Lifetime sow performance is a critical indicator for producers managing a commercial sow herd. It is comprised of sow longevity, lifetime piglets born alive, lifetime number of pigs weaned and lifetime non-productive sow days. Increased lifetime performance and longevity in sows reduces costs of replacement gilts and improves herd performance a...nd profitability (Sasaki et al., 2008, 2011). One of the most critical factors driving the performance of sow herds is gilt management. Decisions regarding gilts have profound effects on sows’ lifetime performance. Age at first breeding of a gilt is a management decision that has been shown to affect performance and retention of the gilt in a herd.
The main aim of this review is to establish factors affecting age of first breeding of gilts and its impact on lifetime performance.
I introduce the performance management from the area of human resource management that I examined at organizations operating in market environment and in the public sphere as well. The reason of my choice of subject is that the performance management got into the centre of interest also in Hungary lately.
The scale of values connecting tradi
Performance management is one centre field of modern human resource managing, as the basis of the successful functioning of any company is the possibly most effective operation of its resources. Performance management is a possibility for the company and for the employer to overview the realization of the determined aims and the factors that block or promote accomplishments. Considering the results, the employee and the manager could determine subsequent realistic and accessible aims for the following period. Achievement management is extremely
important in those positions where achievement could not be measured accurately.
I carried out my surveys according to performance management by observation and data acquisition. I applied questionnaire survey to collect data, or rather made deep interviews; I talked personally with more employees as well.
The questionnaire consisted of one data format and performance management questionnaire. I processed the gathered data by computer and visualized graphically. I also did examinations by using statistic methods, by which I was able to get to know the certain organizations deeper and thus it was possible for me to reveal more connections.
The utilisation of the horse has changed from time to time in response to human needs. For a few decades, it has been serving in several equestrian sports more intensively. It has also been proved that the standards for this kind of performance cannot be established in the way certain characteristics, such as the weight gain or milk production...of other animal breeds can. Breeding horses for sporting comprises highly complex selection criteria.
Some of these (e.g. external features, temperament, manageability and intelligence) do not put the breeder in a difficult position, but finding the traits that establishes the safety of sporting achievements poses a genetic problem.
The performance of a horse for sports is a highly complex feature, which cannot easily be assessed or put down in figures. In addition, man plays a decisive role in shaping all kinds of performance of a horse at any given time by not only creating conditions for a better performance, but also by playing an active role in increasing it.
The performance of the horse is mostly defined by its general aptitude to movement, ie., the regularity, clear rhythm and springiness of basic types of strides, as well as the ability to move in a naturally balanced way. Training and riding principles are based on these traits. These two together will determine about 70% of the value of the horse and its adequacy for high performance equestrian sports. In order to avoid subjectivity in determining the above variables and to increase the degree of objectivity, competent expert teams (trainers, judges, other riders) are employed to form an opinion on an individual animal.
Assessing horse performance outside races does not seem to be efficient, as owing to the dominant effects of the environment, the indicator of inheritability is hardly above 0.1.
Free jumping is an especially appropriate means for assessing a horse’s readiness and ability to move in an environment free of disturbing factors. In free jumping, it is especially important to judge the style of the jump. The first phase of jumping – as a sequence of movements – lasts from the moment the fore-feet touch the ground until the moment the hind-feet push off, while the second phase lasts from this moment until touching the ground. The most important task in the first phase is to make the angle of the dip of the body by the supporting fore-feet that is necessary for the jump. The quality of the jump is determined by the jumping and adequately expanded hind-legs. The intensity of pushing off and jumping done by the hind-legs can be inferred, and differences between individuals can be discerned from the shaping of the curve by the hocks and the paths of the pasterns in relation to the withers.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hungarian Sporthorse population based on eventing competition performance. The database contained the results of 792 horses and 449 riders between 2000 and 2006. The eventing results were gathered from Hungary and other European countries. Blom transformed ranks were used to evaluate the sport performanc...e.Three models were fitted to the Blom scores. Evaluating all the competition categories at the same time weighted Blom scores were used according to the difficulty of the category. The linear mixed model included fixed effects for age, sex, breeder, owner, location, year; and random effects for animal and rider. Horses from the database were judged by their own performance, and stallions were investigated by performance of their progenies on the basis of descriptive statistics of Blom scores and weighted Blom scores. Breeding values of eventing performance were predicted. To improve the reliability of breeding values, more progenies should be
used in eventing competitions.
The aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for show-jumping competition performance using random regression model. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2009 were analyzed. The database contained 272 951 starts of 8020 horses. Identity number and gender of the horse, rider, competition date, the level of the c...ompetition and placing were recorded in the database. Competition levels were categorized into five groups. Weighted – competition level used – square root transformed placing was used to measure performance of horses. The random regression model included fixed effects for gender, year and place of competition, and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment.
Later performance of show-jumping horses measured with weighted square root ranks is less influenced by rider and permanent environmental effects than performance at the beginning of a horse’s sporting career. Heritability increased continuously from 6.3 years of age (2296 age in days), values were in the range of 0.07 and 0.37. Higher heritability was found in later ages. Weak genetic and phenotypic correlation was found between the early 4–5–6 years of age and older (7, 8, 8+) age classes. From 8.5 years of age (3132 days old) there were strong genetic and phenotypic correlations between neighboring age groups. For the same age classes moderate and strong genetic and phenotypic correlation was found. Genetic correlation between 13.5 years of age and older horses was very strong.
In Germany, the new integrated breeding value estimation is based on a multiple-trait animal model, considering simultaneously information from performance test of stallion on station, performance test of mares as well as competition results of sport horses. The objective of this study was to estimated the genetic parameters of the traits used...in the integrated breeding evaluation including all German warmblood breeds. The analysed data consisted of 4527, 40670 and six million records for performance tests of stallions, mares and for competition results, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multivariate BLUP animal model. Heritabilities for traits obtained from stallions tested on station ranged from 0.33 (jumping under rider) to 0.51 (trot) and for the traits from mare performance test from 0.27 (walk) to 0.38 (trot). Genetic correlations between corresponding traits recorded on performance test of stallions and mares ranged from 0.87 (canter) to 0.98 (free jumping). Heritabilities of competition traits from horses (build up for sport) were estimated as 0.12 and 0.11 for dressage and jumping, respectively. The use of all traits for estimation of genetic values of horses is expected to reduce pre-selection and optimal combines all information resources based on the estimated genetic parameters.
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of vitamin and mineral supplement under permanently high environmental temperature (30±1 °C) on the digestibility of nutrients, performance and furthermore the composition of duck meat in the growing period. A total of four hundred mixed sex 14 days old Cherry Valley type hybrid ducks were used...for the study. Two experimental diets were formulated in the study (control and vitamin E, C and zinc supplemented diet). Based on the results the following conclusions were drown: the antioxidant defence system plays an important role in the reduction of heat stress generated lipid peroxidation process. Feed additives which have direct or indirect antioxidant effects can reduce the negative effects of heat stress on the ducks performance and meat composition. Digestibility of nutrients (Dry Matter, Crude Protein, Crude Fat) was not affected by antioxidant supplementation under chronic heat stress (30±1 °C). The performance was affected significantly by Vitamin C and E and zinc supplementation under heat stress (P<0.05). In the treated group the daily weight gain (dWG) increased and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved significantly (P<0.05). The energy and protein conversion was decreased also significantly (P<0.05).
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">By the strengthening of the economic competition became it apparent a company can’t be valued separate, it should be examined as a complex system. In the assessment of corporate performance is increasingly emphasized the environmental performance. The relevant information of stakeholder about the environmental performance is todays an expection, For this, a management control system is needed, which provide relevant information to managers, hence facilitating the informed decision. This study highlighted, accounting systems are able to meet this demand sufficiently, the accounting means not only the usual bookkeeping, it can be interpreted as a management-controll system, which can help in the valuation of the environmental performance.
