The present study acquaints the reader with the designer behaviour of product designer engineers, which is very useful for agro-technical, operati onal, and agro-marketi ng experts who strive for value-based purchases and is of novelty for industrial product developers and designers. The designer-engineer has an integrati ng personality. He giv...es a signifi cant added value to the product. He is responsible not only for the outer appearance of the product, but also for the harmony of functi on, form, and technical content. The purpose of the present study is to investi gate the following types of behaviour: industrial view, materialisti c view, systemic planning, eco-planning, ergonomic planning, bionic planning, communicati ve planning, marketi ng-centred planning, and formal planning.
The author of this article carries out researches on that, how a planning approach from the landscape perspective could support the rural development planning. As a part of the research process the author reviewed the rural development plans on national level from 1999 and on the local level in four pilot areas in the last planning period. As a...n outcome of this review it was found that the landscape is one of the main categories and an often used concept of the rural development planning both on national and on local level in Hungary. However, as the documents reflected, the interpretations of the concept „landscape” are very different, so it needs to be clarified and unified. Nature, society and culture, as well as economy manifest themselves in the landscape. The documents in question deal with landscape mostly as it were only a visual, natural phenomenon. Therefore, following the horizontal principle of sustainability, it seems to be a good approach to develop a planning system, which is able to treat landscape as a whole (nature, society, culture including economy). However, the landscape diversity points out the constraints of application of a general planning method in rural development. The other main outcome of the review is that there is a conflict between the complex national objectives and the mosaic-like projects carried out on the local level. A solution can be an organic application of the national objectives on the local level considering the concrete landscape with its specific attributes where the planned projects were parts of a complex local development plan in a synergic and successive way.
Households are characterised by diff erent life cycles with diff erent income structures and expenses. They have to be considered and planned in ti me, so that their fi nancial background can be ensured. Regarding effi ciency households are able to make their opti mal choices from diff erent alternati ves on the basis of their own system of obj...ecti ves. In many cases households are unable to make these eff ecti ve decisions, which is usually due to the low level of their fi nancial culture. There are certain points in people’s lives when it is useful to have a large amount of savings. One of these points is the old age when people cannot earn a suffi cient amount of money. The other one takes place when someone starts his or her career or a family and when they make a living so as to be able to support themselves. One alternati ve of household life cycles is to set up their own business and operate it. Even during the operati on of interprises we can diff erenti ate several life cycles. Households taking up enterprises are usually able to plan the necessary fi nancial background to launch their businesses and to prepare business plans for a profi table operati on as well as adjust them to changes, which is not an easy task. In our research we write about savings and we describe their roles in given life cycles. This writi ng includes some important elements of our research.
Financial planning, the propensity to save and self-caring habits effect not only the households' financial management, but they effect the economical, political, social and cultural situation of the whole country. The intellectual skills of hungarians are undeveloped, which stems from the lack of financial literacy of individuals. More and mor...e people realize the need for economic and financial knowledge since the 2008 economic crisis, and that the development of financial culture is essential. In our research we examined, how the financial awareness and the willingness to save of individuals and households can be influenced.
‘Money rules the world’ (BALYÓ, 2004, p. 3.) – it is an often used slogan which really determines our life. From an early age we realize how essential money is for us. It accompanies all our life. The quality of our life depends on how we can deal with our budget to be able to put aside as well. We can buy all the necessary items for eve...ryday life but we have to manage well in order to be able to achieve our objectives, too. During our life our individual and common goals are also essential. The right and appropriate decisions have a great share in using our money. There is outstanding importance of being conscious, sober-minded, and precise and up-to-date during planning. We have to take into consideration the opinion of all the family members. Decisions need to be made together if possible. In this study we would like to emphasize the role of self-care in different life cycles as well as show the result of our related primary research.
A substantial proportion of entrepreneurs strive to reduce the risk of their activity, which means they refer to a number of methods known, but rarely applied by them. Risk reduction activities can be totally interconnected with the ‘controlling’ approach and methods that are still not well known to a lot of company executives, but the intr...oduction and application of those methods provide tangible results for business decision-makers within a relatively short period of time. The paper presents the size, activity, financial process characteristics, planning features, suppliers and buyers' evaluation practices of the investigated SMEs using correlation analysis methods. The study is a continuation of a research topic that has been going on for many years and is based on data collection from the years 2015 and 2016. We have evaluated the planning and management features of a total of 53 micro, small and medium-sized enterprises by questionnaire processing.
This article is about developmental stages of strategic thinking, detailing the era of strategic planning and strategic management, and their differences.
Since the regime change in Hungary, the main federal task has been to strengthen the small and medium-sized ventures. The size of the category plays an important role in the employment as well as in the GDP production. Those areas that make businesses strong and reduce the risk of their activities are in the center of attention in this hardly p...redictable economic era. One of those areas is the views and methods of controlling which is still hardly adoptable to most of the CEOs in businesses. The introduction and the use of these operations give concrete results within a relatively short period of time, making the decision makers’ job easier at the companies. The study includes the examined SMEs, the design of business characteristics, the valuation of suppliers and customers, the production and the prime costs of the service. The vision of SMEs that characterizes the application of the tools and methods of controlling are also included.
The Romani population in Central Europe is fighting with many societal problems. Societal crises appear in connection with employment, housing, demographic development and backwardness in education. All these factors have a negati ve impact on the health of the population: the health status of the Romani is worse than that of the non-Romani pop...ulation living around them. The compensati on of these disadvantages does not solely depend on providing equal opportunities. The Romani people’s special diseases originating from their special genetic characteristics and their way of life distinguish them from the non-Romani population. A uniform treatment does not offer a solution. In their healthcare we should consider and give priority to the Romani specific
diseases, such as founder mutati ons common in the Romani populati on as autosomal recessive disorders. Whereas the mutati ons frequently observed in the Romani groups are sporadicin other, non-Romani populati ons worldwide. Thus the founder mutati on analysis is important for predicting the incidence of certain rare diseases not readily thought about in non-Romani, yet possibly present in the local Romani populati ons, especially when diagnosti c problems appear. The research of these diseases is especially important in terms of populati on genetics, public health, and also economically due to the expansive existence of the Romani populati on. The identification of these diseases allows a rapid diagnosis and in some cases it also delays the onset of symptoms. It can have a great impact on public health intervention as it makes the planning and the implementation of targeted preventative measures possible.
Logistics is one of the most important economic sectors of the European Union, with nearly 1.134 million companies engaged in the field of transportation in the EU. The global logistics market is expected to show further expansion in the forthcoming years. On the other side stands global warning which is one of the greatest problems for the tim...e being. The European Commission has announced a cross-sectoral investment programme worth more than 10 billion euros (nearly 3,200 billion Hungarian forints) for the planning, development and implementation of low carbon dioxide-emitting technologies to improve Europe’s global competitiveness. The common data base of OECD and the European Environment Agency (EEA) currently lists 375 environmental taxes and approximately 250 environmental fees or charges in the OECD countries. Among the EU member states, Sweden, for example, introduced a tax system which includes the essential elements of eco-tax more than 10 years ago. Hungary has several of such tax types, such as the excise tax on fuel, the energy tax, the energy suppliers’ income tax or the vehicle tax.