We analysed the GMO content of corn samples by polymerase chain reaction following the appropriate optimization of the reaction. The analysis included two main steps: extraction of DNA from the sample, and detection of the GMO content by polymerase chain reaction. The polymerase chain reaction is an in vitro method to multiply chromosomatic or...cloned DNA (cDNA) sequences through the enzymatic pathway. The reaction is sensitive enough to produce DNA in sufficient amount for the analysis from a single DNA. We identified the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis. When optimizing the reaction, the MgCl2 concentration, reaction time and temperature have to be taken into consideration. The temperature of the anellation has to be increased until the highest specificity and yield is reached. If the temperature of the anellation is too high, the primer is linked to non-specific sites as well; in the gel visualization, more lines can be seen at one sample. If the temperature of the anellation is too high, the primer is insufficiently linked or is not linked at all (too few lines in the gel visualization). After optimization, the GMO content in the unknown sample can be determined along with the appropriate positive and negative controls.
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an essential tool for understanding animal cell’s response to developmental progression or to different experimental conditions at gene expression level. However the reliability of this method heavily lies on proper normalization (measuring a target and a reference gene’s expression... from the same sample to correct for technical related variations).
Our literature review aimed to summarize the articles addressing the most important livestock species in regards of reference gene stability used as normalizers for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments. Stably expressing reference genes were categorized into 14 distinct groups according to gene function. The number of reference genes tested and the publication numbers according to years and the ranking algorithms were also noted.
Counting showed that genes encoding ribosomal protein components are ranked as most stable in majority of cases and therefore should be taking into account for qPCR stable normalizer gene finding experiments.
In our study the nutrition reaction of four varieties of winter wheat (KG Bendegúz, KG Kunhalom, KG Kunkapitány, KG Széphalom) has been investigated. In the experiment the effect of twenty different nutrition doses on the yield and thousand kernel weight of the wheat varieties has been studied. Significant difference could be figured out amo...ng the yield and thousand kernel weight of the wheat varieties, so the choice of the proper variety determines the quantity of yield. KG Kunkapitány had the highest yield, while KG Széphalom had the highest thousand kernel weight in the experiments.
Investigating the effect of the nutrients on the yield the conclusion was that all nitrogen doses had significant yield increasing effect compared to the untreated plots, but among the 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 doses there was no statistical difference. In the case of phosphorus the 40 kg ha-1 dose showed statistically verifiable increase of the yield, while potassium doses have no influence on the yields. The thousand kernel weights reached the maximum values where the highest nutrient doses were applied.
We tested the fertilizer reaction of four different winter wheat varieties in three different crop years, on chernozem soil, in long-term experiment. We examined the optimum fertilizer requirements and the maximum yield of the varieties. According to our results there were significant differences among the years: the yield of the winter wheat v...arieties changed between 1.4–6.1 t ha-1 in 2013, 3.8–8.6 t ha-1 in 2014 and 3.2–8.6 t ha-1 in 2015. The yield increasing effect of fertilization was significantly different in the tested years. The optimum level of fertilization was determined by, besides the genetic differences among the varieties, the crop year and the extent of fertilization. In milder winter months, due to the higher average temperatures, yields of winter wheat increased compared to an average crop year.
The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the following factors of the hybrid P9494, P9578, PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013.Yield, yield production per 1 kg fertilizer, water utilization and nutrient reaction. We found that the best yield results were achieve...d at level N120+PK in case of hybrid P9494 (17 132 kg ha-1) P9578 (16 838 kg ha-1) and PR37N01 (17 476 kg ha-1) and at level N150+PK for hybrid PR37M81 (16 754 kg ha-1). Results of yield per 1 kg NPK studies indicate that the most intense yield growth occurred at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. This means that yield production per 1 kg NPK was 39.2 kg kg-1 in the case of hybrid P9494, 54.2 kg kg-1 in the case of P9578, 17.6 kg kg-1 for PR37N01 and 44.2 kg kg-1 in the case of PR37M81. After comparing corn hybrids’ water utilization, our conclusion was that the control treatment achieved the worst results in the case of each hybrid (P9494: 20.8 kg mm-1, P9578: 21.0 kg mm-1, PR37N01: 26.2 kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5 kg mm-1). For hybrid P9494, P9578 and P37N01, the best water utilization results were measured at level N120+PK (31.5 kg mm-1, 31,0 kg mm-1 and 32.1 kg mm-1), while PR37M81 reached the highest values at level N150+PK (30.8 kg mm-1). We determined the hybrids’ nutrient reaction and its optimum fertilizer values. The best nutrient reaction results were achieved by hybrid PR37N01, while that of hybrid PR37M81 proved to be the weakest.