Heat No Service (HNS) is an increasing managerial decision made in commercial piglet producing herds. Performance of gilts has been shown to be influenced by initial decisions made on them at their introduction in the breeding herds. Lifetime Reproductive performance comprising of parity total born piglets and lifetime total born piglets of... gilts initially bred on first observed estrus (0HNS) was compared with that of gilts bred on second observed estrus (1HNS). Stored data from Porcitec database consisted of 2.072 gilts bred on first observed estrus (0HNS) and 2.453 gilts bred on second observed estrus (1HNS) totaling to 4.525 gilts. Data was statistically analyzed using the GLM procedure of IBM SPSS version 25. The results showed a significance difference (p<0.001) in lifetime total born performance of gilts bred at 0HNS (mean 93.9) and 1HNS (mean 95.7). There was also a significant difference (p<0.001) of total born piglets in parity 1, 5 and 6 in the 2 groups. There was an observed increased parity total born and lifetime total born when first time insemination of gilts was delayed to second estrus. The findings in this study favor the 1HNS breeding with an overall increased lifetime total born. Gilts inseminated at 1HNS produce 1.57 more pigs for lifetime as compared with those inseminated at 0HNS when observation is made up to P6. Producers in piglet producing herds could re examine their decisions for increased productivity by promoting many gilts into 1HNS but still maintaining the balance between breed targets and production schedules to remain competitive and profitable in the current global swine industry.
Fish meal and fish oil are very important components of fish feeds used by aquaculture. They contain poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which are essential nutrients both for fish and human nutrition. However, sources of fish meal and fish oil are limited, there is a need for new feed components to supply the increasing fish production and the incre...asing demand for fish feed. The aim of AQUAMAX project, supported by the European Union is to replace the fish meal and fish oil with vegetable oils. As a participant of this project, group of immunology in Research
Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI) examined the effect of three different fish feeds on the growth performance, innate immune response and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection of common carp in an in vivo experiment. Fish feed supplemented with Camelina oil, but still containing fish oil significantly increased growth performance of experimental fish and their resistance against the infection. Fish feed containing linseed oil only did not enhance the growth performance, and it had a negative effect on resistance against infection. Based on the experimental results it can be concluded that fish oil used in fish feeds cannot be replaced effectively with vegetable oils, but can be supplemented with them.
In the last 50 years, poultry meat production has increased dynamically. The role of crude fiber content in feed is unclear based on a small amount of literature about goose feeding.
The aim of theis experiment was to determine how various crude fiber content (55; 60; 65g crude fiber/kg feed) influences the performance of meat geese in...the second phase of the rearing period. 150 goslings (3 treatments, 5 cages/treatment, 10 birds/cage) were included in the test. The experiment started and finished at the age of 21st and 63rd day, respectively.
The obtained results suggest that various crude fiber content did not influence the performance of meat geese significantly; however, a feed of 55g crude fiber/kg resulted in better fattening results (final body weight, body weight gain, specific feed protein and energy conversion rate). In addition, compound feed of 65g crude fiber/kg proved more favourable with respect to cost-efficiency. Based on the obtained results so far, further models and farm experiments are required.
The aim of the experiment was to determine, how the different ratios of the digestibility lysine/ metabolized energy (0.82, 0.87, 0.91 g DLYS/MJ AMEn) of the feed influence the performance of geese. There were 150 goslings (3 treatments, 5 cages/treatments, 10 birds/cages). The experiment has started and finished at the age of 3 and 9 weeks, re...spectively.
The results of the experiment showed, the different ratios of DLYS/AMEn (0.82, 0.87, 0.91 g DLYS/MJ AMEn) did not influence the performance of young geese. Better growth performances were found for the 0.91 g DLYS/AMEn feed (feed intake, body weight gain, feed and energy conversion rate). This treatment coincided with high feeding costs. Based on these results we need more models and farm experiments to prove this tendency.
Knowledge of genetic diversity among available parental lines is fundamental for successful hybrid maize breeding. The aims of this study were to estimate (1) genetic similarity (GS) and genetic distance (GD) (based on Jaccard index) in four maize inbreed lines; (2) to classify the lines according to their GD and GS; (3) to determine hybrid per...formance based on GD and heterosis for yield ability in 4x4 full diallel system. We used morphological description and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphisms) for estimation genetic polymorphism in four maize inbred lines. We estimated the applicability of genetic similarity in SC and reciproc hybrids for prediction of their performance.
