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75 years of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr in Europe
Published November 2, 2014
82-85

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is a native pathogen in East Asia and has been introduced into North America and Europe. Historical records and population genetic studies revealed at least three major introduction events from Asia into Europe.

Nowadays, chestnut blight is present in almost the entire distribution range of European chestnut, i.e. from the Iberian Peninsula to the Caucasus. The C. parasitica population in most countries has been studied in respect to the diversity of vegetative compatibility (vc) types and the occurrence of hypovirulence. The vc type diversity of the different populations varied considerably. Typically, a high diversity of vc types has been found in areas with a long history of chestnut blight and where sexual recombination between divergent genotypes commonly has occurred. On the other hand, newly established populations often showed a low diversity with only one, or a few vc types present.

Hypovirulence, i.e. the occurrence of C. parasitica isolates infected by Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 has been found widespread in Europe. Natural dissemination and active biological control applications have lead to a high prevalence of the hypovirus and to the recovery of many chestnut stands. Virulent cankers became hypovirus-infected within a short time and ceased expansion. There is concern that the diversity of vegetative compatibility types could increase in Europe through sexual reproduction between C. parasitica genotypes originating from different introductions. A higher level of vegetative incompatibility would not only hamper hypovirus spread within a population but could also select for lower virulence in CHV-1 and subsequently lead to an erosion of biological control. Recent studies, however, indicate that the vc type barriers are not so restrictive than previously assumed and that so far no evidence for an erosion of biological control system in high diversity populations can be observed.

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Changes in the Diaporthe helianthi Infection of Sunflower Hybrids Between 1998 and 2002
Published May 11, 2003
214-233

Plant protection, and especially the efficiency of protection against mycosis, is a very important production technological element concerning sunflower. The efficiency of production can be increased on the basis of a thorough pathological survey and its results carried out in a wide variety of hybrids, as the features of hybrids, the reactions... of genetic bases to pathogens can be found out under domestic conditions.
The tests were carried out at variety-test lots of OMMI for hybrids used for food or oil and other sunflower varieties admitted by the state at the Experimental Site DTTI Látókép, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen between 1998 and 2002. The number of the tested hybrids was 49 in 1998, 45 in 1999, 49 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 44 in 2002.
Due to the infection source of high amounts remained from 1997 and the favourable weather conditions for the pathogens, an infection of high degree was experienced in the tested stands. The lowest infection index in the hybrids with a very short vegetative period was experienced with Beni hybrids. Comparing to the average of the hybridgroup with short vegetative period, a low infection index characterised the Baleno, Trident, IBH-166, Hysun 321, Resia, Alexandra, Cergold and Pixel hybrids. In 1999, among hybrids with medium vegetative period, Zoltán, Zsuzsa and Util hybrids could be highlighted because of their low infection index. In 1998, among confentionary hybrids, Marica-2 hybrid had the most favourable index values (2,55).
During our trials, the experienced infection dynamics were compared in the event of hybrids with higher and lower susceptibility under different sowing technological elements. The results call for the fact that when a hybrid with higher susceptibility is produced, production technological elements, such as the time of sowing, influence considerably the damage caused by the pathogen, therefore it must not be ignored when its determination takes place. In the event of hybrids with lower susceptibility the change of the tested production technological elements within the biological optimum does not lead to the increased risk of the damage caused by Diaporthe helianthi.

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13
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Examination of the vegetative and generative accomplishment of new apple varieties
Published March 11, 2014
29-34

Our research focuses on apple varieties, what are planted expansively in the development apple orchards of Western-Europe, but about the production characteristics of these varieties we don't have or just few practical experiences in Hungary. These varieties can be described with regular and high yields, aesthetic and alluring appearance in the...ir origin places, what ensure profitable producing for the growers. In our climate what tends to be often extreme (hard cold winters, late spring frosts, summer drought, heat stress) these varieties may behave differently, so before the substantial planting it is expedient to carry out variety evaluations to avoid the later failures. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség, what presents adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. Regarding the vegetative and the generative parameters of the 14 examined varieties ('Schniga', 'Jugala', 'Fendeca', 'Galaval', 'Fengal', 'Red Cap', 'Early Red One', 'Jeromine', 'Crimson Crisp', 'Red Topaz', 'Red Jonaprince', 'Red Idared', 'Fuji SW', club variety) we found significant differences, which is the result of the genetically coded characteristics of the varieties, the effects of the vintage, the different training methods and the correlations of these factors.

