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GC-MS studies to map mechanistic aspects of photolytic decomposition of pesticides
Published February 23, 2008
11-16

Transformation of pesticides in the environment is a highly complex process affected by different factors. Both biological and physical-chemical factors may play a role in the degradation, whose ratio depends on the actual environmental conditions.
Our study aims to reveal specific details of photolytic degradation of pesticides as important... soil contaminants. Significance of these studies is enhanced by the fact that pesticide decomposition may contribute to soil degradation, and have harmful biological effects by degrading to toxic products. The toxicity of the examined pesticides is well known, however very little information is available regarding their natural degradation processes, the quality, structure and biological impact of the degradation products.
The photolytic degradation of frequently applied pesticides of distinctive types (acetochlor – acetanilide, simazine – triazine, chlorpyrifos – organophosphate, carbendazim – benzimidazole) was investigated. A special, immerseable UV-light source was applied in order to carry out photodegradation. The degradation processes were followed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography (GC/MS). EI mass spectrometry was used to identify the degradation species.
Each of the studied pesticides underwent photolytic decomposition, and the detailed mechanism of photolytic transformation was established. At least four degradation species were detected and identified in each case. Loss of alkyl, alkyloxy, amino-alkyl and chloro groups might be regarded as typical decomposition patterns. Deamination occurred at the last stage of decomposition.

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Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
Published December 10, 2002
62-74

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu...nctions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

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Evaluation of Soil Degradation Based on High Resolution Remote Sensing Data
Published December 6, 2005
145-148

Soil salinity is the main problem of soil degradation in the Grate Plain with cultivated area of 20% affected. Its influence is accelerated on the water managed and irrigated lands. Remote sensing can significantly contribute to detecting temporal changes of salt-related surface features. We have chosen a farm where intensive crop cultivation t...akes place as a test site as soil degradation can be intensive as a result of land use and irrigation. In order to evaluate soil salt content and biomass analysis, we gathered detailed data from an 100x250 m area. We analyzed the salinity property of the samples. In our research we used a TETRACAM ADC multispectral camera to take high resolution images (0,2-0,5 m) of low altitude (300-500 m). A Normalized Vegetation Index was computed from near infrared (750-950 nm) and red (620-750 nm) bands. This data was compared with the samples of investigated area. Analyzing the images, we evaluated image reliability, and the connection between the bands and the soil properties (pH, salt content). A strong correlation observed between NDVI and soil salinity (EC) makes the multispectral images suitable for construction of salinity map. A further strong correlation was determined between NDVI and yield.

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Sequence stability at SSR, ISSR and mtDNA loci of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) from the middle ages
Published November 15, 2007
10-19

Seed remains of medieval millet, recovered from a 15th century layer (King’s Palace, Budapest, Hungary), showed reddish yellow grain color after rehydrating on tissue culture medium that was close to grain color of modern cultivar Omszkoje. aDNA of medieval c. millet was extracted successfully, analyzed and compared to modern common millets b...y ISSR, SSR, CAPS and mtDNA. Analyses of fragments and sequences revealed
polymorphism at seven ISSR loci (22 alleles) and at the 5S-18S rDNA locus of mtDNA. CAPS analysis of the 5S-18S rDNA fragment revealed no SNPs in the restriction sites of six endonucleases TaqI, BsuRI, HinfI, MboI, AluI and RsaI. Sequence alignments of the restriction fragments RsaI also revealed
consensus sequence in the medieval sample compared to a modern variety. Morphological characterization of twenty common millet (Panicum miliaceum L., 2n=4×=36) cultivars and landraces revealed four distinct clusters which were apparently consistent with the grain colors of black, black and brown, red, yellow, and white. In the comparative AFLP, SSR and mtDNA analysis modern millet cv. ‘Topáz’ was used. AFLP analysis revealed that extensive DNA degradation had occurred in the 4th CENT. ancient millet resulting in only 2 (1.2%) AFLP fragments (98.8% degradation),
compared to the 15th CENT. medieval millet with 158 (40%) fragments (60% degradation) and modern millet cv. ‘Topáz’ with 264 fragments (100%). Eight AFLP fragments were sequenced after reamplification and cloning. Microsatellite (SSR) analysis at the nuclear gln4, sh1, rps28 and rps15 loci of the medieval DNA revealed one SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) at the 29th position (A to G) of rps28 locus compared to modern millet.
Mitochondrial (mtDNA) fragment (MboI) amplified at the 5S-18S-rDNA locus in the medieval millet showed no molecular changes compared to modern millet. The results underline the significance of survived aDNA extraction and analysis of excavated seeds for comparative analysis and molecular reconstruction of ancient and extinct plant genotypes. An attempted phenotype reconstruction indicated that medieval common millet showed the closest morphological similarity to modern millet cultivar Omszkoje. 

