Ethology, the research field of animal behaviour, during the past half century developed into an independent science and became more important in recent years as the farming industry has turned toward quality production. Farm animals respond for every environmental factor. Essential to know the answers to avoid unpleasant economic consequences.... Based on the shepherds’ experience, this science has merged with modern technology, constantly expanding and searching new methods. According to the literature the article summarizes the observation methods in cattle grazing. This paper introduces the beginnings and shows the future trends. Finally we share personal experiences as the Hungarian Grey cattle grazing behaviour at conditions of Hortobágy, Hungary.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Cattle behaviour on rangeland depends on external factors, such as grass allowance and quality, temperature, net solar radiation, distance from water-source, wind speed and direction, air pressure changes and the applied breeding technology. Our research is based on previous empirical observations and modern methods to analyze the behaviour of the Hungarian Grey Cattle. Today it is crucial to use cost-effective solutions in modern beef cattle farming therefore we introduce a cost-efficient method to study and follow cattle herds. We are studying relation between traveled daily distance and air pressure. The various weather fronts influence behavioural characteristics and traveled daily distance. According to our hypothesis, the pressure-change and the wind direction has significant effect on cattle activity on pasture. As the different air masses alter the barometric conditions and unbalance the neuroendocrine system, indirectly cause relaxed or agitated behaviour
The purposes of the present study are to compare the temperament of calves of different breed and sex at weaning, to analyse the effect of temperament on weaning performance, and to
define the correlations between the previous traits. In the experiment carried out in Gelej in 2006 the behaviour of 61 Aubrac and 25 Charolais calves (39
assessed at weaning. The weight (WW) and the age of animals were detected, in addition temperament (TEMP) of them was scored. The weaning age (AU: 190±16.96 days, CH: 176±14.94
days; P<0.001) and the weaning weight adjusted to 205 days of age (CWW) (AU: 192.39±31.32 kg, CH: 213.80±23.99 kg; P<0.01) of the two breeds significantly differed of each other. The
temperament of calves was evaluated by scale test on a 5-point scale during weighing. The data were processed by SPSS 14.0 program package (Mann-Whitney U test, MANOVA, Tukey test,
Spearman rank correlation test). Significant difference was revealed between the two breeds in TEMP (AU: 2 scores and CH: 3 scores; P<0.001), furthermore also difference was proven
between the bull calves of Aubrac and Charolais in the behaviour (AU: 2 scores and CH: 3 scores, P<0.01). Analysing the effect of sex both for 86 calves and each breed, it was showed that the TEMP of the heifer and bull calves was equalled (P>0.10). Both of the WW and CWW were influenced by the behaviour of calves (P<0.05), which meant that the more excitable calves had higher WW and CWW. Positive, weak correlation coefficients were calculated among the TEMP, the WW and the CWW (rrank=0.28 and rrank=0.31; P<0.01). By their results it was concluded that in young age not only the performance but also the behaviour of calves are determined by the calf rearing ability of suckling cow.
In my study reveal the situation of the poultry industry. In my research, I used the regularly adopted qualitative method, i.e. the interview. I conversed with the managers of the most important poultry factories, and asked them about the position of the Hungarian poultry sector, the possibility of improving its position, the changes in consume...r behaviour, in marketing strategies, means and methods.
The managers talked about the necessity of collaborating between factories. They agreed on the dominance of commercial chains. In their opinion, these prejudice their chances. They emphasized about the increasing role of processed products and the growing number of sell-stimulated marketing means. The consumer behaviour has changed in the last 10 years too, which helps the market of processed poultry products.
Consumer lifestyle and health are relevant factors to understanding consumption preferences. In the last few decades the number of lifestyle diseases has dramatically increased. The main cause for these diseases is the change in lifestyle; including a lack of attention to physical activity and good nutrition. Health and lifestyle are important...factors by purchase decision process. In accordance with these, I examine the consumer behaviour toward soft drinks with special regards to healthy lifestyle and the state of health. My examinations can be considered mainly as a
qualitative research, which can serve as a basis for further analyses and research, however, the conclusions and experience gained from it are worthy of consideration. I differentiated five soft drink categories: ice tea, carbonated soft drinks, fruit juices, mineral waters, sport and energy drinks and studied the consumer behaviour toward them. The study focuses on the consumption of these and the factors influencing their purchase with special regards to lifestyle.