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Effect of two different cropyear and the agrotechnological factors on the agronomic characteristic of the winter weat in a lon-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
143-149

We studied the effects of crop rotation, fertilization and crop protection technologies on occurence of the major ear- and leaf-diseases (powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis, leaf rust, Fusarium wilt) and the degree of lodging in the winter wheat variety Mv Pálma in two very different years (2006/2007=dry; 2009/2010=rainy). The experiments were... carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen CAAES in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at five fertilization levels by applying three different crop protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive).
In the cropyear of 2006/2007, the disease severity of leaf diseases was higher than the average in both crop rotations in spite of the fact that the weather during the whole vegetation period was dry. Infection by powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis and leaf rust increased with increasing fertilization, the highest infection was measured at the highest fertilization level (N200+PK) in the extensive crop protection technology. According to the results, no infection of ears by Fusarium and no lodging occurred in either bi- or triculture due to the dry year. The extremely rainy weather in 2009/2010 was favourable not only for the vegetative development of the stand, but also increased the occurance of leaf-, stalk- and ear-diseases and a high degree of lodging was observed. The highest infection by powdery mildew was observed in the plots with the highest fertilizer dosage under an extensive crop protection technology. A much higher helminthosporiosis infection was measured than in the cropyear of 2006/2007. The wet weather and higher than average temperature promoted the occurence and spreading of leaf rust. Under an extensive crop protection technology, a leaf rust infection of 24% and 31% was detected after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively, in the N200+PK treatment. As opposed to 2006/2007, the disease severity of Fusarium was 3–8% and 2–7% in the control after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively. This value, similarly to that of other pathogens, increased with increasing fertilization levels. Due to the large vegetative mass, a significant lodging was observed in the wheat stands in both bi- and triculture (17–100%, 12–100%). 

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Effect of the media on morphology of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr isolates and their Vegetative Compatibility Groups
Published June 2, 2015
38-42

The most dangerous pathogen for the European and American chestnuts is the blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr. Short after its introduction a big number of chestnut trees were destroyed on the infested area. The control could be really complicated, because of the numerous vegetative compatibility groups of the fungus. There i...s a type that carries a mycovirus viz. hypovirus in the cytoplasm. We are able to control effectively this pathogen by using mycovirus-carrying strains (called hypovirulent fungal strains also). In laboratory it is easy to multiply the virulent and the hypovirulent strains of the fungus but do not easy to differentiate colonies visually on simple PDA medium. During our research, we tested different types of media, based on potato and chestnut bark extract respectively. It was observed that on potato medium the virulent strains produce more orange pigments. So it is more easy to differentiate virulent or hypovirulent isolates of chestnut blight fungus based on colony colour and morphology.

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Molybdenum - accumulation dynamics of cereals on calcareous chernozem soil
Published December 16, 2012
81-85

This work is about the molybdenum-accumulation of cereals analyzing soil and plant samples from a field experiment set in
Nagyhörcsök by Kádár et al. in 1991.
In this long-term field experiment different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected
from the experiment station to study... the behaviour of molybdenum.
In this report results of maize, winter wheat, winter barley and soil analysis are presented. The conclusions are as follows:
– Analysing soil samples from 1991 we have found that roughly half of the molybdenum dose applied is in the form of NH4-acetate+EDTA soluble
– Comparing element content of grain and leaf samples we have experienced that molybdenum accumulation is more considerable in the  vegetative plant parts
– Winter wheat accumulated less molybdenum then maize in its vegetative parts. Comparing molybdenum content of winter wheat to winter barley we found that the concentration of the element in wheat was lower by half than in the winter barley. It seemed that molybdenum accumulated to the least degree in winter wheat.

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Evaluation of vegetative and generative characteristics of some ‘Gala’ cultivars
Published March 5, 2015
15-20

The aim of this study was to evaluate the production characteristics of new ‘Gala’ apple cultivars (‘Gala Venus Fengal’, ‘Gala Decarli- Fendeca’, ‘Galaval’, ‘Jugala’, ‘Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’), which can be described with superior and earlier fruit surface coloration and with larger fruit size comparing with the orig...in cultivar, however they are less well known in our country. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség representing adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. According to the results it can be stated that among the 3–4 years old ‘Gala’ trees, which will achieve the maximal yields just in the next years regarding yields the ‘Fengal’ and the ‘Fendeca’ cultivars are emerged (43–46 t ha-1).