Three primer combinations were used to obtain AFLP markers, producing 207 bands, 70 of whit were polimorphic. The dendogram based on genetic similarities (GS) and genetic distance (GD) and morphological description separated four inbred lines into well-defined groups. Morphological description just with AFLP analysis showed reliable results. In view of genetic distance, the UDL 1 line and their linear and reciprocal crosses showed significant heterosis effect, which was confirmed by heterosis calculation based on grain yield.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">This paper focuses on the corporate environmental performance and its motivating factors. The background of the study is a questionnaire survey covers 82 Hungarian manufacturing companies. The identification of the environmental performance based on the study of György Pataki and László Radácsi who create a group of environmental indicators. The motivating factors are several stakeholders of the companies who have affect on an organization's environmental actions. These motivations can be divided into internal and external factors. According to the questionnaire survey the combination of internal and external factors seems to the most important to the better environmental performance.
Barramundi (Lates calcarifer L.) is a predatory fish species native in Southeast Asia and Australia. Based on the geothermal potentiality of Hungary the warm-water fish can be reared successfully. Zooplankton in the wild contains minerals in a higher concentration than the usually fed newly hatched Artemia nauplii, therefore essential trace ele...ments, such as cobalt, zinc and manganese play an important role in the larviculture of barramundi. Cobalt is vital in trace amount for many living functions of vertebrates, however, lower number of papers are available considering the nutritional aspects. Nevertheless. improved growth performance was observed in cases of some fish species when diet was supplemented with CoCl2. Zinc and manganese are also vital for optimal growth and accordingly are investigated and applied diet supplements in aquaculture.
The main aim of the recent study is to investigate the effects of cobalt, manganese and zinc on the growth performance and homogeneity of fish when a commercially available dry diet is supplemented with trace elements individually and in combined treatments. A total of 6 treatments were set in a randomized blocked design where the concentrations of the applied elements were 50 mg kg-1 for CoCl2, for ZnSO4 and for MnCl2 individually, as well as for CoCl2 along with ZnSO4 and for CoCl2 along with MnCl2 in combination. Although the production parameters of larval barramundi were positively affected by the addition of trace elements when the retention of minerals occurred through nourishment living organisms, statistically no differences were found between the treatments considering the growth performance of barramundi juveniles either when dry feed was supplemented with cobalt, manganese or zinc (p>0.05). While the use of cobalt and manganese in combined treatments produced a less uniform larvae in size and as a consequence of increased heterogeneity, survival was significantly reduced by the cannibalism, the sizes distribution of barramundi juveniles wasn’t affected by the dry diet supplementation of these elements.
In our examination, we evaluated Hungarian Merino (ram n=30, ewe n=30), Ile de France F1 (ram n=10, ewe n=10) and Suffolk F1 (ram n=10, ewe n=10) lambs. The best fattening performance was shown by the Ile de France F1 lambs (361 g/day). After the fattening period, Hungarian Merino, Ile de France F1 and Suffolk F...1 genotypes lambs were slaughtered with a live weight of 30-34 kg. Carcasses were evaluated for dressing percentage, weight of valuable carcass cuts, percentage of valuable meat, bone to meat ratio, as well as meat conformation and fat cover (S/EUROP grading).
The slaughter performance proved to be the best for the Suffolk F1 concerned dressing percentage (51,7%), percentage valuable carcass cuts (81,9%). The best percentage valuable meat presented (79,4%) the Ile de France F1 lambs. The best meat conformation and fat covered were in the Suffolk F1 lambs; Hungarian Merinos showed less favourable results.
Presently, the results derived from Hungarian practice that Hungarian Merino lambs are not eligible for fattening to great live body weight (30 kg). Therefore, it is necessary to revise the Hungarian Merino lambs with meat sheep breeds.