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Pre-treatment of wastes containing keratin in industrial conditions
Published October 10, 2008
59-64

The aim of the research was a development of a featherdegradation technology in industrial circumstances. During the experiments we determined the parameters of the critical environmental and technological limitation factors. Because of the high keratin-content the degradation (and composting) of the feather is difficult. With the developed tec...hnology huge mass of feather can be used fast and easily in biogas production and in the adjustment of the optimal element ratio of biomass. The industrial experiments were implemented in a 6m3 heatable double-walled
tank with stirring-shovels and aeration-system. The degradation process was followed with extinction measurements.
According to the experiments that were done the best results were given at the case which was heat-treated at 70°C, was injected with 1% bacteria concentration, and where 1:3 feather:water ratio was set if we consider the effectiveness of degradation and the hydraulical retention time.

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Global Issues of RangelandManagement
Published September 5, 2002
39-46

Rangelands occupy about 50% of the world’s land area. They are ecologically and economically as important as rain forests and in even greater danger of degradation and disappearance. This paper reviews the definitions and distribution of rangelands and describes their global environmental importance in terms of erosion control, carbon storage... and methane emission. Condition and degradation of rangelands are defined and discussed and it is argued that soil protection and carbon storage can be increased and methane emission per animal decreased by conservative use and improvement of rangelands, whilst at the same time alleviating hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. It is concluded that policies should be adopted by national governments and international deve-lopment programs to conserve and improve rangelands.

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Methodological development of the determination of the compost mixture ratio
Published December 22, 2010
29-33

The mixing rate of the compost raw materials basically determines the procedure of degradation. In most cases, in practice the real mixing ratio is not equal with the counted ratio – which based on the C/N ratio – and the check of the fulfilled mixing is not possible.
The homogeneity of the prism is also one of the fundamentals of the ef...fective degradation process. There is no available method to determine the homogeneity of the compost prism. 
During our research we examined the reflectance values of different compost mixtures where sewage sludge and rape-straw were used as raw materials.
According to our results we built up a regression model which gives the ability to determine the mixing rate (in 5% margin of error) and makes possible to check the homogeneity of the prism together with the access of immediate action. 

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Analysis of aerobic biological waste treatment methods especially in the case of composting
Published September 18, 2014
33-37

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used in agriculture. The characteristics of the organic wastes in most cases make the direct utilization impossible, they need pre-treatment before use. One treatment solution of these wastes is composting. During composting the organic wastes lose their hazardous characteristics and we gain a final product, the compost, which can be used in agriculture as organic fertilizer. The main conditions of effective composting are the follow and understand of the degradation process. During our research we examined different measuring methods (gas concentration and reflectance measurements, temperature mapping) that makes a cost and time effective possibility to directly analyze the degradation.