Furthermore they reached also excellent fruit quality (70–75 mm diameter). The fruit quality of the ‘Galaval’ is also optimal, but the yields are notably smaller. The ‘Jugala’ produced lower yields and the coloration of the variety is also insufficient. In the case of the ‘Schniga’ the excessive increasing yields can cause quality loss easily.

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Vegetative shoot growing and yield productivity of different plum cultivar and rootstocks combination
Published July 18, 2012
25-29

We planted containers plum rootstocks and cultivar combinations for irrigation and rootstocks experiment. We planted Cacanska lepo tica, Katinka, Jojo, Topfive, Toptaste, Topper plum cultivar on Mirobalan, St Julien A, St Julien GF 655/2, Wavit, Wangenheim, and Fereley rootstocks. Before budding we measured the trunk diameter on trees, than I c...ount the trunk cross area, we measured the high of trees, the high of crown, and the wide of crown, and counted the volume of crown from these data. We conclude the vigorous from the trunk cross area and the volume of crown. In the started growing less vigorous combinations look like Topfive/Wavit, Jojo/Mirobalan and Katinka/Mirobalan grafted on the basis trunk cross area and the volume of crown. In the vegetative period we measured the shoot growing on model branch every started of months. So we could determine the growing tendency. The smallest growing was Cacanska lepotika/Mirobalan. 
In the flowering the grafted flowered in rich, excepted the Topfive cultivar on St Julien A, St Julien GF 655/2, and Fereley rootstocks, these didn’t flowered. The Topfive/Wavit combinations there were a richest flower. 
In the harvest term we could pick up plum fruits from Topfive/Wavit combinations, and Cacanska lepotica, Jojo, Toptaste cultivar. And in addition the Topper cultivar was the highest yield on their all of rootstocks.

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Comparison of the physiological responses of an oil-pumpkin cultivar and hybrid under different nitrogen supply conditions
Published December 15, 2019
65-69

Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca is known as a medicinal crop among other cucurbits. The benefits of cucurbits fruits are very important in terms of human health, purification of blood, removal of constipation, digestion and supplying energy. The mutant styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. convar. Pepo var. styriaca Greb.) exposes a complete lack... of lignification of the seed testa. For this reason, this kind of naked pumpkin seed is more consumable as snack than other seeds. The vegetative growth of plants is crucial for fruit production. Nitrogen is the most imperative element for the proper vegetative growth and development of plants which significantly increases and enhances yield and its quality by playing a vital role in the biochemical and physiological functions of plants.

Field studies were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen nutrition on certain physiological parameters and their differences between the styrian oil pumpkin hybrid and cultivar (Gleisdorfi Classic cultivar and GL Rustical hybrid). The small block experiment was carried out based on a factorial experiment with a completely randomised block design and four replications in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza during the summer period of 2017 and 2018. Three different concentrations of nitrogen fertiliser was applied at sowing. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, -b and carotenoids) were analysed as one of the basic factor of efficient photosynthesis. The yields of two genotypes were also measured in all treatments as seed-weight. The contents of photosynthetic pigments were higher in the oil-pumpkin hybrid, mainly the carotenoids in 2018. The vegetation period of 2018 was drier than in 2017, the hybrid oil-pupmkin was more efficient in stress tolerance than the cultivar with higher carotenoids pool. The obtained yield was more pronounced in the oil-pumpkin hybrid than the cultivar in all examined years. The hybrid GL Rustical was more sensitive to nitrogen treatment than the cultivar Gleisdorfi Classic.

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Effect of agrotechnical factors on the yield of the Grolim asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) hybrid on acidic sandy soil
Published September 8, 2020
43-48

Research of blanched asparagus has begun at the University of Debrecen Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm Research Institutes of Nyíregyháza in 2011. Establishment of the plantation took place in May 2011. The Grolim hybrid was used in the trial, 16 medium plot trial area has been formed under field conditions, with fou...r repetitions and 36 m2 plot size. In the course of our studies, the effect of different nutriment supply methods (untreated, manure, sheep manure compost, fertilizer) has been analysed on the spear yield of the Grolim asparagus hybrid between 2013 and 2017.