Animal breeding increasingly lays claim to the theoretical and practical knowledge of applied ethology. The authors’ aim was to evaluate and compare the temperaments of Charolais (CH, n= 10) and Hungarian Grey (HG, n= 10) steers, and also to determine the correlation between their temperament scores and flight speed scores. Temperament was ev...aluated by the results of the scale test (assessing of behaviour in a 1-5 score system, while the animal is standing on a scale for 30 seconds) and flight speed test (minutes it takes the animal to move a set distance of 1.7 m when leaving the scale), on three occasions (1, 2, 3). Data management was done by SPSS.10 (ANOVA, Mann-Whitney-test, Spearman-correlation). Results of the scale test differed significantly between breeds at the third measurement (CH: 2,9 scores; HG: 1,4 scores; P<0,01) and when evaluating the three measurements together (CH: 2,0 scores; HG: 1,37 scores; P<0,05). Concerning of flight speed score, there were significant differences between breeds of steers at each measurement (1. measurement CH: 2,77 s; HG: 4,09 s; P<0,05; 2. measurement CH: 2,89 s; HG: 5,01 s; P<0,01; 3. measurement CH: 2,46 s; HG: 5,33 s; P<0,01) and overall (CH: 2,71 s; HG: 4,81 s; P<0,001). In the case of both breeds, evaluated by measurements and overall, a negative correlation was calculated between temperament score and flight speed score, but this was significant only in three cases: CH1 (n=10) r= -0,75; P<0,01; CH1+2+3 (n=30) r= -0,44; P<0,05; CH+HG1+2+3 (n=60) r= -0,33; P<0,01). Results indicate that Hungarian Grey steers are calmer than individuals of Charolais. Animals behaving calmer on the scale left the scale, more slowly. The authors propose the use of these temperament tests in Hungarian breeding practice, in order to select too temperament animals.
The application of information technology is the response of the livestock farming to the demand of customer, legal and economical expectations. This technology is the socalled precision livestock farming (PLF). The elements of the PLF are: continuous monitoring of inputs, animal behaviour by sensors, an algorithm which converts these signals i...nto a figure, this figure is compared to an optimum then adjustment of the input is followed, if it is necesary.
The authors examinated behaviour of twenty-eight, grouped-housed Hungarian large white x Hungarian landrasse gilts in grassland-based production system.
The social rank was recorded on two days following, social rank was unaffected by even age or weight of gilts.
The daily liferhythm was recorded on four different days in two weeks period
30% of the whole paddock was used specifically by pigs as resting and excretion area.
The role of turf serving animal husbandry is significantly declining with the decreasing number of grazing livestock in Hungary. Accordingly, the area of under-utilized or non-utilized turfs is increasing. At the University of Debrecen, Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm, Karcag Research Institute we studied four type...s of turf utilization in three repetitions on a salt meadow with Alopecurus pratensis. As a result of the performed examinations, we identified the composition of the flora structure on the investigated area and we measured carbon-dioxide circulation and soil moisture.
Through a non-representative sample of the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region, this paper studies the product strategic priorities enabling us to make a detailed typology of small
enterprises. According to the relevant technical literature, the types of small enterprises have typical strategic priorities. Obviously, each group can
priorities, which are sharply distinct from each other. These priority features are shown in the form of characteristic features in the enterprise’s marketing activities, market behaviour (product policy, innovation attitude, technology, price policy). This paper studies the enterprises of the sample through the role of production technology, material quality, low price and branding endeavours affecting product positioning.
