Vol 11, No 1-2 (2020): MMXX vol. XI. nos.1-2

Published June 30, 2020



Kálmán Kállay, Professor of Theology the Rector Magnificus of the Hungarian Royal István Tisza University of Debrecen during the Academic Year 1941/42.

Kálmán Kállay was born in in Bratislava. After finishing his theology studies, he worked as a religion teacher afterwards as a reformist priest in Romania. After the first world war, he organized holidays of the Hungarian children in Netherlands. At the University of Debrecen, he worked as the professor of the Old Testament reading and relat...ed studies from 1928 until his death. Within this time period, he was the Dean of the Faculty three times, and the Rector in 1941–42. He published numerous essays and books in relation of the Old Testament.


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Vilmos Haendel, Professor of Law the Rector Magnificus of the Hungarian Royal István Tisza University of Debrecen during the Academic Year 1942/43.

Vilmos Haendel was a lecturer for 14 years at the law academy at the Reformed College of Debrecen, then for nearly 30 years he taught political sciences at the University of Arts and Sciences of Debrecen. Being a well-rounded person he stood out from among the teachers of the Law Faculty of the university before the World War II. He played an i...mportant role in the political, social and cultural life of Debrecen for decades. At the same time, his nationalism and anti-Semitism made him a typical figure of the public life of the city in the first Half of the 20th century. The study describes his way of life on the basis of such data which have not been summed up so far, and tries to show his teaching career and the events of the year when he was the Rector flashing his most important scientific works.

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Zoltán Kodály, Teacher of Composition.

Zoltán Kodály, Teacher of Composition. Kodály has not reached the age of 25 when in September 1907 director Ödön Mihalovich invited him to teach music theory at the Royal Academy of Music in Budapest. He was promoted to professor of composition in the higher classes in 1918. This assignment was interrupted by political events. In the autum...n of 1918 Kodály was nominated deputy-director of the Academy by the revolutionary administration, and next autumn he was given leave for two years by the counterrevolution as a retortion. Only thereafter could Kodály begin the education of Hungarian composers in his school of composers which soon became legendary. In answer to an attack in a Budapest daily Kodály laid down his ars paedagogica as a teacher of composition in his article Thirteen Young Composers. In the following fifteen years as an active professor Kodály gave no statements about his teaching methods. These could later be reconstructed to some extent by the recollections of his pupils. Lately, Kodály’s exercises in counterpoint and his autograph notes in theoretical books he had studied have been published. This paper gives an overwiew of Kodály’s analyses of form and publishes several of the notes on the principles of teaching composition which he has jotted down int he early 1920s and after World War II, respectively, that is, at the beginning and at the end of his career as a teacher of composition.


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Plans for Establishing a University at the Time of Bishop György Klimo

One of the most important goals of Bishop Gyorgy Klimo of Pécs was to improve the education of his diocese’s clergy. This objective was subject to change and development through his years as bishop: from time to time one can identify many new elements in his educational plans. Klimo intended to establish a strong educational institution, whi...ch, besides serving as a preparatory school for the faculty of theology, he planned to build a university on, and which, in the same time, could become a fundament of regional education and culture. These components appeared as a complex structure in his concept: with the establishment of the university he wanted to enhance the reputation of his diocese and his see, while he also aimed to improve the scholarship of the clergy. In this paper I show the process of the new school’s establishment, while I also attempt to find answer to the question that what kind of institution did Klimo exactly want to create in 1769 in Pécs.

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Ferenc Balogh, the Supervisor Professor of the College Choir (Kántus) between 1880-1898

Ferenc Balogh, the internationally renowned professor of church history served as the supervisor of the Male Choir (Kántus) of the Reformed College of Debrecen for nearly two decades in a period of crucial changes. He devoted his agile activity into two directions. He supported the permanent employment of first long-term conductor of the choir..., Sándor Mácsai, and he founded the historical researches of the choir, also giving a historical perspective
to its identity. He accumulated the necessary financial support for the teacher-conductor’s position through his beautifully composed ceremonial speeches for which his students admired him. These speeches
also served as the referential points of confidence for the young singers. This essay analyses his speeches and presents the actions that followed the rhetorical masterpieces.

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The Student Associations of the University of Budapest at the End of the World War and during the Aster Revolution

A tanulmány a budapesti egyetem régi és új diákegyesületeinek tevékenységét, és az első világháborúban részt vett katona diákok hazajövetel utáni egyetemi életét mutatja be, valamint részvételüket az őszirózsás forradalomban. Bemutatja a hagyományos diákegyesületek mellett létrejött új – vagy régóta működő... – baloldali diákegyesületeket, törekvéseiket, eredményeiket. Megpróbál rávilágítani az új egyesületek létrejöttének okaira, a két diákcsoportosulás eszmei ellentéteire, sőt ellenségeskedésére, eltérő gondolkodásuk gyökereire, ideáljaikra, valamint arra is, hogy mi volt a közös a diákság elvárásaiban. Bemutatja, hogy milyen események vezettek az újabb egyesületek megszűnéséhez. Ezekből a fiatalokból alakult ki a későbbi értelmiségi réteg, már innen ered politikai megosztottságuk, ezért fontos megismerni azokat a tényezőket, amelyek meghatározták mindkét csoport korai politikai elköteleződését.