In our studies, the beginning of vegetative growth has been recorded upon the constant presence of 10 °C of average soil temperature in the case of the Grolim asparagus hybrid. The beginning and length of spear harvesting are both influenced by the time and dynamics of initial development in spring. During the analysed period, the dates of spear harvesting were various, the earliest being on 23rd March, 2014 and the latest on 23rd April, 2015; the rest of the three years have been varied within this one month interval. The total of heat units required for the vegetative development of spears has been determined; it provides important information for cultivation practice.

Spear yields turned out to be hectic during the analysed period. In 2013 and 2014, yields have surpassed the amount of 50 kg/harvest period/plot in the case of every treatment version. However, in 2015 a significantly lower specific yield has been recorded due to the unfavourable weather conditions in spring; a yield decline of nearly 50% was recorded in the case of the control treatment compared to the previous years. Yield was also lower in the rest of the fertilization treatments compared to 2014; however, in these cases, the degree of yield decrease was around 5–10%, which suggests the yield stabilising effect of fertilization. In 2016, a slight yield increase was measured in comparison with the base year. In 2017, there was a decline of yield in the control treatment; however, the different fertilization treatments resulted in yield increase as compared to previous years.

On the basis of our studies, it is clear that the best yield results have been provided by the artificial fertilization treatment in all of the five analysed years. It was followed by the sheep manure compost and manure treatments in terms of their effect on spear yield. During the three harvesting periods, the lowest yield on acidic sandy soil was recorded in the case of the control treatment. The most remarkable effect of nutriment treatments has been realised in terms of the decreased deviation of yield results, which perfectly represents the yield stabilising effect of nutriment supply in the case of perennial crops – asparagus – as well, even on a poor nutriment supply characteristic sandy soil.

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The effect of sowing date and plant density on the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under different weather conditions
Published June 30, 2018
205-208

Maize has high productivity and produces huge vegetative and generative phytomass, but this crop is very sensitive to agroecological (mainly to climatic, partly to pedological conditions) and agrotechnical circumstances. In Hungary, maize is grown on 1.1–1.2 million hectares, the national average yields vary between 4–7 t ha-1 depending on ...the year and the intensity of production technology. The longterm experiment was set up in 2015–2016 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (eastern Hungary). The maize research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép MÉK (Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management) research area of the University of Debrecen. We examined the following commonly used hybrids of Hungary: SY ARIOSO (FAO 300), P9074 (FAO 310), P9486 (FAO 360), SY Octavius (FAO 400), GK Kenéz (FAO 410), DKC 4943 (FAO 410). The experiment was set up in three different plant densities. These were 60, 76, 90 thousand plant ha-1. The experiment was set up with three different sowing dates, early, average and late sowing. The yield was measured using a special plot harvester (Sampo Rosenlew 2010), measuring the weight of the harvested plot and also taking a sample from it. As a next step, we calculated the yield (t ha-1) of each plot at 14% of moisture content to compare them to each other. We evaluated the obtained data using Microsoft Excel 2015.

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Effect of M9, MM106 and Seedling Rootstocks on Sunburn-Sensitivity of 33 Apple Cultivars, and Sunburn Effects on Fruit Quality
Published December 6, 2005
236-247

The purpose of this study was to investigate the sunburn-sensitivity of 33 apple cultivars grafted onto 3 rootstocks (M9, MM106 and seedling) in a commercial orchard at Nagykutas (in the western part of Hungary). The authors also searched for any relationship between fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn on the fruit surface....>During the observations, the cultivars had rootstock-specific properties in respect to sunburn-susceptibility. Accordingly, the injury decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. The differences in the sensitivity were founded on the foliage-morphological characteristics of trees, caused by the growing vigour of the rootstocks. Accordingly, the highest value of sunburn injury was observed on M9 rootstock, because this rootstock has a dwarfing effect on the grafted main cultivars. Thus, the vegetative area of these trees grew very slowly and the foliage was not compact enough to protect the fruits from the strong rays. The largeness and density of the foliage increased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. Relationships were also demonstrated between the diameter of the upper part of crown, the size of leaves, the number of fruits per tree and the injury from sunburn.
The damage values showed, that the gravity of symptoms did not decrease below a well-defined level of dimension on fruit. Determined potential area of injury was necessary for the symptoms to become visible.
The authors categorized the cultivars in the respect of values of sunburn frequency: I. „Not sensitive”, II. „Moderately sensitive” and III. „Very sensitive” categories were constituted. Generally, the Gala cultivars showed low damage (or were free of symptoms), in contrast, Golden mutants suffered relative strongly. The most sensitive cultivar was Jonica on all three of rootstocks.
We searched for any relationship between the fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn. A significant correlation was found in the cases of fruit weight and colour-coverage. The latter can be related to that fact that highly colour covered fruits are found on the peripherial part of crown, so these are exposed to stronger sun rays