The world production area and the total production of sunflower has significantly been growing. The harvested yield was 23.4 and 21.1 million ha in 2005 and 2001, respectively. The total sunflower seed production has also unexpectedly increased.
Although sunflower is produced on lower quality soils in Hungary, in 2005 the average harvested y
Sunflower is a typical commercial plant and fits well in the crop structure. Since in terms of acreage the most significant crops are corn and cereals, the partial monoculture cultivation cannot be avoided. Sunflower production is a way to eliminate this problem, therefore it has an important role both in cultivation and ecological points of view.
Accordingly, sunflower has an important role in reducing the monoculture cultivation of some plants, as well as increasing biodiversity. Sunflower well adapts to Hungary’s climatic conditions and its production is easily practicable in our country.
The reaction of sunflower hybrids on crop density change is different. Some hybrids are more some are less sensitive to this parameter. In different crop years, the crop density optimums of the different genotypes are also different. In Hungary, the yield and quality is primarily determined by fungal infections, while viruses and bacteria are less important.
The research was conducted at the Látókép farm and Regional Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. The research institute is situated by Road 33,15 km from Debrecen in the Hajdúság. The duration of the experiment was seven years, 10 hybrids were examined in each year.
Two hybrids used every year, Aréna/PR and Alexandra/PR hybrids were tested by Kang’s stability analysis. We found that Alexandra/PR was most balanced at every levels of crop density. Both hybrids performed most stable yield at 65000 ha-1 crop density level and less balanced at 35000 ha-1 crop density level. As a result of improved environmental conditions, the yield increase of Aréna/PR was higher than that of Alexandra/PR.
Our regression analysis found that the maximum yield of Lympil, Louidor, Hysun 321, PR63A82 and PR64A63 hybrids were harvested at 47000-60000 plant ha-1 crop density level. The statistical analysis showed that the highest yield was harvested from Lympil and Hysun 321. As regards the crop yield, the most stable hybrids were Louidor and Lympil. The optimum crop density interval of Rigasol/PR and Larisol (58000 plant ha-1) was wider than that of Diabolo (46000 plant ha-1). The maximum yield of Larisol was higher at the optimal crop density level. As regards yield, Diabol was the most stable hybrid.
The statistical analysis on the stability of the yield of Alexandra/PR and Aréna/PR showed that Aréna/PR is more stable, and its optimal crop density level is lower than that of Alexandra/PR.
Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with a bright red colour have aroused worldwide attention due to their unique properties in selenium supplementation because of their low toxicity and favourable bioavailability. A simple method was developed for making a red selenium nanolayer on the inner surface of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and silicone tube.... The selenium nanoparticles were produced by the reaction of sodium selenite and ascorbic acid. Red amorphous selenium nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the reaction of 500 mg dm-3 Se (sodium selenite) solution with 10 g dm-3 ascorbic acid solution at room temperature, and morphology was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The coating density was compared on PVC and silicone surfaces by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. The nanolayer with about 16 µm thickness on the silicone surface significantly evenly distributed compared to the PVC surface. The selenium coated silicone tube could be a good source of selenium for a continuous, low-level selenium supplementation of farm animals via drinking water.
The effect of increasing fertilizer dosages on the yield of eight different maize hybrids (SY Ondina, NK Kansas, NK Lucius, NK Octet, NK Thermo, SY Flovita, SY Brillio, NX 47279) has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011. According to our results it can be stated that contrarily to the control treatment the application of different nutrien...t-levels has resulted a significant yield increment (2 000–5 800 kg ha-1).
