It is one of the main topical objective to establish the conditions of sustainable farming. The sustainable development in crop production also calls for the harmony of satisfying human needs and providing the protection of environmental and natural resources; therefore, the maximum consideratio of production site endowments, the common impleme...ntation of production needs and environmental protection aims, the minimum load on the environment and economicalness. Precision farmin encompasses the farming method which is adjusted to the given production site, the changing technology in a given plot, the integrated crop protection, cutting edge technologies, remote sensing, GIS, geostatistics, the change
of the mechanisation of crop production, and the application of information technology novelties in crop production. Modern technology increases efficiency and reduces costs. The efficiency of crop production increases by reducing losses and the farmer has access to a better decision support information technology system. In addition, we consider it necessary to examine the two currently most important economic issues: “is it worth it?” and “how much does it cost?”. During the analysis of agricultural technologies, we used the precision crop production experiment database of KITE Zrt. and the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen.
During our analytical work, we examined three technological alternatives on two soil types (chernozem and meadow). The first technology is the currently used autumn ploughing cultivation. We extended our analyses to the economic evaluation of satellite navigationassisted ploughing and strip till systems which prefer moisture saving. On chernozem soil, of the satellite-based technological alternatives, the autumn ploughing cultivation provided higher income than strip till. In years with average precipitation supply, we recommend the precision autumn ploughing technological alternative on chernozem soils in the future. On meadow soil, the strip till cultivation technology has more favourable economical results than the autumn ploughing. On soils with high plasticity – considering the high time and energy demand of cultivation and the short amoung of time available for cultivation – we recommend to use strip till technologies.
Nowadays, the socio-economic role and function of universities as well as their relationship with the industry, are more than ever in the focus of both the political and the academic spheres. The importance of knowledge and technology transfer is increasingly stressed in various economic development plans and strategies. The increased interest...is due to the fact that universities are located at the crossroads of education, research and innovation, which might be crucial for the country's economic competitiveness. The commercialization of university research results is a well-defined task of technology transfer offices. Measuring the efficiency and successfulness of such offices is a difficult, but not impossible task. The present article aims to analyze the existing literature on measuring the efficiency of technology transfer activities and to introduce the most commonly used measuring methods of effective technology transfer. The article attempts to answer the question how to measure the efficiency of technology transfer by reviewing the available international literature and by analyzing secondary data.
The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, inten...sive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems.
In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was 7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).
The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most important fish species in Hungary, it is more than 70% of the total Hungarian fish production. The common carp production is important not only just in Hungary but in Middle-East Europe, as well as Southeast Asia. Majority of the production comes from fishpond culture. If the production secto...r wants to meet the increasing customer demands, there is need to intensify research on the intensive fish production opportunities for example all-female common carp technologies. The all-female technology is one of a genom-manipulation technology. Its production showed better growth rate than mixed-sex population in pond culture. Our experiment combined the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and the all-female common carp stocks intensification technologies. The reason for the experiment, is that there are no result about the growth of all-female common carp growth in RAS.
The experiment used the „Tatai grey scale type” common carp stocks. We propagated two all-female stocks (T2 and T3) and a control group (TK). Due to technological characteristics of RAS, the water quality parameters were the same for all treatments and corresponded to the technological tolerance of common carp.
The experimental period was from July 10, 2019 – November 20, 2019. Result of growth performance showed that the growth of mixed-sex stock was significantly higher than all-female stocks; (Control=3692.0±590.5g, T2=3438.8±415.4g, T3=3294.1±659.1g). Feed conversation ratio (Control=1.3±0.1 T2=1.5±0.2 T3=1.6±0.5) and SGR% (Control=0.8±0.0 T2=0.7±0.1 T3=0.7±0.1) were similar.
By the results it can be said the all-female common carp technology has neither advantages nor disadvantages compared to the mixed-sex stock. The all-female technology can be beneficial if the consumers need female common carps. It is worth continuing the experiment and examine how the stocks will perform above 3kg body weight.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The biogas sector has never before aroused so much attention as it does today. Combined heat and power (CHP) reliable and cost-effective technologies that are already making an important contribution to meeting global heat and electricity demand. Due to enhanced energy supply efficiency and utilisation of waste heat renewable energy resources, CHP, particularly together with district heating and cooling (DHC), is an important part of national and regional Green House Gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies.