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An Undeservedly Forgott en Publication Series. The Studies of the Teacher Training Institute of the Reformed Colleges of Debrecen

The Calvinist Teacher Training Institute of Debrecen was modelled after the Eötvös Collegium of Budapest. It trained teachers for Hungarian Calvinist secondary schools between 1925 and 1952 by means of supplementary courses. The students of the Institute got significant impulses for their academic research from their tutors. Many of them beca...me determining figures of Hungarian culture and education by the middle of the 20th century. The publication series published their doctoral theses and other academic papers on the 3000 pages of the 28 volumes between 1936 and 1943. This study aims to present the circumstances of the beginning, the termination and the intellectual profile of the series titled „Acta Instituti Paedagogici Collegii Debreceniensis”.

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To the Critical Period of the History of the University of Pozsony 1914–1923

Elizabeth University of Arts and Sciences that was founded in 1912 started functioning with opening the Faculty of Law in the autumn of 1914. The first lectures were held only at the beginning of 1918 at the Faculty of Arts and at the autumn of 1918 at the Medical Faculty. On 1st of January in 1919 the Czech Legion marched in Pozsony (later Bra...tislava), and from this point on the possibility of the further operation of the university was uncertain. In the September of 1919 the Czechoslovak State occupied all real estates of the university, consequently, education at the Faculty of Arts and at Medical Faculty of the Elizabeth University was  finished. The university teachers and students of these faculties fled to Hungary. Education at the Faculty of Law was going on until the summer of 1921, and then this faculty was also closed. The university as displaced educational institution together with the similarly displaced University of Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) continued her activity in Budapest. In 1923, the University gained her final place in Pécs.

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A strange Oath of the Students of Debrecen. The Promise that the Roommates made each other in the Room 17 of the István Tisza Internátus, in December 15, 1925

It’s a very rare source of the scientific research in history that prove a promise that some people made for each other. It has got more importance if this is an oath of some roommates. Five students in Debrecen, who have lived their lives in the same dormitory room in the István Tisza Internate for years made a promise to each other in Dece...mber 15, 1925. In writing they vowed that they will meet in Budapest in the Hotel Gellért on the day of Pentecost 6 years later. The text of the oath is an exact reflection of the age and of the „neo-baroque” society of the twenties. We don’t know that the meeting in 1931 could be realized or not, but we can suppose that could be, based on the strong friendship of the roommates. This strange oath is a very rare and valuable source of the students’ life between the two Wold Wars.


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Doctoral Dissertations on The Mathematical Seminar of the University of Debrecen at the Beginning of the 20th Century (1927–1940). Part. 2.

In this article we present 16 mathematical dissertations, the life and later carrier of their authors (15 persons) in two parts. These dissertations were written under the direction of Professor Lajos Dávid between 1927 and 1940. At that time he was the leader of the Mathematical Seminar of the University of Debrecen. The themes of the dissert...ations were connected with his scientific work, such as history of mathematics (the two Bolyais), or research work in mathematical analysis (arithmetic-geometric mean). The dissertations were published separately as books. Later these were collected in a colligation named Dissertationes Davidianae Debrecen 1927–1940. We have to mention this colligation does not contain the dissertation of Ferenc Kárteszi. We found his work among the dissertations of Doctors of Philosophy in the Library of the University of Debrecen. (Part 2: 1934–1940).

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Book Reviews

Financial background of the education in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age

The Research Group of the Eötvös Lóránd University published a new study book about the financial aspects of education. Most of the studies cover the period of the Middle Ages and the Early Middle Ages.

István Csulyák Miskolci's Peregrination Album

 The book is the facsimile edition of the  István Csulyák Miskolci's Peregrination Album.

Frühneuzeitliche Disputationen: Polyvalente Produktionsapparate gelehrten Wissens

The disputatio research is very popular in the Hungarian Cultural Studies. The book helps us to understand what is the opinion of the German Historians about the role of disputacio in the Early Modern Age culture.

Péter H. Mária: Pharmaceutical Education at the József Ferenc University between 1872-1919

The higher education in Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) started in the XVIII century.  Maria Terézia founded the first Hungarian University with a Medical Faculty in 1769, and the idea to found a second one emerged soon.

Lichner József: The suffering journey of the Alma Mater from Selmecbánya to Sopron

The end of the First World War and the  decomposition of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy influenced a lot of the Higher Education.

Sándor Mihály: DEAC 100- The First Twenty Five Years (1919-1944)

The history of the Debrecen University Sports Club is closely connected with the sport history of Debrecen.

100 year of the Medical Education in Debrecen: I. Faculty of General Medicine. History of the Instituts and Departments. II. Biography of the Professors of the Faculty of General Medicine

The summing -up book of the medical education history of Debrecen was published for the forth time.

Polish-Hungarian research studies on the occasion of the 30 th anniversary of the Department of Hungarian Studies of the Jagello University

The history and the friendship of the Polish and the Hungarian people has been related since ages. Political, economic and cultural cooperations are very strong



American Higher Education: A Hungarian Perspective

United States has long been a stepchild of American and education studies alike. For half a century, between 1945/47 and 1989, anything positive about the US hovered in the gray zone between “banned” and “tolerated” in communist Hungary. Therefore, our image of American tertiary education relies too heavily on its media representations,... which is a clearly distorted mirror. In this paper a short look at the current numbers is followed by a historical overview of the evolution of higher education since the colonial period, a cursory look at how Hungarians saw these developments until 1945, and a review of the current debates. It concludes with a personal take on both higher education and its role in the current presidential election campaign by the author.

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