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Comparative analisis of different canopy forms of sweet cherry cultivars
Published March 11, 2014
19-22

The Hungarian sweet cherry production has been changed significantly in the last decades, which primarily resulted in growing intensity of the orchards. Due to the favourable selling prices of the sweet cherry many growers see good prospects in this fruit. One of the key questions of their success is the choice of the most proper canopy form ac...cording to the growing conditions, which facilities the efficient completion of annual technological operations.

In new orchards almost exclusively variations of spindle canopies are established, although many other crown forms are used all over the world. From the point of the domestic sweet cherry production it is indispensable to get information about these canopies, and compare with the prevailing crown forms with central axis.

In our experiment we compared free spindle and bush canopies in the Horticultural Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen in 2013. According to our results it can be stated that the bush canopy can be described with more balanced growth, which makes easier to maintain the vegetative and generative balance. Another positive characteristic of the bush canopy is, that the height of the trees is smaller with 50% compared with the free spindle, which makes the pruning and the harvest easier.

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Violation prooxidative-antioxidant stability at maize shoots at different level of accumulation of cadmium and nickel
Published November 3, 2010
89-94

Joint influence of cadmium and nickel was investigated on the feature of their accumulation by the vegetative organs of 10-days' old maize shoots. It was established that most intensively noted metals are taken in by the roots of shoots in the first 7 hours stressing influencing, while in leaves they appear only after a 7-hour long exposition. ...It was stated that the absorption process of the noted metals by a root system is carried by two-phase character. The indexes of inner-tissue contamination are calculated. Activating by the cadmium and nickel ions of lipid peroxidation as marker of the stressing influencing, and also was shown the proper increase of intensity of functioning of ascorbate peroxidase as the antioxidant enzyme protection of cell.

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Evaluation of dry matter accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published June 30, 2018
35-41

The increase of the grain yield of maize is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Dry matter is accumulated into the grain yield during the grain filling period. The following maize hybrids were involved in the experiment: Armagnac FAO 490, Loupiac FAO 380 and Sushi FAO 340. In order to determine dry matter content, two ...samples per week were taken on the following days: 22nd, 25th, 28th, 31st August, 4th, 7th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th September and 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th October. In the course of sampling the weight of 100 grains from the middle section of 4 ears was measured in 4 replications. Dry matter content was determined after drying to constant weight in a drying cabinet at 60 °C. Harvesting was performed on 13th October 2017.

The daily precipitation sum was determined by local measurements, while the daily radiation and temperature data were provided by the Meteorological Observatory Debrecen of the National Meteorological Service in Budapest. Among the agrometeorological parameters, an analysis was made of the precipitation during the growing season, effective heat sums during the vegetative and generative phase, and the water supplies. The daily heat sums were determined using the algorithm proposed.

The amount of precipitation in the winter period before the 2017 growing season was 210 mm. The soil was saturated until its field capacity. The rather dry and warm March and April had a favourable effect, but there was no worthy amount of precipitation until May (51 mm) due to the condition of the dried seedbed. Sowing was performed on the 5th of May 2017 in a randomised small plot experiment. There was favourable precipitation and temperature during the growing season, thereby providing ideal conditions for maize development, growth and yield formation. There was near average amount of precipitation in each year. The total amount of precipitation in the summer period is 342 mm. Temperature was mostly above the average, but there was no long and extremely warm period.