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Comparative examination of the tillage systems of maize on meadow chernozem soil
Published July 24, 2014
21-24

Maize production plays a major role in the agriculture of Hungary. Maize yields were very variable in Hungary in the last few decades. Unpredictable purchase prices, periodical overproduction, the increasing occurrence of weather extremities, the uncertain profit producing ability, the soil degradation processes (physical, chemical and biologic...al degradation) and the high expenses are risk factors for producers. Due soil tillage, there is an opportunity to reduce these risks. Based on the experimental database of the Institute of Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and the KITE Plc., various cultivation systems were examined with maize (Zea mays L.) as indicator plant in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok country in 2012 and 2013. The sample area can be found in the outskirts of Kenderes on a meadow chernozem soil. On the examined plot, strip-tillage, subsoiling and moldboard ploughing were performed, each on 4.5 ha, respectively.

In general, our findings show, that strip-tillage and subsoiling can be alternative tillage systems beside moldboard ploughing on meadow chernozem soils in Hungary.

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Optimized balance between crop productivity, restoration and maintenance of vital soil functions and soil carbon sequestration and storage – the SmartSOIL (FP7) project
Published November 13, 2012
213-215

Soils provide the most indispensable function of supporting the production of food and feed for a growing human population. At the same time they provide a range of regulating and supporting functions related to climate change and removal of greenhouse gases. The majority of the soil functions are closely linked to the flows and stocks of soil ...organic carbon (SOC); low levels of both flows and stocks may seriously interfere with several of the essential soil functions and thus affect the ecosystem services that soils deliver. Soil degradation is considered a serious problem in Europe and a large part of the degradation is caused by intensive cultivation practices in agriculture. The aim of the SmartSOIL project is to link the results of different scientific fields through a holistic and multidisciplinary approach and as a result develop a decision making tool contributing to sustainable development.

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Anaerobe degradation of maize infected by Fusarium graminearum
Published July 18, 2012
57-61

Last year intense rainfalls and moisture conditions were beneficial for the Fusarium sp. in Hungary. Fusarium strains decrease cereal quality (for example maize), furthermore may cause yield loss. Due to the toxin production, the fungi have a dangerous animal and human pathogen effect (Placinta et al., 1999).The effects of the Fusarium infectio...n and its mycotoxin production haven’t been perfectly eliminated. Fusariumgraminearum
is the most common agricultural pathogen in Hungary. The utilization of infected maize as an alternative biogas raw material may be an efficient and environmentally friendly disposal method. In this case, Fusarium-, and mycotoxin-content of the maize have to be analyzed as well as the impact of these factors’ on the biogas production process. Our experience was based on the raw material basis of a biogas plant. Different amount of Fusarium free and infected maize grits have been added to the regular raw material mixture. The detection of Fusarium fungi has been analyzed
in experimental digesters throughout the different stages of mesophilic digestion. In the biogas liquid end product the Fusarium was detected by breeding and by microscope. According to our results, the Fusarium sp. was not detectable in the liquid end product after 30 days.

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Measurement of the degradation of abandoned turf
Published December 15, 2019
145-149

With the decreasing number of grazing livestock in Hungary, the role of the turf cultivation is also significantly decreasing. The proportion of the under- and non-utilized turf is increasing. In the research conduced at the University of Debrecen, IAREF Research Institute Karcag, we studied four types of turf utilization in three replicates on... a salt field with timothy grass. We determined the flora composition of the experimental area, measured the soil moisture and the carbon-dioxide content of the soil.

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New methods of compost homogeneity determination in sewage sludge based compost prisms
Published October 20, 2009
49-52

There is no effective method of homogeneity measurement of compost prism. The most frequently used technology is the examination of the particle distribution. This method needs a lot of time and large number of samples. The aim of our research is establishing different effective methods to determine the homogeneity of compost prisms. During our... work, we examined the homogeneity of a prism made of sewage sludge and saw-dust mixture.
The measurements were based on the different properties of raw materials. According to this we examined the homogeneity by moisture content, heavy metal content and gas distribution measurements.
The most effective method is the measurement of gasconcentration. Although gas-concentration measurements it need special equipment it has more advantages than the other methods. The examination of gas-distribution compensates the problem of sampling because the measurement is direct. It provides the opportunity to estimate the amount of emitted toxic gases and to determine the maturity of the compost and the effectiveness of the degradation.

