached the required fruit size (79.1 mm), but its coloration was weaker (43% fruit surface color). Cultivar ‘Story Inored’ can be described with smaller fruit size (69 mm) and higher percentage of surface color (93%).

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In vitro effect of different cytokinin types (BAP, TDZ) on two different Ocimum basilicum cultivars explants

Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an economically and ethnobotanically important aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and culinary herb, with a very wide gene pool, that is sensitive to cold and prone to several plant pathogens that can demolish harvest and lessen yield. In this research, the effects of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and TDZ ...(Thidiazuron) on different genotypes for in vitro cloning were determined, in order to provide a detailed protocol guide concerning Ocimum basilicum L. propagation. The results from the O. basilicum seed propagations revealed that the best condition for the secondary shoot growth is with 5.0 mg/l TDZ or 1.5 mg/l BAP on all types of explants except the root, the secondary root growth can be obtained on all types explant with any BAP concentration and all cytokinins can induce callus on all types of explants. On the whole, it shows that multiple secondary shoot induction and regeneration in Ocimum basilicum L. is regulated by appropriate cytokinin concentration.

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Relationship between zinc and cadmium contents and cultivating conditions of gourmet and medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

Almoust half of the world’s population is at risk for inadequate zinc (Zn) intake, a strategic trace element that is necessary for a healthy immune system. A lack of zinc can make a person more susceptible to disease and illness. There is a need of defining additional sources of zinc in diet. Cadmium (Cd), however, and its toxicity in food ch...ain receives considerable public and scientific attention. Cd is primarily toxic to kidney and can cause bone demineralization. In many areas in the EU, intake of Cd is not far from maximum tolerable. Mushrooms are well known for accumulating metal ions such as zinc and cadmium. Objective of this study was to define relationship between cultivation systems and conditions on zinc and cadmium content in fruit bodies of Agaricus subrufescens grown on different substrates. Cultivation was performed on mushroom composts based on increasing amount of digestate from anaerobic digestion treatment processes mixed with wheat straw and paper. The Zn and Cd concentration was defined in fruiting bodies, correlated with yield, flush and element concentration in substrates. Results showed percentage of food waste digestate and other components used in experiment had influence on concentration of Zn and Cd in mushroom compost and in A. subrufescens. Zn accumulated in collected mushrooms in amounts reaching from 42.8 to 126.9 mg kg-1 Cd content ranged 2.6 to 17.9 mg kg-1. Significant correlations for Zn concentration between mushrooms and substrates showed increase of Zn in mushrooms when cultivated on substrates with higher amount of digestate.

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Apricot fruit chilling injuries during the cold storage affected by harvest maturity

The study aimed to find the effect of different maturity classes (up to the days after full blossom) on the post-harvest life of 3 different apricot varieties Gold Cot, Bergarouge and Flavor Cot in Hungary. The fruit harvested in a particular time 65, 75 and 85 days after full blossom and divided to three maturity classes (Class 1, 2 and 3, res...pectively). Fruit stored in cold storage for 7 days at temperature 1 °C. Fruits were investigated in regard to physical parameters (weight loss, fruit firmness and soluble solid content SSC) and chilling injuries. The results showed that the varieties followed different ways in regard to response to different maturity classes. The maturity class I for all the tested varieties recorded the lowest weight loss, while with the increasing maturity stage the weight loss percentage for all the varieties recoded high values. The firmness decreased with delayed harvesting for all the varieties. Data of the chilling injuries showed that all the fruits which harvested at maturity I, recorded the highest percentage of fruit with CI (chilling injuries) at 0 (48.5, 37.25 and 38.75%) and CI class I (44.75, 35.75 and 39.75%) for Bergarouge, Gold Cot, and Flavor Cot.

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Production data of wine grape gene bank (Vitis spp.) of University of Debrecen, east Hungary

National wine strategy of Hungary promotes the use of “flexible” grape cultivars. These enable producers’ best fit to wine market changes and expectations. This study is aimed to present data on the gene bank of the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Data were collected at a single site, between 2010 and 2018 in east Hungary lowland on acid...ic sandy soil, own rooted planting material. Our results showed that besides high yield and adequate cane production desired sugar content at convenient pH is to be awaited with moderate deviation between vintages. Presented concept demonstrate technological flexibility of cultivars by their average deviation from regression equation between increasing sugar and pH typical for the vintage composed of data of cultivars of the gene bank. Average positive deviation means higher sugar content at specific pH, thus higher sugar content at desired, conveniently low pH (3.0-3.2 pH).

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Book review

Plum is a significant temperate fruit and a very important fruit species in Hungary as well. Cultivation has moved beyond the area boundaries of the Northern Hemisphere many centuries ago. Domestic (European) plum production has been particularly affected by the pandemic-scale destruction of the Sharka virus and worldwide breed changes. Accordi...ng to FAOSTAT (2016) data, world plum production is 12 million tones, with 36% from Eurasian, 63% from Japan and other Asian varieties. The share of American plums is only 1%. Domestication and dissemination of plums is „multi-stepped” because homemade (taste) plums are hybrids of two nature species in the first place, but Japanese plums (hybrids with Chinese plums or Prunus cerasifera) are not uniform; the role of the American plum species is much smaller, though their prospects cannot to predict with certainly. The book consists of 19 chapters, finding a complex way of summing up linguistic, historical, floristic, historical-botanical, cultivation, and morphological and anatomical knowledge.

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