The Armagnac hybrid reached its highest dry matter mass 126 days after emergence. Physiological maturity was reached sooner (on the 119th day) in the case of Loupiac, and even sooner in the case of Sushi (116th day). The thousand grain weight of Sushi (which has the shortest ripening period) was 286 g at the time of physiological maturity, while that of Loupiac was 311 g. Compared to Sushi, Armagnac showed 12 g more dry matter accumulation (306 g). In the case of all three examined hybrids, physiological maturity was preceded by an intensive phase, when the dynamics of dry matter accumulation was rather quick. On average, Sushi gained 2.8 g dry matter per day between 103 days following emergence and physiological maturity, while the same values were 3.2 g for Armagnac and 3.3 g for Loupiac. The aim of the regression line slope is to predict the behavior of the dependent variable with the knowledge of the values and characteristics of the independent variables using the regression line equation. Furthermore, to determine how the location affected the dynamic of dry matter accumulation in the Armagnac, Loupiac and Sushi hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97%, in the Loupiac 94%, in the Sushi 90 %. The determination coefficient (R2) is useful in determing how the regression equation fits. But, as we have seen, the determination coefficient alone is not sufficient to verify the model’s accuracy, in addition to the determination coefficient (R2), the normality of the data or the residuals, the variance of the variables at different levels, the independence of the data relative to time and non-oblique. Observations are evaluated for the correctness of the fitted model.

Dry matter values decreased evenly and slightly following physiological maturity. According to our research results, it was established that physiological maturity is followed by a moderate dry matter loss. Until harvesting, Armagnac lost 40 g of its thousand mass weight in 29 days, while the same value pairs were 69 g in 36 days for Loupiac and 29 g in 39 days for Sushi. Loupiac – which had the highest weight at the time of physiological maturity – lost the most of its dry weight; therefore, Armagnac and Sushi had higher values at the time of harvesting.

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Nutrient Supply Effects on the Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published December 6, 2005
230-235

The aim of our two year study is to research the effect of nutrient supply on apple fruit quality, and to explore the relationships between selected fruit quality parameters.
Observations were made in Kálmánháza (in the eastern part of Hungary), on a commercial apple orchard. In this experiment, we studied the nutrient supply reaction of ...four apple cultivars (Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Idared and Jonathan Csány) under different N and NPK doses. The following fruit quality parameters were studied: fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight, flesh firmness, colour-coverage and we studied the density of foliage.
The research results showed that N fertilization has a great effect on fruit quality. This is shown in the cases of increase of fruit size (fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight). The increase is proportional with the N doses, accordingly the highest positive difference was observed by using 100 kg/ha N doses. It is important to note that moderate N doses (75 kg/ha) plus P and K additions also had positive effects. There approached the values of 100 kg/ha N, and even exceeded its values in the cultivar Golden Reinders. The increased N doses enlarged the standard deviation, on the other hand, this parameter was low in the cases of balanced NPK fertilization. The nutrient supply increased the vegetative area (density of foliage) in addition to the generative parts, in particular only N fertilizer. However the denser foliage hindered the growth of fruit weight and colour-coverage, and also decreased the fruit quality and the flesh firmness of cultivars, which have a negative effect on storageability.
A linear correlation was demonstrated between the fruit weight and colour-coverage, or between fruit weight and flesh firmness. The character of their relationship was similar, but the direction differed: high fruit weight was with high colour-coverage, but with low flesh firmness.

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The setting of fenological-stadium of plum (Prunus domestica) rootstock-variety combinations in 2011–2013
Published February 25, 2014
25-29

We planted experimental trees, namely 6 plum varieties and 6 plum rootstocks in the spring of 2010, which of aim were the phenological -phases of variety-rootstock combinations analyses.

We observed 18 plum varieties – rootstocks combination in Kecskemét, in Garden of Kecskemét Collage. We set the examination with 2 kind irrigations.... A plum combination appear in the examination in 6 repetition depend on irrigation. The vegetative period started bursting of buds in 2011 March 15–18.; 2012 March 16–19. and 2013 March 12.–April 2. This was followed green buds stadium shorter or longer periods, than appeared white buds stadium and in the following day we could see started of flowering. The main flowering kept 7–10 days, except in 2012, when arriving frozen by April 8. morning stopped the main flowering. Following flowering we observed fruit falling 3 occasion, these weren’t noticed calendar date. These were in order: fruit falling after set, fruit falling in June, fruits falling before harvest. In 2013 these fruit falling there weren’t considerable. The ripening was characteristically varieties. The most of earlier ripening was ‘Katinka’/‘St Julien A‘, from which we didn’t harvest in 2011, but in 2012 July 17, and in 2013 July 9. pick up some plum fruits. The ‘Cacanska lepotica’ ripped in July 21–30, this was followed in ripening time the ‘Topfive’ in July 19.–August 6., The ‘Toptaste’ in August 5–23., The ‘Jojo’ in August 2–26., and the ‘Topper and ‘Katinka’/‘Mirobalan ’ stopped ripening in August 22.–September begin. The colouring leaves and the falling leaves started continue after harvesting, but we experienced the end of the falling leaves in the first bigger frozen time, October 24.–November 26.