In the mitochondrion of eukaryotes, cytochrome b is a component of respiratory chain complex III. Cytochrome b is encoded by the
cytochrome b (CYTB) gene located in the mitochondrial genome. The fungicidal activity of QoIs relies on their ability to inhibit mitochondrial respiration by binding at the so-called Qo site (the outer quinol-oxida
Monospore B. cinerea field isolates has been collected during 2008-2009 from different hosts in Hungary. PCR fragment length analysis
indicated the high frequency presence of type large intron in the isolates while in a few strains G143A substitution could also be detected.
These results indicated the heterogeneity of CYTB in the Hungarian B. cinerea populations, which possibly involve the heteroplasmy of this
mitochondrial gene, moreover indicates the existence op azoxystrobin resistant populations in Hungary.
This work was supported by NKFP-A2-2006/0017 grant. Erzsébet Fekete is a grantee of the János Bolyai Scholarship (BO/00519/09/8).
The overall objectives of our research program are to examine and to develop the possibilities of use and to expand the national production technology of sweet potato. In 2016, we have set up production technology experiments in many regions, from which we report the results of the experimental field in Deszk here. In our field experiments we o...btained results of planting material production, planting and nutrition optimization of sweet potato. Rating the effects of different nutrition doses, between the averages of treatment we didn't experience any significant differencies. On hard soil we set up experimental plots with or without ridges. Based on the result of the harvest the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from shoots or from tubers did not show significant differences, but it does matter how many tons of sweet potato tubers we harvest per hectare.
The aim of this review is to examine the effect of milk supplementation on pigs’ carbohydrate metabolism. These parameters regulate the growth of piglets, the nutrient intake and the period of pre-weaning. Due to the increased litter size, the sow milk yield reaches an individual maximum. The individual maximum has not increased proportionall...y with the number of piglets born alive. The use of liquid milk supplementation may give the opportunity to keep these large litters. The examined hormones are insulin, insulin-like growth factor, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone, ghrelin and leptin. This review seeks to find these hormones’ interactions.
The integration of plant breeding and plant transformation is needed because we have to create a homozygous genotype of great agronomic value by conventional breeding before the application of genetic technology with which we modify it by using a gene or genome sequence. The aim of integrated plant breeding is to trigger such advantegous change...s by genetic technology which can not be achieved via conventional breeding or just with considerably weaker efficacy. By transformation, the plant’s agronomic performance, the efficiency and security of its production will improve and it will enable more versatile uses of the plant. Genetic technology is one sequence of a new plant variety’ breeding. To create a transgenic variety, the isolation of a gene or a sequence of a gene from the donor genome for tranformation, a homozygous plant or target genome that is suitable for transformation and is created via conventional breeding methods, an effective transformation technique and the establishment of the new variety from the transformed, fertile plant are needed. The transgenic plant should be made suitable for establishing a variety by conventional breeding so that it could be produced securely, its growing could contribute to the development of modern, sustainable agriculture, its seed could be produced profitably, it could meet the reqiurements of DUS and that the changes indicated by the transgene could provide such economic advantages compared to the original variety, which have real commercial value.
The aim of our research program is to develop the production technology and to examine the possibilities of the utilization of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.). In 2016 and 2017, production technology experiments were set up with four replications in a randomized block design on an alluvial soil in Deszk, Hungary. In our field experiment...s, we obtained results of planting material production, planting methods and the optimized fertilization of sweet potato. Experimental plots were set up either with or without ridges. In heavy soils – where usually ridge planting is preferred –, in 2016, the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. In 2017, however, we got opposite results: based on the result of the harvest, the production technology with ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from tubers (primary transplants) or from shoots (secondary transplants) did not show significant differences, however, in both years, yield levels were higher on ridges with secondary transplants.
Sweet potato yield may vary widely among producers due to improper ridging and planting orientation. The aim of this study was to establish the proper ridging and planting orientation, so as to enhance constant reliable yields among sweet potato producing farmers.