Based upon the results of this experiment we have drawn the conclusion that the nutrient level of 120 kg N+PK was the optimal for the investigated hybrids. The highest yield (14 475 kg ha-1–15 963 kg ha-1) of the hybrids with different genotypes has been produced in case of this fertilizer treatment. With the comparison of the control and the optimum-fertilizer treatments the yield-increasing effect of mineral fertilization and the different reaction of hybrids towards increasing fertilizer dosages have been proven. In case of the control treatments the best-yielding hybrids were NK Thermo (11 917 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (11 617 kg ha-1). Contrarily on the optimal nutrient supply level the hybrids SY Brillio (15 876 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (15 963 kg ha-1) have produced the highest yields. Summarizing, we can state that the hybrid NX 47279 has resulted stable and high yields in the fertilized treatments. Analysing the yield-increasing effect of 1 kg fertilizer active substance it was proven, that the hybrids SY Flovita (45.43 kg ha-1), SY Brillio (44.47 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (42.33 kg ha-1) had a good reaction towards even lower nutrient supply levels as well. In case of the control treatment the average water utilization coefficient of the hybrids was significantly lower (35.2 kg mm-1), than in case of the optimal nutrient supply level (N120+PK) treatments (48.9 kg mm-1).
Therefore the hybrid specific difference between the water utilization of genotypes could be revealed.
Several factors influence the quantity and stability of maize yield, the most important being the nutrient supply, the hybrid and precipitation. In 2004, during the maize growing season the precipitation was more than the 30 year’s average, with 68.3 mm, but the distribution was unfavorable. The experiment was carried out in Debrecen at the E...xperimental Station of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology. We tested 10 various hybrids with their own genetic characteristics for five different fertilizer doses, in addition to the parcels without fertilization.
The favorable results reached were due to the rainy season. The average yield varied between 7.78-9.67 tha-1. The DK 440, PR37M34, PR38A24, PR39D81 and PR36R10 of the hybrids reacted to higher fertilizer doses with significant growth yields, the yield (more than 11 tha-1) was the highest for N200, P125, K150 fertilizing. The other hybrids, DKC 5211, Mv Vilma and MV Maraton, gave similar results at the N120+PK fertilizer dose and the ensuing doses depressed the yield. Fertilization was more effective thanks to the precipitation. The fourth and fifth dose increased or decreased maize yield depending on the nutrient reaction of the hybrid. The agro-ecological optimum of NPK fertilization was N120, P75, K90 kgha-1.
During the experiment we tested the moisture loss of five hybrids. The rainy crop year’s effect on the seed moisture content at harvest was higher than in previous years. The seed moisture content hybrids at harvest which have shorter crop years (FAO 300) was 18-19%, and hybrids with longer vegetation periods had more than 20% seed moisture content. DK 440 hybrid had the intensive moisture loss of the five hybrids, at the start of the measurement, the seed moisture content was higher than 40%, and it decreased to 18.6% by harvesting.
The aim of this study was to identify and biologically analyse some Monilinia species from Hungary. 146 M. fructigena and 28 M. laxa species out 174 infectious fruit from all over the country were used for the study. For further study 10 isolates were used and apple fruit was inoculated with them according to Koch postulate. 1–2 mm ochre exog...en stromas were observbed on infectious plant parts and growing signs on culture of all isolates were identical to M. fructigena. To affirm classical identification, isolates with molecular biological method were also prepared using PCR reaction. Control isolates of M. laxa, M. fructigena and M. fructicola were used. The size of PCR product showed that all isolates had a 415 bp band which was typical of M. fructigena. Results support the previous observation that M. fructigena and M. laxa species occure all over Hungary.
Four different carp varieties were tested for stress reaction, with the help of 10 °C cooling and 100 g/l crowding. The selected varieties represented a broad genetic spectrum of carp species. The stress was monitored by measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and lysozim levels. In each test different varieties showed significantly different react...ion to stress. This means that they differ in the trait of general resistance. Thus, this trait can be used in selection programmes and the acquired information helps to understand fish-environment interaction and specific resistance. These traits should be used in selection to improve the breeding of new more tolerant species for intensive farming or for organic production.
Our field researches took place on the Látókép test farm of Agricultural Science Centre of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, in long-term experiment, on calcareous chernozem soil, in growing season of 2014/2015. In our experiment we examined the fertilizer reaction and the yield of different winte...r wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, GK Csillag, Mv Csárdás, Mv Toldi) with grain maize and sweetcorn forecrops. According to our results, the sweetcorn forecrop strongly affected the yield. In the average of the fertilizer treatments and the varieties, after sweetcorn forecrop 6.9 t ha-1, after grain maize forecrop 5.4 t ha-1 average yield was gained. According to our data, the fertilizer reactions of the varieties were significantly different.
During our work, we developed a new, simple method to show the effects of fertilization on yield, which can both be applied over the long term as well as in series of independent experiments.