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The effect of drought and cropping system on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published December 28, 2018
51-53

Different Cropping Systems have many advantages and ensure better crop growth and yielding. Its combination with other agronomic measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximum crop growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems on monoculture and biculture rotatio...ns [maize- wheat]. The study found that crop rotation does not have a significant effect on the grain nutrition quality, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) but has a significant effect on the Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD). Yield and yield components were significantly influenced by crop rotation in this study as yield, plant height, cob weight and number of grains per row all recorded lower mean at 5% probability levels.

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The effect of the dates of shoot selection and shoot tip removal on the growth of William’s pear trees
Published September 14, 2005
65-70

Increasing the intensity of production in the case of pear can be the solution to satisfy the market demand forr high-quality fruit. The aims in this technology are the canopy treatments and the maintainance of consistently high quality yields in the long run. The experiments were performed with cv. William’s pear, a cultivar grown on large a...reas in Hungary. To create the optimal canopy shape for earlier fruiting, we performed shoot selection and the cutting back of shoot tips. Our results show, that both pruning methods – applied at 3 different dates – decreased the number of short fruiting parts (spurs), and increased the number of vegetative shoots. The sole exception was from this the effect of shoot tip removal when done at the earliest date.

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The effect of different genotype cattle grazing on the nutrient content of saline grasslands vegetation
Published December 28, 2018
46-50

Maintaining saline grasslands in good condition, preserving their yield and diversity is important not only for the purpose of nature conservation, but also for farming. Therefore, the primary purpose of our study is to analyse the effect of pasture use of the smaller weight extensive and the larger weight intensive beef cattle on the grassland... vegetation and nutrient content. In this way, we can answer the question whether grazing for nature conservation can be achieved with more profitable, more economical and more intense varieties.

The tests were carried out in May 2016 and May 2017, in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám puszta), where a total of 16 sample areas were analysed. These areas are grazed with extensive beef cattle (Hungarian grey) and mixed genotype of intensive cattle. The associations were selected along a moisture gradient, such as wet salt marsh (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier saline meadow (Beckmannion eruciformis). All the vegetative material collected both years in May was analysed for the following parameters: dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and life-sustaining net energy content. We compared the effects of medium grazing (0.46 livestock/ha) and abandonment on vegetation and nutrient content.

We examined the effect of (i) grazing, (ii) different grasslands (salt marsh, saline meadow) and (iii) grazing of different cattle breeds (Hungarian grey, intensive beef) on the nutrient content of the vegetation of grasslands Based on our results, it was found that grazing had an impact on crude protein and life-sustaining net energy content. The highest crude protein content (12.75 m/m%) was obtained in the year 2017 in the area where higher density had been grazed for two years. For the lifesustaining net energy, the highest value (5.05 MJ/kg d.m.) was also obtained in 2017 and the lowest in 2016. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant difference between the effect of the two cattle breeds on the parameters examined. Significant effects were observed only in the case of life-sustaining net energy: in the area of intensive beef cattle we received a higher value (5.15 MJ/kg body weight) than in the area with extensive beef cattle (4.96 MJ/kg body weight).

Our results have also shown that cattle grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of both wet and mesophilous habitats. Based on our three-year study, we can say that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds is suitable for the management of saline habitats.

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N-Phenyl-Phthalamic Acid and Fertilization Effects on Flowering, Fruit Set and Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006
24-28

On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány 1, Mutsu), the authors studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic (PPA) acid and fertilization on flowering, fruit set and fruit quality in the years 2003-2004. The research results showed that PPA application extended the flowering time of the most ...cultivars. Fruit set of apple cultivars increased in many cases when regulator was applied. The additional nutrient supply could increase the fruit set too. The increase of fruit set increased the number of fruit per tree. Quality parameters determined by fertilization and fruit number per tree. For example, when N-phenyl-phthalamic acid was applied without fertilization the fruit number per tree increased considerably however, it caused a considerable frittering away. The reason for this is that fruit set was high and fruit received not enough nutrition for growing up. The skin colour of fruits was decreased in several cases by the treatments. In one respect the enlarged fruit number was shaded the others and the fertilization increased the vegetative shading leaf area.