The necessity of application of hybrid specific crop production technology has been confirmed not only by trial results but also by the experiences gained from the agricultural practice. For this reason it is essential to test and collect data in field trials about the specific agronomic traits of the corn hybrids belonging to different maturit...y groups and genotypes. Corn hybrids are tested for their responses to sowing time, plant density and fertilizer supply; sensitivity to herbicides; and lately, the resistance to the damages caused by the larvae of corn root worm. Last but not least, mention should be made of the differences in the responses of the corn hybrids to the damages caused by drought stress. Based on the trial results, suggestions for the hybrid specific corn production are compiled and made public for the experts and farmers engaged in corn growing. Corn hybrids may deliver maximum yields on the impact of specific crop production technology only in case if it relies on carefully done general production technology including soil cultivation, seed bed preparation and weed control. Similarly, precision crop production technology may advance the yield increase in economic way if it is constantly drawing on the source of research results.
We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant prot...ection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.
In this study male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used to determine the possible effects of our Hungarian tart cherry extract in a chronic obesity mouse model on antioxidant capacity.
The control group received standard mouse chow, the high fat control group was switched to high fat diet and tap water supplemented with 5% sucrose. The high fat...+anthocyanin group received the high fat and sucrose diet, but dissolved in the drinking water they received anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract. After six weeks, the antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were measured. Antioxidant capacity was decreased with a significant elevation of SOD activity. The tart cherry extract made a significant enhancement in antioxidant capacity and SOD activity. Our results show that chronic anthocyanin intake has a potential to enhance redox status associated with obesity.
Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.
The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yi...eld and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NO3¯N were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).
Organic farming has done in line with conventional farming in the Karcag Research Institute of DU CASE since 2001. Our organic farming activities were enhanced with sheep farming and
grassland management in 2005. We started our study of technology development of organic lamb fattening and the treatment of its economic effect this year. Our g
the elements of the technology to reach a more efficient organic lamb fattening. We also studied what economic advantages the organic sheep farming could realize in the present economic environment. Our studies were carried out between 2005 and 2007. We established that the excellent ewe feeding (good quality of fodder and silage) can decrease the lamb feeding cost between the 2nd and 8th weeks of the lambs’ life. We established that the
yield of convention lambs are significantly higher than the yield of organic lambs. The cost of organic lamb fodder is significantly lower than the cost a convention lamb fodder, but the profit was higher in the case of convention lamb fattening. The organic lamb fattening technology (without extra price) is not competitive to the conventional lamb fattening technology. We think that the profitability of organic lamb fattening is significantly less than of the convention one. The organic lamb price should be 20-30% higher than the other price to be competitive. Unfortunatly there is only a little demand for organic lamb and there is no difference between the prices of organic and convention lambs, so organic sheep farmers have worse economic circumstances than conventional sheep farmers.
Almost simultaneously with the developments in information technology over the past fifteen to twenty years, literacy has gained new dimensions. To be considered literate in our age demands functional, academic, critical and technological skills. Because language and technology are inseparable in this context, technology as a means for developi...ng literacy skills must be an integral part of the language class.
This paper examines some of the ways electronic tools can be of use in developing student language literacy competences, with a special emphasis on the benefits learners of English for Specific Purposes can reap.
This paper presents the basic elements of maize production technology in Serbia. For their good knowledge, it is necessary to be familiar with the basic biological requirements of the species, phenology and its particular requirements for water, heat, soil conditions and mineral nutrition. A special emphasis in this paper is given to recent res...earch by the author regarding the correction of production technology (selection of hybrids, time and density of sowing, etc.) from the aspect of knowing the weather conditions of the year to the moment of sowing and the amount and position of available nitrogen in the soil profile during the spring before sowing. In the light of predicted climate change conditions for the Republic of Serbia, the authors of this paper have proposed and appropriated adaptation measures. The general conclusion is that there are no general recipes for the correct production technology of this plant species, but should be adapted to each specific year, field and hybrid.
The applied technology is an alternative approach to pigkeeping-systems. An outdoor pig production breeding sows are kept at pasture either year-round or in a certain period of the year. The important equipments of outdoor pig production are farrowing or grouping sows inhuts, which protect pigs against the effects of extreme weather, and electr...ic fences, which surround and divide the pasture. Concentrate feed can be fed from the ground or from feeders which are made of steel or timber. One of main advantages of this pig keeping system is the total mobilizable keeping technology.