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Analysis of the Environmental Status of Nagykálló Subregion
Published December 6, 2005
362-367

The third smallest region of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is the Nagykálló subregion. Its territory is 377 km2 and its inhabitants number 32.526. Due to the fact that industrial development arrived late, the environmental status of this subregion was saved from serious ecological degradation. The quality of the environment shows a reasonabl...e picture in many respects, comparing to the general survey of the country. The air quality of the region can be qualified as acceptable. Leaving some critical points out of consideration, it is better than the national average. It is favourable from the human environment point of view that the region is free of extremes, and has a balanced climate. The supply of drinking water is above 95%, and the remainsing water requirements are supplied by artesian wells. The water supply network is fully extended in the subregion. The most significant environmental noise source is traffic, including public road traffic, which causes a problem in the town of Nagykálló. The situation of the collection, transportation, and placement of the settlement’s solid wastes show a similar picture to the status of the country. The environmental status of the region is included in the SWOT analysis.

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Applicability of reflectance to determine compost maturity
Published May 16, 2012
31-35

The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
During our research we ...examined the degradation process of compost prisms based on sewage sludge, wood-clipping and straw with temperature and reflectance measurements.
As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.

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Effects of cultivation methods on some soil biological parameters of a meadow chernozem soil (Vertisols)
Published November 3, 2010
61-66

The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining. 
The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservat...ion tillage (CT) – on the biological activity of a meadow
chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
enzymes and CO2 production.
Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
very important in this soil type.
According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014
51-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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Microbiological and Chemical Characterization of Different Composts
Published May 11, 2003
106-111

Composting of agricultural waste is considered particularly important from the point-of-view of environmental protection. Degradation of organic substance results in a significant reduction of waste volume.
The end product of the composting process, mature compost, can be used as soil coverage against excess loss of wastes, for mulching, for... organic manure etc. The problem of composting has come into limelight in environmental studies and in agriculture.
The quality of the mature compost is determined by physical, chemical and biological parameters of the composting process which, in turn, depend on initial composition of the raw materials, the technology, e.g. regular mixing and moistening and on environmental factors. Quality is the key question in compost use.
We studied the composting process in compost windrows of different raw material composition. We measured temperature, humidity content, pH, organic substance content, nitrogen and carbon content.
We counted the number of bacteria, microscopic fungy, ammonifying and cellulose decomposing microorganisms. We directed the composting process with turning weekly (to provide oxygen) and watering (to provide humidity content 40-60%).
We set up windrows of 1 m3 volume from dry plant substances (cornstalk, pea straw, tomato stalk and crop, weeds) and cow manure not older than 1 week. The cow manure was used at ratios of 0%, 35%, 50%, 65% and 100%, respectively.
We measured changes in compost temperature relationship with outside temperature until they were almoust the same. Humidity was 40-60% in most cases.
At the beginning of the process, pH was slightly acidic-neutral; it later becomes neutral-slightly alkaline (pH: 6.93-8.02) as ammonia is liberated from proteins.
At the end of the process, pH decreased again, due to humification.
Organic substance content decreased as microorganisms mineralized them. Organic carbon content decreased gradually due to microorganisms used it as an energy.
Total nitrogen content increased until middle of july and decreased gradually until than.
The carbon/nitrogen rate were higher in the beginning, it decreased until july-august and increased by smaller degree until end of the process.
The number of bacteria was higher in the first three weeks and between june-september. The number of cellulose degrading bacteria was the highest in the first three month, the number of ammonifying bacteria was the highest from the end of may until sepember.
The number of microscopic fungy was significant in the second part of process, after july.

