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  • Long term researches regarding the irrigation influence on sugarbeet crop inthe Crisurilor Plain

    The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain in during 1976–2012.

    The soil water reserve in 0–75 cm depth decreased bellow easily available water content every year and in 32% of years the soil water reserve decreased bellow wilting point. For optimum water supply an irrigation rate of 2665 m3 ha-1 (variation interval 500–5090 m3 ha-1) was needed.

    The irrigation determined improving of water/temperature + light report (Domuta climate index) with 47.4% in average in the period May–September. A statistically very significant connection was quantified between this indicator and the yield.

    Daily water consumption increased in the irrigated variant, the biggest difference in comparison with unirrigated variant was registered in August, 86% in comparison with unirrigated variant. As consequence, the value of the total water consumption increased with 50%, variation interval was 11–154%. The irrigation covered 37.8% of total water consumption, the variation interval was 8.3%–67.9%.

    The yield level of the sugarbeet increased in average with 61%, the variation interval was 9–227%. Standard deviation was lower in the irrigated variant and this emphasizes an improve of the yield stability with 25.1%. The sugar content of the sugarbeet roots from irrigated variant increased statistically very significantly in the droughty years and differs significantly in the rainy years.

    Water use efficiency increased in the irrigated variant with 7% and irrigation water use efficiency was between 7.9 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water and 17.4 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water.

    The positive influence of the irrigation on microclimate, water consumption, yield level, stability and quality and on water use efficiency sustain the need of the irrigation in sugarbeet from Crisurilor Plain.

  • The Impact of Water Supply on the Quality and Health of Potato

    Besides its effect on potato yield, water also has a significant impact on yield quality. Excess water (too much precipitation, over-irrigation) and the lack of water (lack of precipitation or irrigation) both trigger stress in the plant and can significantly worsen the quality of the yield (seed potato) and deteriorate the health of the plant and the seed potato. Excess precipitaton or irrigation water leaches nitrate-nitrogen under the rhizosphere, consequently, the amount of available nitrogen decreases leading to the deficiency of N in potato. If water cover (the maximally saturated state of soil) exceeds 8-12 hours, it can cause root destruction (because of the lack of oxygen), which leads to the wilting and later to the death of the plant. Abundance of water caused by excess precipitation or irrigation is a major problem primarily on sandy loam, loam and clay loam soils with bad structure and water management qualities, but also on any soils, which are over-irrigated or irrigated at an improper time. Symptoms of the lack of water are detectable mostly when the available water content of the soil (disponible water) decreases under 60-65%.
    In the present year, there was a lack of precipitation on the Great Plain, which can be compensated by proper irrigation. Unfortunately, this problem is further intensified by the high temperature, which results in faster ripening and accompanied with fluctuating soil moisture content, in the formation of secondary tubers.

  • Characterization of Water Resources in Transcarpathia

    Transcarpathia is located in one of the wettest parts of the Ukraine. There are 9429 rivers and creeks in the county with a total length of 19.86 thousand kilometers. The length of 152 rivers exceeds 10 km, 4 exceed 100 km (Tisza, Latorca, Ung and Borsava rivers). The average density of rivers is 1.7 km/km2, which is the highest in the Ukraine. The existing water resources are distributed unevenly in the county. The river with the greatest mass of water is the Tisza. Tisza carries 75% of all existing water resources, the remaining 25% is made up of the water in the river Ung and Latorca. Disregarding the uneven distribution of water resources, 80% of water is used up in the basins of the rivers Ung and Latorca from the water resources of the county, which leads to the overload of rivers.
    The main sources of water supply in Transcarpathia: subsurface waters – for the population of cities and settlements, surface and subsurface waters – for the industry, surface waters – for irrigation.
    In the interest of protecting existing water resources, it is required to follow current regulations, detecting and averting contaminating sources and establishing water conservation zones.