During the testing of this method, at the experimental farm of the Debrecen University Center for Agricultural Sciences at Látókép on a chernozem so
Four parameters are shown in the model. In the examined period TRmax represents the greatest yield in the fertilized treatments, NT the yield in unfertilized treatment, k the „efficiency of fertilizer” to NT and b the depression-coefficient, where the expected value is zero. The expected grain yield of the fertilized treatments (Y), in the function of the unfertilized grain yield (x) is the following:
The parameters were determined using the Monte Carlo method, in the optimizing process the sum of deviation square was minimized. The correct conformation of the functions was determined by the greatness of the R-value and the standard error. We found that during six years of testing, the tendency of fertilization efficiency was similar in the case of both hybrids. There was an unfavorable weather interval and, in these years, the yields were low, fertilization did not have an effect and moreover, in extremely bad conditions resulted in an obvious yield decrease. With the improvement of conditions, which in the case of our country means an increase in precipitation, the efficiency of fertilization increases and reaches its peak at 13-14 t/ha. At this point, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is 4-4,5 t/ha. If the yield of the unfertilized treatments increases from 8-9 t/ha, then the efficiency of the applied fertilizer decreases.
Most likely, the k and b parameters depend on the soil of the experimental location (nutrient and water management) and on the amount of pplied fertilizer and the characteristics of the hybrid. With the increase of fertilizer dosage the k-parameter also increases. The greater value though does not obviously mean a more favorable situation. It is true that in medium and good years this means great fertilizer efficiency, but in low or extreme precipitation conditions it also means greater risk. With the increase of the k-parameter, the yield deviation also increases which, from a cultivation point of view, is quite unfavorable. If the value of the b-parameter is other than, zero then the effect is clearly unfavorable, because with the increase of this value, the yield decrease is also greater. The fertilizer reaction of the two examined hybrids can be well characterized by these two hybrids.
Examining the six years, our created model estimated the effect of fertilization on the yield accurately and with a high degree of safety. Both in highly unfavorable and extremely good years, it gave an exact estimate. In our opinion, it can be used well to evaluate the effects of fertilization on yield in the future.
managerial efficiency. The system of investigations is in accordance with the method elaborated and applied by the Department of Management Science of UD, CAS, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development (Berde, 2003). This method involves questionnaire interviews and corporate data collection. The first part of the questionnaire co...ntains data with respect to the company, while the second part focuses on the manager being interviewed. The third part is a closed, directed interview-based preference assessment. I aim to assess the sample at my disposal in order to test the research model.
In the course of the assessment of questionnaires, I apply descriptive statistical methods for the assessment of the personal and professional features of the managers interviewed and the characteristics of the companies. In the case of questions substantively concerning the time factor – resource, managerial function, reaction time, and impact assessments – I carry out hypothesis testing. I draw up a zero hypothesis, whose appropriateness I test by means of statistical methods. I usually apply rank correlation for the evaluation of the relationship between the variables measured on an ordinal scale in my investigations. This can be applied if not the exact values of the given variables, but only their order in one respect or another is known. If the group building criterion is two-variable Mann-Whimey, if a multi-variable Kruskal-Wallis trial can be applied, which, after the rank transformation, gives information about the acceptance or refusal of the Ho hypothesis through the average of the ranks. The model also contains the managers’ evaluation of the time factor in management work.
Mg-treatment increased solid soluble content in roots probably due to the larger assimilation area.
The applied foliage fertilization affected inner colour intensity and uniformity in roots positively.
The 2% Mg-sulphate solution affected pigment quantity favourably depending on varieties.
Close correlation (r=0,71) was found between t
The Mg-sulphate foliage fertilization improves quality considerably but the individual reaction of varieties needs further studies.
Foods are composed of numerous chemicals, each of them work individually or synergistically inside the living organism for a specific reaction supporting the life processes. To date, the efficacy of these chemicals in industrial processes has been explored to a limited extent. In fact, chemicals derived from food have great potential to be used... in multi-disciplinary sciences and in numerous applications. Synthetic chemicals might be replaced by the natural resources in the future which will also reduce the environmental impact of hazardous and toxic chemicals. The present article gathers a few examples of chemicals derived from food or related materials and shows how worthy they are in various fields, ranging from radiopharmaceuticals to alternative mining of precious metals. In a nutshell, the article puts forward a few simple ways through which research may adjoin the greener mandates and help in maintaining the sustainability of our environment.