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The effects of agrotechnological factors on winter wheat yield in humid cropyear
Published October 5, 2010
162-167

The effects of crop rotation, nutrien supply and crop protection technologies, as well as the appearance of the main ear- and leafdiseases
(powdery mildew, helminthosporium leaf spot, leaf rust, fusarium) were studied on the crop yields of winter wheat variety MV
Pálma during the 2009/2010 crop year. The experiments were conducted in tri...culture (pea – wheat – corn) and biculture (wheat – corn), at
five nutrition levels, with the use of three crop protection technologies (extensive, conventional and intensive) at the Látókép Research Site of
the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. Our results proved that the appearance of leaf- and ear-diseases were
significant in the wheat cultures during the 2009/2010 crop year, because of the rainy, warmer than usual weather, the lodging, and the huge
vegetative mass developed. The most severe infections by the four examined diseases after pea and corn pre-crops were observed at
extensive crop protection levels, when fertilizers were used at the highest dose.
Following corn pre-crop, in the case of all the three crop protection technologies the maximum rate of wheat yield results were achieved
at N150+PK level. The highest yield was reached at intensive crop protection level (6079 kg ha-1). In triculture, in case of all the three crop
protection technologies the maximum yields were achieved at N50+PK level; in extensive technology 5041 kg·ha-1 yield, in conventional
technology 6190 kg ha-1 yield was realised, while in the intensive technological model the yield was 7228 kg ha-1.
The relationship between yield and fertilizer amounts, the rate of pathogen contaminations, crop protection technologies and pre-crops
was defined with correlation analysis in case of different crop rotations during the 2009/2010 crop year. Based on the results of the
experiment, we found that in stands after corn pre-crop strong positive correlation was established between the crop protection level and the
crop yield (0.543), the nutrient levels and the emergence of the four examined pathogens, and between the nutrient levels and the yield
(0.639). Extremly strong positive correlation was observed between crop protection and yield (0.843) in triculture. Strong positive
correlation was detected between the nutrient levels and the presence of the four examined pathogens, as well as between nutrient and
lodging (0.688). Strong negative correlation was between the crop protection level and the four examined diseases both in biculture and
triculture.

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15
10
Effects of water deficit on the growth and yield formation of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published May 16, 2017
143-148

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important consuming cereal crop in the world after rice and wheat. This requires an understanding of various management practices as well as conditions that affect maize crop performance. Water deficit stress during crop production is one of the most serious threats to crop production in most parts of the world a...nd drought stress or water deficit is an inevitable and recurring feature of global agriculture and it is against this background that field study of crops response to water deficit is very important to crop producer and researchers to maximize yield and improve crop production in this era of unpredicted climatic changes the world over.
A pot experiment was carried out to determine the effects of water deficit on growth and yield formation of maize. Two maize cultivars were used Xundan20 and Zhongdan5485. Three levels of soil water content were used in two stages of water control levels at two stages of the maize plant development
1. The JOINTING STAGE: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 70% to 80% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 55% to 65% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 40% to 50% of the Soil water holding capacity at the field.
2. The BIG FLARE PERIOD: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 75% to 85% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 58% to 68% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 45% to 55% of the soil water holding capacity at the field.
This research mainly studied the effects of water deficit on physiological, morphology and the agronomical characteristics of the maize plant at the different water stress levels.
The importance of these results in this experiment will enable plant producers to focus and have a fair idea as to which stage of the maize plant’s development that much attention must be given to in terms of water supply.

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Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production
Published December 21, 2008
51-60

The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, inten...sive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

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Comparison of hypersensitive plum rootstocks
Published September 5, 2018
183-184

New bred plum rootstocks are compared with ‘Prudom’ as a growing standard. Combined with ‘Cacanska lepotica’ and ‘Jojo’ the rootstocks ‘Prudom’, ‘Dospina 235’ and ‘Docera 6’ were involved in this comparison. Following the first five years, no variant showed inaffinity. The vegetative performance of ‘Prudom’ and ‘Do...spina 235’ was in the same range (±5–10%). ‘Docera 6’ shows vigour reduction (12–14%). ‘Prudom’ and ‘Dospina 235’ are also in the same range of generative performance (‘Cacanska lepotica’ -19%, ‘Jojo’ +4%). The cumulated yield in Docera 6’ was more or less half quantity. The results of the first five years are too young for valid practical advice. Furthermore, it opens the perspective for alternative rootstock of prune industry in areas with high virus pressure.

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