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Soil – Environment – Sustainability
Published November 13, 2012
331-337

The future and life quality of human society depends primarily on the success of the sustainable use of natural resources: the geological strata–soil–water–biota–near surface atmosphere continuum. Soil is the most significant conditionally renewable natural resource in our Earth’s system, with three unique properties: multifunctionali...ty; fertility/ productivity; resilience. In the case of rational land use and precise soil management soil does not disappear, and its desirable „quality” does not decrease considerably, irreversibly and unavoidably. Its renewal, however, requires continuous care and permanent activities.
Consequently, the prevention, elimination or moderation of soil degradation processes and extreme hydrological situations (the two main factors limiting desirable soil multifunctionality) with rational land use and soil management are the key factors and priority tasks of sustainable development on each level and in each phase of the decisionmaking process.

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Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils
Published May 11, 2003
85-89

The soil constitutes the basis of the food chain. To keep soil conditions in a good trim is very important, it’s part of the sustainable development and of producing food supply harmless to health.
In some cases, soil productivity is the only important part, qualitative requirements or economical characteristics can improve it. The soil is... threatened by two danger factors: the soil degradation and the soil pollution. The accumulation of different harmful and/or toxic substances in the soil is well known. Heavy metals constitute a part of it. Metals in the soil and in the soil-solution are balanced. This balance depends on the type of the metal, on the pH, on the cation-band capacity of the soil, on the redox relations and the concentration of cations in the soil.
To be able to handle the metal contamination of the soil, it is important to estimate the form, the possible extension and the concentration of metals.
Of course, the different types of soils have different physical-chemical, biological and buffer capacity, they can moderate or reinforce the harmful effects of heavy metals. To draw general conclusion of the dispersion and quantitative relations on the metals originated from different contamination sources is hard, because in some emissive sources contamination is limited in small areas but on a high level, some others usually expand on larger areas, and as a result of equal dispersion, the contamination’s level is lower.
Heavy metals – unlike alkali ions – strongly bond to organic materials, or infiltrate in a kelát form. Their outstanding characteristic is the tendency to create metal-complex forms. Kelats take part in the uptaking and transportation of heavy metals. Heavy metals exert their effects mostly as enzyme-activators.
The metals cannot degrade in an organic way, they accumulate in living organisms, and they can form toxic compounds through biochemical reactions.
Lot of the heavy metals accumulate on the boundaries of the abiotic systems (air/soil, water/sediment), when physical or chemical parameters change, and this influences their remobilization.
Human activity plays a great part in heavy metal mobilization, results in the human origin of most biochemical process of metals.
To understand the toxic influence of accumulated metals of high concentration, their transportation from soils to plants or their damage in human health, must clearly defined and investigated.
For effective protection against soil pollution, the types and levels of harmful pollution to soil must identified, regarding legal, technical and soil-science aspects, preferable in a single way. Difficulties in this area mean that toxicity depends on loading, uptake, soil characteristics and living organisms (species, age, condition etc.), furthermore, local and economic conditions considerably differ.

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Measurement of degradation on under-utilized natural turf
Published December 1, 2020
115-121

The role of turf serving animal husbandry is significantly declining with the decreasing number of grazing livestock in Hungary. Accordingly, the area of under-utilized or non-utilized turfs is increasing. At the University of Debrecen, Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm, Karcag Research Institute we studied four type...s of turf utilization in three repetitions on a salt meadow with Alopecurus pratensis. As a result of the performed examinations, we identified the composition of the flora structure on the investigated area and we measured carbon-dioxide circulation and soil moisture.