Etiology of pepper fruit melanotic ringspot (FMRS) disease (Salamon, 2009) was studied on fruit samples collected in forced pepper populations. It was noticed that in spite of heavy thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) infestations and of TSWV epidemy detected in the forcing houses, FMRS occurred only in plants having healthy foliage. Symptomato...logical surveys strongly suggested that FMRS appeared exclusively in specific pepper genotypes. The size of melanotic ringspots has been observed to grow at room temperature during postripening of diseased fruits. A mechanically transmitted plant virus was isolated from symptomatic parts of 9 white pepper fruits affected by FMRS. On test plants each of the virus isolates caused systemic symptoms characteristic to TSWV. Using cDNA/PCR technique and TSWV N-gene specific primers a ca. 300 bp long DNA fragment has been amplified from total nucleic acid extracted from symptomatic tissues but never from asymptomatic parts of the fruits showing FMRS. Plant progenies grown from seeds of FMRS diseased fruits segregated in respect of resistance and/or susceptibility to TSWV infection. TSWV was also detected in and isolated from three fruits showed non-melanotic yellow rings (one of them was infected with a tobamovirus, too). Seedlings derived from these fruits proved to be susceptible to TSWV. Based on the above results we could conclude that the FMRS disease developed on fruits of “cecei” type white peppers that carry a TSWV resistance gene, most likely the Tsw gene in heterozygous form. These fruits were infected with thrips transmitted TSWV and FRMS appeared as a hypersentive reaction (HR) manifested in fruits.
New varieties and fertilization have significantly increased yields of maize in recent decades. It has to be taken into account however that the interactions and the balanced combination of cropping factors (ecological, biological and agrotechnical) are the main factors which determine yields. Weather conditions were rather unfavourable during...the last decade. Extreme weather conditions occurred due to global warming; 6 of 10 years were plagued by drought. Consequently yields increased from 10-20% to 30-50%. In view of varieties the situation is advantageous, maybe the supply of hybrids is too high, nevertheless those hybrids need to be selected which are particularly well adjusted to the ecological conditions. Many technologies can be applied which vary according to intensity, but the balanced combination of cropping factors should be secured on the basis of the hybrid’s intensity. Among agrotechnical factors the compensation of nutrients and technological conditions were inadequate. These days farmers only use nitrogenous fertilizers consequently they significantly decrease the easily available P and K content of the soil which in long term leads to the deterioration of the soil’s productivity. The technological background is therefore important, because sufficient yields can only be expected if agrotechnical operations are carried out in the right time and quality.
The disease syndrome caused by Waitea circinata, a soil-borne pathogen introduced in the past decade into Carpathian basin, visually indistinguishable of those caused by various Rhizoctonia strains in diverse host plant. Dicotyledonaceous species in general proved to be more tolerant to this new pathogen than monotyledonaceous ones. This mesoph...ilic fungus can seriously damage cereals. The barley varieties, similarly to other plants, exhibited highly different individual reaction to soil borne infection, Bivoy being the most while Maresi the less tolerant among the 9 tested varieties. Two groups could be separated on the base of their response to Rhizoctonia; Jubilant, Bivoy, Pasadena formed one group being moderately tolerant and Anabell, Scarlett, Rex and Omega the other group of more susceptibles. Three significant factors influence on the virulence of Rhizoctonia strains comprised 62% of total variation.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of natural compounds, such as β-glucan, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins in the diet on bacteria gropus of excreta in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Chickens were fed 5 diets: control (basal) diet, a diet supplemented by β-glucan at 0.05%, and diets supplemented by carotenoids, oli...gosaccharides, or anthocyanins at 0.5% of each compound. On experimental day 19, excreta were collected to determine the proportion of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Campylobacter, Clostridium, and Escherichia coli. Samples were collected aseptically and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Bacterial DNA was isolated from samples, then polymerase chain reaction using primer pairs designed to the 16S rDNA of bacterial groups were applied to define the proportion of the mentioned bacteria. Another universal primer pair was used to amplify a region of 16S rDNA of all the examined bacteria. Proportion of each bacterial groups was determined relatively to the intensity of universal PCR product band by gel documenting system and ImageLab software. Based on the results, carotenoids and anthocyanins increased the proportion of Bifidobacterium, which might imply the beneficial effects of the mentioned compounds on the bacteria composition of excreta.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The field research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC KIT research area of the University of Debrecen. The study focused on yield, water utilization, nutrient reaction and the amount of yield per kg fertilizer of corn hybrid NX 47279 in 2011 and 2012. Based on the yield results it can be concluded that the largest yield in 2011 was 15 963 kg ha-1 at level N120+PK, while in 2012, the maximum yield amounted to 14 972 kg ha-1 at level N90+PK. Surplus yield per kg fertilizer proved that in 2011 level N30+PK resulted in the highest surplus yield (42.3 kg kg-1) compared to the control treatment. In 2012, yield growth was 18.0 kg kg-1 compared to the control treatment. We measured at level N60+PK 17,5 kg kg-1 compared to at level N30+PK, at the N90+PK 17,7 kg kg-1 compared to at level N60+PK. level N30+PK kg kg-1, 17.5 kg kg-1 at level N60+PK and 17.7 kg kg-1 at level N90+PK compared to the control treatment.