Within the scope of the study we are performing an experiment to make a comparison between coventional system and free range sows keeping technology. Pannonhybrid F1 gilts were used in this experiment, 28 gilts were kept on pasture all day and 28 gilts are kept in conventional, indoor system.
In this work the results of gilts-rearing are presentated as a part of our two-years experiment.
In the last two decades, the prevailing ecological conditions and climate change have caused negative effects. Therefore, a paradigm shift is needed in the field growing of plants. The latest inventions, digital technologies, precision cultivation are not enough, the mentality of the farmers is more important. For this reason, not only big fina...ncial sacrifices, but adequate receptivity are needed on behalf of farmers. Adequate skills and continuous self-education are necessary. The yield of plant growing farms is determined by ecological conditions to a 40% extent, genetic background of the seed has a 30% share and the applied agricultural technology has a proportion of 30%. In different agroecological conditions, bred varieties of plants have bigger tolerance to unfavorable factors of the regions and significant yield stability. Farmers, who buy and sow seeds, can only contribute to the genetic potential of the seeds with cultivation technology. Plant breeding provides stable genetic background and good quality seeds. Breeding activity – choosing variety proposants, breeding them, selection work, classical breeding process for 8-10 years – must create new landraces, which can produce balance, high yield and have good quality parameters in extreme ecological conditions, yearly excursion and have higher tolerance to unfavorable factors of the region giving significant production stability for farmers. In Karcag GIS technology, precision cultivation elements and soil-friendly agrotechnical methods have been introduced which largely support the aims of breeding and can also provide optimal cultivation conditions in extreme years. Because of the specificity of breeding the main aim is not only to increase yield but to provide harmonic growing for bred materials, to decrease the number and the cost of cultivation and to be punctual. In this study, applied new methods and technologies are introduced.
The impact of the climatic factors of crop year on the relative chlorophyll content of maize was examined for three years. The examinations were carried out on the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot, non-irrigated long-term field experiment with strip plot design. In addition to... a non-fertilised (control) treatment, nitrogen (N) fertiliser doses were applied as base and top dressing. The 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 base dressing doses were followed by two top dressing doses at the V6 and V12 phenophases.
Averaged over the different fertiliser treatments, SPAD readings increased in all three years as the growing season progressed. The highes SPAD value increase was observed in the average crop year (2017) at the V12 phenophase (11.8), which further increased at the R1 phenophas, by 3,7. No significant Spad value difference was observed between the average (2017) and the dry year (2018) at the V6 growth phase. However, in the wet crop year (2016), the V690 treatment provided the statistically highest relative chlorophyll content (46.8). At the V12 phenophase, the base dressing dose of 120 kg N ha-1+30 kg N ha-1 (V6150) showed to be successful in two years (2016 and 2018), while in 2017, the base dressing dose of A60 was successful. The impact of crop year on relative chlorophyll content can be clearly shown at the R1 growth stage. In all three years, the significantly highest relative chlorophyll content could be achieved at different nutrient levels: A60 in 2016, V6150 in 2017 and V690.
In a wet year (2016), higher yield could be achieved as a result of the 60 kg N ha-1 base dressing and 30 kg N ha-1 at the V6 growth stage (V690) as top dressing in comparison with 2017 and 2018, when higher fertiliser dose (120 kg N ha-1 base dressing and 30 kg N ha-1top dressing at the V6 growth stage) was needed to achieve a significant yield surplus.
Altogether, averaged over the different treatments, the highest yield (12.48 t ha-1) was observed in the wet year, when the relative chlorophyll content was also the highest (50.6).
We studied the effects of crop rotation, fertilization and crop protection technologies on occurence of the major ear- and leaf-diseases (powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis, leaf rust, Fusarium wilt) and the degree of lodging in the winter wheat variety Mv Pálma in two very different years (2006/2007=dry; 2009/2010=rainy). The experiments were... carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen CAAES in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at five fertilization levels by applying three different crop protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive).