  • Comparative Study on Different Water Bodies and their Sediments

    Hungary is rich in natural water resources, therefore investigation of these biotopes is an important task. The Szarvas- Kákafok deadarm is the largest horse-shoe lake of the Tiszántúl, its lenght is 28 km. It has an important role in recreation and agricultural utilization. The quality of the deadarm is influenced by the river Körös, but also by communal and agricultural pollution. Our goals were to estimate the intensity of the
    sedimentation processes, and the water- and the sediment quality as well. Also, we examined an artificial wetland system, constructed by the Fish Culture and Irrigation Research Institute, Szarvas.
    The calculated sedimentation was 0.4-0.5 cm year-1, which indicated an intensive eutrophication process. The constructed wetland system was able to decrease the organic load of the intensive fish culture company. On the basis of our TOC measurements, the organic matter content of the effluent water remained whitin the water quality limits.
    The changes of the material cycling could be more intense in the water body, then in the sediment. The oxido-reduction potential of the sediment could indicate the ecological state of the shallow lakes, therefore it could be an easily measurable indicator in the water classification.

  • Circumstances of the establishment of the Eastern Main Channel, water utilisation problems and alternatives

    After hundreds of years of drought in the area of Hortobágy and its surroundings brought up the idea of building a channel in Tiszántúl. It started with the idea of an irrigation canal but it ended up in a canal with high importance which can be used in many ways. Because of financial problems the necessary renovations cannot be achieved, and as a side effect the amount of silt in the water started to increase, water exploitation started to decrease, and the construction works started to get spoiled. Guided by the Water Directive the East Main Channel has become one of the most significant surface water base in Hungary. To use its water as drinking water brings up a few questions, like solving the pollution problems which problems have already occured. If we want the East Main Channel to be a solution for a long time, further steps and researches are needed to solve the problem of diverting the huge amount of precipitation of the last few years and miantaining the quality of drinking water.

  • Improved soil and tomato quality by some biofertilizer products

    The use of microbial inoculums is a part of sustainable agricultural practices. Among various bioeffectors, the phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria are frequently used.

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of some industrial biofertilizer inoculums, of containing P-mobilizing bacteria on the quantity and some quality parameters of tomato fruits. Spore-forming industrial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (Rhizovital) as single inoculums and combinations with other Bacillus strains (Biorex) were applied on Solanum lycopersicon Mill. var. Mobil test plant. Soil microbial counts, phosphorus availability, yield and fruit quality, such as total soluble solids (TSS) content and sugars (glucose, fructose) were assessed. The results found that single industrial inoculums of FZB42 product had positive effect on P-availability and fruit quality in the pots. Fruit quality parameters, TSS content, soluble sugars were significantly improved (p<0.05). Such better fruit taste was correlated significantly by the most probable number (MPN) microbial counts. Use of such bioeffector products is supported by the positive interrelation among measured soil characteristics and inside healthy quality parameters of tomato fruits.

  • Risk effects of the spread route of mycotoxins

    In Hungary the mycotoxin is a great problem, because there are many natural toxins in wheat and maize. These cereals can be found on
    considerable proportion of the country’s sowing area, and they are deterministic food for the population. The direct human and animal
    utilization of the contaminated cereals mean a serious risk in the food chain. In Hungary’s climate the soil is contaminated with pathogen
    moulds, particularly Fusarium species, which increase by respective temperature and moisture content in cereals. The Fusarium can
    decrease the quality of the wheat in different ways: decrease the germination capability and cause visible discoloration and appearance of
    mould, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain. From the toxins produced by the Fusarium genus, the trichotecene (T-2,
    HT-2, deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscxirpenol, Fusarenon-X) and the estrogenic zearalenon (F-2) are the most common in Hungary.
    The fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) first identified in 1988, relatively newly discovered, are also important. Major proportion of mycotoxins in a
    healthy organization is metabolized by the enzyme system of liver and intestinal bacteria. The toxicity is reduced or even leaves off.
    However, more toxic and biologically active compounds can be formed. For the reduction of mycotoxin-contamination several possibilities
    are available in the case of storage, processing and feeding.