The aim of our two year study is to research the effect of nutrient supply on apple fruit quality, and to explore the relationships between selected fruit quality parameters.
Observations were made in Kálmánháza (in the eastern part of Hungary), on a commercial apple orchard. In this experiment, we studied the nutrient supply reaction of
The research results showed that N fertilization has a great effect on fruit quality. This is shown in the cases of increase of fruit size (fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight). The increase is proportional with the N doses, accordingly the highest positive difference was observed by using 100 kg/ha N doses. It is important to note that moderate N doses (75 kg/ha) plus P and K additions also had positive effects. There approached the values of 100 kg/ha N, and even exceeded its values in the cultivar Golden Reinders. The increased N doses enlarged the standard deviation, on the other hand, this parameter was low in the cases of balanced NPK fertilization. The nutrient supply increased the vegetative area (density of foliage) in addition to the generative parts, in particular only N fertilizer. However the denser foliage hindered the growth of fruit weight and colour-coverage, and also decreased the fruit quality and the flesh firmness of cultivars, which have a negative effect on storageability.
A linear correlation was demonstrated between the fruit weight and colour-coverage, or between fruit weight and flesh firmness. The character of their relationship was similar, but the direction differed: high fruit weight was with high colour-coverage, but with low flesh firmness.
The food allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction against naturally occurring proteins in food. These types of disease can cause not only personal inconvenience to the patient but serious health, food safety and food analysis, social-economic problems. The only effective treatment for these illnesses is a life-long diet avoiding the allergenic fo...ods or components of food. In the interest of the patients’ health 14 allergenic components must be labeled on the food packaging. To meet the requirement of regulation reliable and valid analytical methods are necessary which for the most allergenic foods are not available.
The first part of the paper treates possible ways of soil alkalisation and the differences due to the reaction of the medium, neutral or alkaline, respectively. Alkalisation may occur in any soil, independently of the type, or even in soil-like formations, if conditions are favorable. Alkali soils are so-called hydrogenetic formations, develope...d in part through water effects. Under conditions prevailing in Hungary two kinds of salt migration processes, opposite to one another, are observable, i.e.:
1. Leaching downward, causing decrease in the base content of the upper layers,
2. Capillary rise of salts, causing increases in base content of the upper layers.
Accumulation of soluble salts usually takes place in the transition zone where these two processes get into contact with each other (Fig. 1).
* A közlemény első ízben a Bukaresti Nemzetközi Talajtani Konferencián (1958. IX. 26-án) német nyelven: „Die genetische Klassifizierung der ungarischen Szikböden” címen hangzott el.
As precipitation amounts in the Hungarian lowlands from 500 to 550 mm and causes leaching, true saline soils do not occur, except on some spots.
Between the two extreme types – completely leached, and salinized where leaching is completely absent, respectively – there exists a long range of soils alkalised or salinized to various degrees. Thus the various types of alkali soils display an interdependence with one another as shown in Fig. 2.
This interrelations may perform a base for the genetical classification of alkali soils of various properties and peculiarities. Summarising the facts stated above the paper offers a roughly, elaborated scheme for the classification of Hungarian alkali and saline soils, shown in a comprehensive table, the particulars of which are dicussed in the text. Thus the foundation is laid down for a detailed classification of alkali soils that later may become incorporated into an internationally approved system of alkali soils. The so-called practical classes of alkali soils – determined according to methods of reclamation – may be inserted into the delineated genetical system.