Ostrich has been reared in Hungary for decades, but we have limited information on this species. The aim of this review was to provide a concise description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) based on international studies. We were to investigate some of the most relevant parameters, such as egg, meat and skin production. In this critical re...view we managed to sum up the most significant features and productivity parameters of ostrich and effecting factors. So as to make an accurate description of the species we have to know its morphological, behavioural and physiological characteristics. Ostrich is a very special bird with special nutritional and environmental requirements. Ostrich products, regarding egg, meat and skin are considered luxury products not only in Hungary but also abroad. Though egg has a significant nutritional value, it is mainly used for hatching chicks. In Europe we can expect roughly 40–50 eggs from a hen yearly. Ostrich has a lean meat with high protein and low fat and sodium content, moreover it is rich in minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Having these advantageous qualities, ostrich meat should be part of our healthy diet. Skin production is not important in our country, but there is a special demand for high quality ostrich leather globally. In the future our aim is to conduct a research on some of the parameters. As low production rate and embryo mortality is a great deal of problem in ostrich industry, we need to investigate the incubation environment. There is an apparent disagreement among researchers on optimal slaughter age. This is also an area for further investigation. The value of skin and effecting factors on our climate as well as adaptability of the species are also worth for further investigation together with the nutrition what differs from other ostrich breeding countries. Nowadays, there is a great emphasis placed on animal welfare too.
In this article we are presenting the methodology applied to analyse and interpret the topsoil surface reflectance parameters of multiple samples collected in the Mugello valley area in northern Italy in October 2012. The main aim of the whole project was to discover geomorphological behaviour and situation of the area ino order to improve pote...ntial for correct dating of certain archaeological artefacts found in the nearby areas. One of the crucial problem researchers are facing in the area is the lack of understanding of the underlying geological and geomorphological processes that were describing and characterizing the area and that played important role not only in the current geography and landscape formation but also in the transportation of various sediments and artefacts. In this particular research the main aim is to examine the possibility of developing a quick way to assess low level properties of the soil using hand held spectrometer and rapid analysis of cross-section using in situ measurement techniques. In this work we collected over 2000 individual samples of topsoil surface reflectance properties that we organized into a spectral library. This library is then to be used to describe physical and chemical processes in the soil. To support the analysis results were compared to analysis results from different kind of assessments in the same area. Our results show a great potential of application of hand held imaging spectrometer in soil property analysis based on the top soil surface reflectance parameters.
The human factor has been reassessed with regard to strategic initiatives towards obtaining and preserving competitive advantage. Knowledge, experience and special skills are a specific form of capital, forming part of the organisations’ assets and serving as an organisational strategic resource. Their development and use require major invest...ments, both on the part of the individual and the organisation. In a Europe undergoing integration, the quality of human resources enjoy priority among our really important values and specific features. The opportunities of the near future can be utilised, and agricultural economic organizations can survive and increase their organizational effectiveness, if they possess a basis of human capital which is able to make a shift in perspective and behaviour which is of primary importance from the point of view of incorporating market mechanisms and implementing them in practice. My investigations were focused on the current position of human resource management in a comprehensive manner; further, on the approach of top managers regarding the future. Analysing the business and other indicators of the companies studied, I have set the objective to describe the differences and special features of the human resource management practice of companies, which are different in size, operational form, and from the perspective of success or failure.
Human resource management is directed to attracting, retaining, motivating and utilising labour. A given work process can be successful or unsuccessful – given the same conditions – depending on who performs it. Therefore, human resource management related tasks require special attention when enterprises are planned, established and operated. On analysing the responsibilities of human resource management, I have found that the functions and responsibilities of human resource have low or medium importance in the operation of economic organisations today. Regarding the future, top managers have expressed higher expectations of human resource management responsibilities in all areas and they consider individual functions to be more important. The establishment and operation of a human resource information system has been presented as the most important need for change. Correlation analyses have proved that the higher the sales revenues of a company, the higher the development of human resources is regarded by its manager, and the same holds for training, career support and a proper establishment and continuous evaluation of job profiles.
Molybdenum is not a well-known microelement, but being a constituent of several important cellular enzymes it is an essential microelement. Molybdenum occurs in all foods, but at very low levels. There does not appear to be any particular foods or types of foods, which in the absence of extrinsic factors, naturally have high levels of molybdenu...m. However, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high level of the metal in plants.
Our study is based on the long-term field experiments of Nagyhörcsök, where different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behaviour of molybdenum: total concentration, available concentration, leaching, transformation, uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop. In this work we present the results of maize and peas and the soil samples related to them.