  • Application of AquaCrop in processing tomato growing and calculation of irrigation water

    The area and volume of processing tomato production is increasing in Hungary. Irrigation is crucial for processing tomato growing. To save water and energy, it is important to know exactly how much water is needed to reach the desirable quality and quantity. AquaCrop is a complex software, developed by FAO, which is able to calculate irrigation water needs, several stress factors and to predict yields. A field experiment was conducted in Szarvas in processing tomato stands, under different irrigation treatments. These were the following: fully irrigated plot with 100% of evapotranspiration (ET) (calculated by AquaCrop), deficit irrigated plot with 50% of ET (D) and control (K) plot with basic water supply was also examined. Dry yield, crop water stress index and soil moisture were compared to modelled data. The yields in the plots with different access to water were not outstanding in the experiment. The model overestimated the yields in every case, but the actual and modelled yields showed good correlation. AquaCrop detected stomatal closure percentages only in the unirrigated plot. These values were compared to CWSI – computed from leaf surface temperature data, collected by a thermal cam in July – and showed moderately strong correlation. This result suggests that Aquacrop simulates water stress not precisely and it is only applicable in the case of water scarcity. Soil moisture data of the three plots were only compared by means. The measured and modeled data did not differ in the case of K and ET plots, but difference appeared in the D plot. The obtained results suggest that the use of AquaCrop for monitoring soil moisture and water stress has its limits when we apply the examined variables. In the case of dry yield prediction overestimation needs to be considered.

  • The effect of irrigation on the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids

    In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.

    Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.

    The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.

    In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.

    The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.

    However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.

    As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.

  • Effect of sufficient and deficit irrigation with different salt inputs on the yield of cucumber

    Soil salinisation is considered one of the major environmental hazards threatening agricultural productivity and can be accentuated by climate change as well as the use of low-quality water in irrigation. This is the case in our study area which is affected by secondary salinisation due to the use of saline irrigation water for horticultural production. Deficit irrigation technique is implemented especially in arid and semiarid regions due to its potential to optimise water productivity while maintaining or increasing crop yield. The main objective of this study was to compare the effect of irrigation with sufficient (SD) and deficit (DD) doses. This research was carried out in Karcag in 2020. Cucumber was grown on a meadow chernozem soil and was irrigated with SD and DD of two irrigation water qualities. Soil moisture was monitored and crop yields were recorded. Despite the differences in quality and quantity of water, the application of less water by DD maintained the same yield as SD. We found a non-significant difference between the average soil moisture contents under the treatments (15.5 v/v% for SD and 13.5 v/v% for DD). Deficit irrigation can be an efficient technique due to its potential for improving water use efficiency, maintaining sufficient soil moisture content favourable for proper crop development and yield.

  • Monitoring the oxygen level in the Szarvas-Kákafok Deadarm

    The water quality of the Szarvas-Békésszentandrás Dead Körös is generally meso-eutrophic, and meso-saprobic. However, particularly
    under higher temperature conditions, the water body may change toward the eutrophic state, even algal blooms could be observed
    The present measurements were conducted during a two week period, twice a day. Three water samples were taken horizontally, from
    the surface, bottom and the middle of the water body. The samples were examined in situ. The oxygen content, the temperature, the pH and
    the conductivity were measured by potentiometric methods.
    Increasing pH was detected in correlation to the temperature, which indicated a rising photosynthetic activity. Also, the O2
    concentration showed high variations, especially, when the fresh water supply from the river was stopped, due to a small flood in the river
    These results indicate the increasing eutrophication processes in the deadarm, and the high load and instability of the ecosystem.

  • Correlations of the global, regional and local factors of the anthropogenic effects on the water reserves of the Earth’s crust

    The decrease in Earth's drinking water resources and the degradation of its quality has become a critical problem. Our planet's total water supply is estimated to be around 2 billion km3s. This is only 1% of Earth's own weight. Of this small amount only a tiny 3% is fresh water, of which 79% is forzen in glaciers and 1% is present as surface waters.The ratio of water stored in soil is around 20%. This is 0.2% of the total water supply. Our study aims to summarize the layered groundwater aquifer systems and its changes which are the results of anthropogenic effects in both global and hungarian respects and also for the region of Debrecen.In particular with regard to the geological and ecological level where irreversible
    processes take place. All this is discussed in the context of cause and effect. Pointing out the dangers of excessive deep groundwater extraction and the contamination caused by toxic substances that are the byproducts of modern life. In addition we discuss the Water Directive of the European Union which gives a policy for community action concerning the goal to achive the status of „in good condition” for our waters till 2015.