The purposes of the present study are to compare the temperament of calves of different breed and sex at weaning, to analyse the effect of temperament on weaning performance, and to
define the correlations between the previous traits. In the experiment carried out in Gelej in 2006 the behaviour of 61 Aubrac and 25 Charolais calves (39
assessed at weaning. The weight (WW) and the age of animals were detected, in addition temperament (TEMP) of them was scored. The weaning age (AU: 190±16.96 days, CH: 176±14.94
days; P<0.001) and the weaning weight adjusted to 205 days of age (CWW) (AU: 192.39±31.32 kg, CH: 213.80±23.99 kg; P<0.01) of the two breeds significantly differed of each other. The
temperament of calves was evaluated by scale test on a 5-point scale during weighing. The data were processed by SPSS 14.0 program package (Mann-Whitney U test, MANOVA, Tukey test,
Spearman rank correlation test). Significant difference was revealed between the two breeds in TEMP (AU: 2 scores and CH: 3 scores; P<0.001), furthermore also difference was proven
between the bull calves of Aubrac and Charolais in the behaviour (AU: 2 scores and CH: 3 scores, P<0.01). Analysing the effect of sex both for 86 calves and each breed, it was showed that the TEMP of the heifer and bull calves was equalled (P>0.10). Both of the WW and CWW were influenced by the behaviour of calves (P<0.05), which meant that the more excitable calves had higher WW and CWW. Positive, weak correlation coefficients were calculated among the TEMP, the WW and the CWW (rrank=0.28 and rrank=0.31; P<0.01). By their results it was concluded that in young age not only the performance but also the behaviour of calves are determined by the calf rearing ability of suckling cow.
The aim of this paper is to analyse phenotypic relationships between self performance test (SPT) parameters of Hungarian Sport Horse mares. Establishing these relationships may contribute to develop a breeding value estimation model. Data were given by the Association of Hungarian Sport Horse Breeders.
The analysis is based on the SPT result
Age at first breeding and lifetime reproductive performance was analyzed on 17,558 F1 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts from 9 piglet producing herds of Midwest, United States entered in herds between 1st Jan 2014 and 31st July 2016. At the time of data collection Dec 2018, 15% of the sows were still active in the herds hence exc...luded from the analysis. Individual gilt data included date of birth, age in days at first mating, piglet total born by parity, lifetime piglet total born and reason for culling. Quality data checks were done before analysis to eliminate all outlier values together with sows that had no entry information for any listed category. The total database of the sows was classified into 6 classes according to age at the first mating in days 170-190(n=754), 191-211(n=4683), 212-232(n=7123), 233-253(n=3385), 254-274(n=1002) and 275-369 (n=611). Piglet total born obtained from each sow during the lifetime production was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for gilts bred between 233-253 days of age at first mating. Gilts that were bred at <233 days appeared to have a higher risk of removal by farrowing productivity as compared to the other groups. However, the results show that the risk of being culled due to health problems and conformation issues increases as the age at first mating is delayed. Overall reproductive failure appears to be the most economical culling reason across all age groups. There is a need to evaluate the best management decisions for gilt initiation in a herd to maximize her lifetime performance. The results indicate that gilts mated for the first time at the right age, 233–253 days, are more productive, both in lifetime total born and have a minimal risk of culling due to farrowing productivity.
Intensive indoor pig ptductiv technologies have entirely prevailed over the outdoor keeping of pigs. In Western Europe, sowgreasing is managed on a farm-size scale.
In our experiment sows were grased during two grazing seasons, from April 28 to July 07, 2000, and from 14 September to December 10, 2000. The same number of indoor sows served a
The results of the blood test show that, as a result of grazing, the beta carotene level of the blood serum has increased threefold.
On spring pasture, the grasingsows gained 50 kg in weight as opposed to 30 kg in control animals. On the poor autumn pasture, the weight gained was only 30 kg, which was only 2 kg more in comparison with the performance of the control group.
In both groups, loss in weight following the farrowing interval between the two grazing cycles was almost the same, that is, 47 kg. Thus, sows in the grased group were not worn at the end of the suckling period.
The number of stillborn piglets in the grased groups of sows was three times smaller, and the piglets were 100 g heavier. Following the second grazing cycle, the litter of the experimental sows grew by 10%, there were fewer stillborn pigs, however, the average weight of the farrow was 140 g less.