In the cropyear of 2006/2007, the disease severity of leaf diseases was higher than the average in both crop rotations in spite of the fact that the weather during the whole vegetation period was dry. Infection by powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis and leaf rust increased with increasing fertilization, the highest infection was measured at the highest fertilization level (N200+PK) in the extensive crop protection technology. According to the results, no infection of ears by Fusarium and no lodging occurred in either bi- or triculture due to the dry year. The extremely rainy weather in 2009/2010 was favourable not only for the vegetative development of the stand, but also increased the occurance of leaf-, stalk- and ear-diseases and a high degree of lodging was observed. The highest infection by powdery mildew was observed in the plots with the highest fertilizer dosage under an extensive crop protection technology. A much higher helminthosporiosis infection was measured than in the cropyear of 2006/2007. The wet weather and higher than average temperature promoted the occurence and spreading of leaf rust. Under an extensive crop protection technology, a leaf rust infection of 24% and 31% was detected after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively, in the N200+PK treatment. As opposed to 2006/2007, the disease severity of Fusarium was 3–8% and 2–7% in the control after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively. This value, similarly to that of other pathogens, increased with increasing fertilization levels. Due to the large vegetative mass, a significant lodging was observed in the wheat stands in both bi- and triculture (17–100%, 12–100%).
This research was carried out in 2018, at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in a moderately warm and dry production area, on deep humus layered medium-hard calcareous chernozem soil. In the scope of the research, the chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined under field circumstances by means of loc...al sensory measurements and we were looking for correlation between the obtained values and the amount of yield. Our measurements were carried out with Minolta SPAD-502 and GreenSeeker devices at 3 measurement times (4 leaf stage, 10 leaf stage and silking). It was found that phenological phases had an effect on the obtained SPAD and NDVI values and were in a slightly significant correlation with the yield. The most significant correlation was found between the results obtained during silking and the amount of yield. This may be because the least time has passed between the measurement time and harvest. Results obtained during the 10-leaf stage show excessive values in each case, which can be due to a measurement error. It was found that the phenological phase had an effect on the correlation of SPAD and NDVI values and the amount of yield. As the phenological phase progressed, the correlation between the measured results and yield has increased.
The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farmi
Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.
In the growing season of 2019, we analysed stress resulting from climatic factors on maize hybrids of different genotypes, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the physiological responses of each hybrid, which might support the elaboration of a cost-effective irrigation plan.
Our experiments were carried out at... the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot long-term field trial with strip plot design. In the scope of the experiment, N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top-dressing in addition to the non-fertilized (control) treatment. The 60 and 120 kg N/ha doses applied as basic fertilizers in the spring were followed by top-dressing in the V6 phenophase with a +30 kg N/ha dose. Measurements were carried out with the involvement of the Renfor early (FAO 320) and Fornad (FAO 420) late maturity hybrids-
The stomata of the plants became more and more closed with the progression of the phenological phases; their stomatal conductance decreased. However, the hybrids responded differently to environmental stress. In the case of the Renfor hybrid, the highest conductance (669 mmol/m2-s) was recorded in the V12 phenophase with the 150 kg N/ha treatment. The stomata were more open due to the high turgor pressure, allowing plants to evaporate properly. The plant was in its worst physiological condition on 2nd July, at the time of the appearance of the last leaf in the case of the 120 kg N dose (224 mmol/m2-s). The value measured in the V12 phenophase has already shown that the stomata were closing due to the self-regulating system of the plant. It would have been necessary to dispense irrigation water following the measurement. This confirms the finding that water stress can be prevented by measuring stomatal conductance.
In the case of the Fornad hybrid, stomatal conductance was the highest on 12th June (630 mmol/m2-s) in the 90 kg N/ha treatment and it was the lowest (183 mmol/m2-s) in VT (emergence of the last leaf) phenophase in the 60 kg N/ha treatment. In this case, the appropriate time for applying irrigation water would have been early July, when the conditions for the plants were still adequate. Subsequently, the stomata began to close due to a reduction of the water resources available to them.
There was a significant correlation between soil moisture and stomatal conductance, as well as between temperature and stomatal conductance.