  • Dilemmas of consumption habits - comparison of the quality of bottled mineral water and the public utility drinking water in Debrecen

    This paper tries to help to decide whether the bottled mineral water or the piped water is more advisable for consumption in Debrecen and in its regions, according to the aspects of environmental awareness and aspects of health, beside the venture of representing the functions of water in our lives and its global importance.

  • The history and present of public drinking water supply and its regionalisation in Debrecen

    The public water supply played a major role in the urbanization of Debrecen city, just like in the case of many other cities. We had plenty of water and so we wasted it. However nowadays we experience a considerable decrease in the level of groundwater which causes an increasing need of energy for pumping. Beside the above mentioned the ecological threat and the decreasing water quality are also major problems. This study attempts to draw attention to the possibilities and the future of the regional water supply, by showing the history of the water supply, the sanitation systems of Debrecen and their present day activities.

  • Genetic progress in winter wheat quality and quantity parameters

    Wheat production is significant branch of Hungarian crop production (with about 1 million hectares of sowing area). Weather anomalies resulted by climate change have increased the importance of biological basis in wheat production. Yield quality and quantity parameters of three wheat genotypes sown on chernozem soil type after maize pre-crop were studied in a long-term field experiment. Yield amount of the studied genotypes varied between 2894 and 8074 kg ha-1 in 2017 and between 5795 and 9547 kg ha-1 in 2018 depending on the applied treatments. Based on our results it can be stated that in both studied crop years the highest yield increment was realized by the application of the nutrient supply level of N30+PK. As the result of the application of the optimum mineral fertilizer level – in contrast to the control – resulted in significant yield increment in both crop years. The results of the long-term field experiment prove that water utilization of the studied wheat varieties / hybrids was improved by the application of the optimal nutrient supply. Furthermore, the water utilization of the latest genotypes was more favorable by both the control and the optimum nutrient supply level treatments. Analyzing the quality parameters of winter wheat using the NIR method it has been stated that the quality results of the well-known genotype (GK Öthalom) were better than those of the new genotypes. A negative correlation between winter wheat quality and quantity parameters has also been confirmed. As the result of the mineral fertilizer application protein and gluten content of winter wheat increased to a significant extent.

  • Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015

    Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015 Water quality in the surface streams is influenced by several factors. One of important information which can help us to solve problems with quality of water in water body is a distribution of point and non-point pollution sources in a river basin and also amount of pollutants released from them to surface streams. An example of a point source of pollution is the outlet from wastewater treatment plants (industry, urban areas, farms, etc.). On the other hand the most significant non-point source of pollution is considered the application of fertilizers in agriculture.

    In this paper we have evaluated consumption of organic and industrial fertilizers in Slovakia in the period 2006–2015. Total (in tonnes) and average (in kg ha-1) consumption of industrial and organic fertilizers was analyzed. In monitored period, the amount of applied organic fertilizers was much higher than the amount of applied industrial fertilizers and in addition a significant part of total fertilizers consumption had nitrogenous fertilizers in a group of industrial fertilizers. In a group of industrial fertilizers during the period 2006–2015 we observed just moderately increasing in their consumption, while in the period 2010–2015 the average amount of applied industrial fertilizers per hectare of agricultural land increased by about 20 kg ha-1. On the other hand, in a group of organic fertilizers we observed a decreasing in consumption of fertilizers.

  • Analysis of the Environmental Status of Nagykálló Subregion

    The third smallest region of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is the Nagykálló subregion. Its territory is 377 km2 and its inhabitants number 32.526. Due to the fact that industrial development arrived late, the environmental status of this subregion was saved from serious ecological degradation. The quality of the environment shows a reasonable picture in many respects, comparing to the general survey of the country. The air quality of the region can be qualified as acceptable. Leaving some critical points out of consideration, it is better than the national average. It is favourable from the human environment point of view that the region is free of extremes, and has a balanced climate. The supply of drinking water is above 95%, and the remainsing water requirements are supplied by artesian wells. The water supply network is fully extended in the subregion. The most significant environmental noise source is traffic, including public road traffic, which causes a problem in the town of Nagykálló. The situation of the collection, transportation, and placement of the settlement’s solid wastes show a similar picture to the status of the country. The environmental status of the region is included in the SWOT analysis.