Today there is an ever stronger requirement for companies to consider the environmental aspects of their operation. The incorporation of these aspects into the economic practise of agricultural firms in our country is still in its infancy and, moreover, it usually follows from outside coercion (legal regulation) rather than voluntary behaviour....
Consequently, in the Hungarian agrar-economics – contrary to the example of Western Europe – the application of environmental accounting in agriculture is a barely researched subject; this has been so even though the environmental policy of companies can be made more conscious by adding an environmental dimension to the organizational information systems.
The aim of our investigation is two-fold. The first goal is to form a method that quantifies the environmental load of companies, is capable of comparing environmental performance of companies with different sizes, and takes into account the specific attributes of agriculture as well. The second is to apply this method in practice, to prove that estimating the environmental load of companies is possible by processing already available data (fiscal, accounting and statistical) using new concepts.
In this publication we present the joint application of three methods – each belonging to the toolset of environmental accounting – for two companies dealing with both crop and animal farming in the Pannonian region. The three methods are partly built upon each other and partly complementary. The company-level environmental balance is capable to show the relations between a given firm and its surrounding, but realistic comparison between environmental performance of different companies or periods is only possible by using specific index quantities.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is a predatory fish species native in Southeast Asia and Australia. Based on the geothermal potentiality of Hungary the high market potential warm-water fish barramundi can be produced economically. Living nourishment organisms such as Artemia nauplii play an essential role in the larval rearing of barrramundi. However, zooplanktons in natural aquatic enviroments contain minerals in a higher concentration than the usually fed newly hatched Artemia. Therefore the goal of recent study was to investigate the effect of cobaltchloride on the larval growth and survival of barramundi when fed individually and combined with Zn and Mn supplemented Artemia.
Innovation and innovation performance is gaining increasing importance in European policy, as the targets determined by the Lisbon priorities related to innovation seem to be still far away from the reality in some European countries and at EU level as well. Although the economic crisis determined the priorities of economic development and made... it more complicated to dedicate more budget of Research and Development, one of the five ambitious objectives of the EU’s growth strategy for the coming decade: Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth is still focusing on innovation. As the Lisbon Strategy determined the paths for national targets in the given areas, Europe 2020 will be adopted as well by the Member States.
In this context, the current work would like to give a short overview how Lisbon Strategy effected the national and regional innovation system in Hungary and will analyze its impact on Észak-Alföld’s region Research, Development and Innovation performance in the recent years and the transition of regional innovation governance system.
The main goal of this study was to determine whether the use of work platforms in super intensive apple orchards in order to reduce production costs and enhance work area performance under Hungarian circumstances an economic investment is. The analysis was carried out using a deterministic simulation model based on primary data collection from...apple producing businesses. The results show that work platforms have remarkable economic advantage in case of operations with high machine work expenditures or where they significantly improve the area performance of manual labour. The former was due to the much lower operating costs of work platforms compared to tractors, while the latter comes clear from reduction of manual labour input per hectare. The greatest economic advantage of work platforms occurs in case of harvesting and pruning, but in case of other operations they have no significant cost advantage. They main economic disadvantage is, however, that apple breaks more when harvesting with work platforms, i.e. picking quality deteriorates significantly. It can be concluded, that purchase of work platforms cannot be considered economic investment under Hungarian circumstances. It might be economic, utilised on maximum area (ca. 30 hectares) by certain companies in special cases, but in most cases has no favourable payback conditions.
In this paper we present the interim results and the methodology applied to create web GIS ready cartographic representations of agricultural performance related information and environmental parameters. The main aim of the research is to eventually create a web GIS based decision support system that can enable decsision makers and genera...l users to create useful and representative map layouts of certain environment and agriculture related phenomena that can be easily analyzed and interpreted to make strategic decisions on environmental issues. In this aim the initial steps are to evaluate the available data for cartographic representation, analyze the possibilities of visualization, create a GIS ready data structure and implement the database and revise additional possibilities to incorporate further environment related datasets of auxiliary sources. The main results of the study are a comprehensive set of visual layouts that could serve as guideline for mapping statistical information of agriculture and some steps towards the incorporation of environmental parameters to the system.