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Supplementary botanical examinations for modelling the grass production of the great pasture of Hajdúbagos
Published October 10, 2008
17-21

Our botanical survey at the great pasture of Hajdúbagos is a part of a broad research that aims to predict the production of the grass at the given area. As the mentioned pasture is a nature conservation area, the usage of artificial fertilizers or other classic grassland management methods in its handling are prohibited. Thus grazing is an im...portant tool for the management of this area, however the not suitably regulated grazing order and the poorly calculated carrying capacity cause serious problems at some parts of the pasture. The prediction of the grass yield is essential to
avoid both over- and both under-grazing and for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and the grazing method, thus the most suitable management strategy.
The potential grass yield is easily calculable with a computer model that will be established as a basis for determining the grass production. For the sake of getting an accurate view of the plant associations of the pasture, we created examination quadrates and determined all plant species found in the quadrates. After plant determination, we compiled a coenological table in which we marked besides the scientific name and families, the life forms of each species that refer to the structure, morphology and thus the adaptability of plants to their environment. We determined the
TWR, so the thermoclimate, water and soil reaction values, the nature conservation values, as well as the covering values of each plant species (DB), and the total coverage of the examination quadrates (B%).
According to the covering values, grasses proved to be characteristic plants at the examined pasture, thus we need to consider them influential in calculating the animal carrying capacity and with the rest of the information, we need to supply the model.
The life forms and TWR indicators, all together with the nature conservation values provide further important data to the development of the management suggestion of the protected pasture. By examining these values to different parts of the area, we could get an exact view on the measure of the degradation effects. This promotes the determination of grazing methods and the forming of the boundaries of certain pasture sections, to avoid  those harmful anthropogenic effects that seriously endanger this extensive sandy pasture. 

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Study of the biodegradation of slaughterhause feather waste by Bradford method
Published February 25, 2014
77-81

The 15–20% of the by-products of meat- and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50–70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin con...tent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pre-treatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method. The microbiological and enzymatic degradation of feather to soluble protein and amino acids is a very favourable and relatively cheap opportunity to produce valuable products of the resulting feather. Our applied treatments were based on the determination of the most effective method, which is able to follow the biodegradation of waste poultry feather.

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Ecological Conditions of Agricultural Land Use in Transcarpathia
Published May 4, 2004
190-194

The unbalanced anthropogenic effects for several decades resulted in significant technogen damages in the ecosystem of Ukraine. Excessive land development, including the use of slopes, effected the disintegration of the natural balance of lands – arable-lands, meadows, forests, and watershed areas – producing quite a negative effect on the ...landscape’s nature itself. It has to be stressed that according to other indexes, too, agricultural lands show a tendentious deterioration.
Erosion, caused by water and wind, is one of the most influential factors in the degradation of agricultural soils and in the reduction of the productiveness of benefital lands. Nowadays the degree erosion became significant and it directly endangers the existence of the soil which is a principal chain-link of the agricultural cultivation as well as an irreplaceable element of the biosphere.
The social and political changes in Ukraine’s life demand fundamental modernization in the land utilization both in ecological and in economical aspects. However, these aims can be realized only if, during the developments, we base on the up-to-date results of agronomics, and we do further research in the relations of agricultural land use and environmental protection. According to the latest theories, rational and environmental-safe agricultural production relates to the optimum correlation of the natural- and agricultural- ecosystems as well as to the reconstruction of agricultural areas built on the basis of environmental protection.

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Correlations of the global, regional and local factors of the anthropogenic effects on the water reserves of the Earth’s crust
Published July 18, 2012
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The decrease in Earth's drinking water resources and the degradation of its quality has become a critical problem. Our planet's total water supply is estimated to be around 2 billion km3s. This is only 1% of Earth's own weight. Of this small amount only a tiny 3% is fresh water, of which 79% is forzen in glaciers and 1% is present as surface wa...ters.The ratio of water stored in soil is around 20%. This is 0.2% of the total water supply. Our study aims to summarize the layered groundwater aquifer systems and its changes which are the results of anthropogenic effects in both global and hungarian respects and also for the region of Debrecen.In particular with regard to the geological and ecological level where irreversible
processes take place. All this is discussed in the context of cause and effect. Pointing out the dangers of excessive deep groundwater extraction and the contamination caused by toxic substances that are the byproducts of modern life. In addition we discuss the Water Directive of the European Union which gives a policy for community action concerning the goal to achive the status of „in good condition” for our waters till 2015.

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