  • The hydric stress influence on quantityand quality of the maize yield in the Crisurilor Plainconditions

    The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.

  • Effects of spray carrier quality on biological activity of terbuthylazine + mesotrione herbicide combination

    Field experiments were conducted to study affects of pH and hardness of spray water on efficacy of a herbicide combination (terbuthylazine + mesotrione) influenced by several pH adjusters and adjuvants in Debrecen, Hungary in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Favourable or unfavourable effects of pH and hardness of spray water could be observed under field conditions. Evaluation of weed control efficacy is suitable for examination of affects of spray water pH and hardness on herbicides. The terbuthylazine and mesotrione herbicide combination is suitable to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed species, however, significant effects of hardness and pH of spray carrier was observed only in control of monocotyledonous weeds. Certain pH adjusters (e.g. ammonium nitrate) can lessen harmful affects of water hardness effectively. Significant loss of efficacy of sensitive herbicide was found in hard water (by about 50-60%), and surfactants was not able to eliminate that harmful affect. However, biological activity was the same as in soft water with ammonium nitrate which can overcome the antagonism of salts. That pH adjuster had a more significant affect on the efficacy of the herbicide than the surfactant had in that experiment. 

  • Testing laboratory parameters of compost tea

    During the industrial production of broiler chicken, a large amount of manure is produced, of which easily contained nitrogen content (without pre-treatment) is released into the atmosphere as an air pollutant. In our experiments, we aimed to prepare compost tea, also known as water extract of compost, from pre-treated poultry manure in order to create a product can be utilized as liquid nutrient supply. The poultry manure source was the Baromfi-Coop Ltd. located in Nyírjákó, Hungary, where it was treated by composting. As a result of this pre-treatment of the poultry manure, its nutrient parameters improve and nitrogen is present in a form that is better utilized for plants. Furthermore, this product is suitable for further utilization and also can be the base material for a brand-new product. For this reason the effects of compost/water ratio, incubation time, low oxygen level, and extraction time on the parameters of the resulted product were studied in the frame of developing new soil-life enhancing microbial product, so-called compost tea.

    Chemical parameters of the compost used as base material strongly determined the properties of the resulted compost tea, especially the ratio of the various nitrogen forms, their concentration and the salt content. It was found that adding water at a higher rate that means 1/40 and 1/50 mixing ratios results in more cost-effective production. In the experiment the compost tea were held under oxygen-poor conditions, therefore pH of the extractions decreased, which influenced the quality and quantity of their nutrient content.

  • Mitigation and adaptation measures in the hungarian rural development programme

    In the Hungarian Rural Development Programme (RDP) climate change adaptation is addressed through the measures in Axis 1, 2, 3 and 4. Under Axis 1 farmers can receive support for farm modernisation that will help them adapt to climate change. The processing industry will also be able to use the available resources for capital expenditure on buildings and new equipment. Axis 2 and especially the soil and water package within the agrienvironmental
    measure aim to support production methods, which protect soil quality and will help adaptation to climate change. Measures of Axis 3, such as basic services for the economy and rural population, village renewal and development will provide local communities the opportunity to identify actions that can be undertaken to deal with the effects of climate change. On the other hand, the extension of forest resources contributes to climate change mitigation and enhances carbon sequestration. New methods have been elaborated to the sustainable regional water management, irrigation, water regulation, defence against internal water, and soil protection established. Water management contributes to the balance of water quantity on one side, but also to mitigating the climate change on the other.

  • Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) yield in the case of different production technologies

    Stevia rebaudiana B. offers a natural alternative of sweetening, potential health promotion plant, and our country shows increased interest about cultivation in Hungary in addition to the neighboring European countries. The agricultural production system installation necessary
    understanding of the needs of the plant, as well as exploring the agronomic potential. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 with the aim to highlight some of the technological production parameters and correlations between them. We have reviewed the most important agronomic factors, the spacing (50×50 cm and 33×33 cm), ground covering (agro-cloth covered and uncovered/ control), their vegetative growth (first-,second-order branch), herb yield and quality in effect.
    Based on empirical evidence, that the Hungarian climates also have the opportunity of 3 cuttings during a growing season, besides of early planting, optimal climatic conditions (in October didn’t reduce the daily minimum temperature below 0 °C, after cuttings the maximum interval values remain below 40 °C), and adequate water supply and crop protection facility. The 33×33 cm spacing evaporates more than 50×50 cm spacing, because of the dense population, the continuous canopy less able to breathe, so there are serious chances to the pathogen colonization.
    Based on the results of our research to the wider 50×50 cm spacing favorable appreciate the stevia optimal progress in terms of qualitative and quantitative parameters of the yield. The stevia yields produced in the Northern Great Plains field cultivation can produce similar results as stevia crop yields in warmer climates, where the primary crops. Our research experience suggest that there is a viable domestic stevia cultivation, developing the necessary technology is still growing further investigation justifies.

  • The Relationship Between the Moisture Content of Sweetcorn Raw Material and the Quality of the Deep-Frozen End Product

    One of the remarkable effects of the economical and social development is the changing of the eating habits, first of all increasing consumption of deep-frozen products. The spreading of the sweet corn under these vegetables is characteristic.
    The parameters exerting influence on the quality of the deepfrozen sweetcorn is classed in 3 categories:
    • Physical quality: foreign matter, clumps, blemished corn, broken kernel, miscut, pulled kernel.
    • Organoleptical features: taste, colour, texture, and sweetness.
    • Microbiological features: TVC, mould, yeast.
    The moisture content of the raw material influences the organoleptical features to the highest degree.
    We take continuously samples from the raw material arriving in to the factory to determinate moisture content, and from the product to specify the organoleptical features.
    Based on the data of 2002 we can make the following findings:
    The colour of the deepfrozen sweetcorn is less influenced by the moisture content. The taste is between 69% and 72% the most optimal, but over 72% get worse, more „milky”, water-tasted because of the underdevelopment of sweetcorn. The texture continuously becomes better with the increasing of moisture content. Under 67% of water the class „C” is typical, which means a taste with weak charasteric, a bit scathing or bitter, and texture with rubbery inner part and hard pericarpia. The decadence of taste is caused by converting a great part of sugar into starch.
    The correlation between moisture and quality is varying by varieties; different varieties have their best quality by different moisture content. By our investigations the best harvest time is at the 69-72% moisture content. At this point are the organoleptical features the most optimal, and the grower has not the loss of yield caused by early harvesting.

  • Effect of the fertilization on some quality parameters of winter wheat

    We studied the different mineral fertilizer rates effect on the baking quality of five different winter wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, Lupus, KG Széphalom, GK Békés, Mv Mazurka) on chernozom soil in 2008.
    The bigger fertilizer doses increased the wet gluten content, gluten elasticity and the protein content. The high doses of fertilization has got a moderate effect on the valorigaph value, water absorption, and falling number. The optimum level of the fertilizer doses were the N90-120+PK.
    The Pearson’s correlation analysis proved strong relationships between the fertilization and gluten content, the quality of the gluten, a valorigraph value, and the protein content. The analysis verified a strong correlation between genotype and falling number, and the protein content.
    The variety Mv Mazurka has got the best baking quality parameters.

  • Analysis of the photosynthetic parameters, the yield and the quality of winter wheat

    The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and
    varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The aim of our work is to parametrize the plant assimilation, its intensity, dynamics and the
    most important characteristics and the relationships to the quality in winter wheat trials. The measurements were carried out at the research
    site of the University of Debrecen in small parcel experiments. We measured the leaf net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance,
    intercellular CO2 level, the transpiration, the leaf temperature and the air temperature by the LICOR LI-6400 portable photosynthesis
    system in field trials on the nutrient supply. The soil of the experimental area is calciferous chernozem with favorable water regime.
    We have examined the photosynthetic activity, the productivity and yield stability of winter wheat varieties. We have compared the yield
    results, at similar agrotechnical conditions in seven cropyears. We also determined the quality parameters of the winter wheat varieties.
    Then we valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the
    connections between assimilation parameters, the yield stability and quality parameters of wheat varieties.