According to our data molybdenum is leaching from the topsoil at a medium rate and it appears in the deeper layers. In the case of plant samples we found that molybdenum level in the straw is many times higher than that is in the grain, so molybdenum accumulates in the vegetative organs of the plant. The data also show differences in the molybdenum-uptake of cereals and Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Today there is an ever stronger requirement for companies to consider the environmental aspects of their operation. The incorporation of these aspects into the economic practise of agricultural firms in our country is still in its infancy and, moreover, it usually follows from outside coercion (legal regulation) rather than voluntary behaviour....
Consequently, in the Hungarian agrar-economics – contrary to the example of Western Europe – the application of environmental accounting in agriculture is a barely researched subject; this has been so even though the environmental policy of companies can be made more conscious by adding an environmental dimension to the organizational information systems.
The aim of our investigation is two-fold. The first goal is to form a method that quantifies the environmental load of companies, is capable of comparing environmental performance of companies with different sizes, and takes into account the specific attributes of agriculture as well. The second is to apply this method in practice, to prove that estimating the environmental load of companies is possible by processing already available data (fiscal, accounting and statistical) using new concepts.
In this publication we present the joint application of three methods – each belonging to the toolset of environmental accounting – for two companies dealing with both crop and animal farming in the Pannonian region. The three methods are partly built upon each other and partly complementary. The company-level environmental balance is capable to show the relations between a given firm and its surrounding, but realistic comparison between environmental performance of different companies or periods is only possible by using specific index quantities.
Triticale is likely used in many countries in human consumption, due to its advantageous agronomical and nutritional properties mostly in blends. The baking quality of blends depends not just on the proportions of the used flours but also on their individual quality what can be influenced by fertilizer treatments.
22 flour blends were p...repared with commercial wheat flour and triticale wholemeal flour in proportions from 0% to 100%. The triticale was treated with different amount of fertilizers (N30P30K30, N60P0K0). Changes of wet gluten contents and extensograph parameters of the blends were determined. The quality of blends significantly depends on the fertilizer treatment of triticale beside the proportions of the flours. When the N60P0K0 treated triticale was used in blends, wet gluten and extensibility values were significantly higher, but in case of resistant to extensions (Rmax) the N30P30K30 treated samples gave higher values. The measured values of wet gluten and extensibility were above the expected values (synergism), while in the case of resistance to extension the expected values were higher than the measured values (antagonism).
Although the model described here was developed from research in controlled environments, there is now considerable evidence that in can be applied to a very wide range of natural environments in several species. Multi-locational trials augmented by successional sowing and, if considered necessary, supplementary illumination in the field to inc...rease daylength, can be used to estimate the values of the model coefficients: (1) to characterize germplasm collections and so predict flowering behaviour elsewhere; (2) for interpreting and understanding crop adaptation; and (3) for genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity. We do not yet know whether the model has any contribution to make to the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of photoperiod and temperature responses, but at the very least, it should provide the basis for indicating the most appropriate environmental conditions, genotypes and physiological stage of the plants most suitable for such investigations.
Molybdenum as a constituent of several inmportant enzymes is an essential micorelement. It can be found in all kind of food naturally at low level, however, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high level of the metal in plants. Our study is based on the long-term field experiments of Nagyhörcsök, where...different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behaviour of elements: uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop.
In this work we present the effect of molybdenum treatment on the uptake of other elements. Molybdenum is proved to be in an antagonist relationship with copper and sulphur, while molybdenum-phosphorus is a synergist interaction.
However, in most of the plants we studied increasing molybdenum-treatment enhanced cadmium-uptake. We have found the most significant cadmium-accumulation in the case of pea, spinach and red beet.
Management is one of the ancient activities. Managerial behaviour helped humans to become sociable creatures. The aims and roles of management have continually changed along with social and economic changes. Some management theories in the early literature interpret the managerial function as „to instruct” and „to control” subordinates.... The manager – having the appropriate authority – unilaterally appoints the expected activities in accordance with the objectives of the organization and his/her own wish. Its form is the instruction or the command.
Later, organizations and management theories defined the managerial function rather as the impact on the employees than (or instead of) a unilateral manifestation of will. These focus on collaboration and imitation instead of on obedience. These theories were based on the fact that the employees work hard to succeed in meeting organizational goals because they want to meet their own needs, desires and wishes.
Today, management means being in a relationship with colleagues, effective and successful working methods and, last but not least, commitment and liability for the company. The responsibilities of directors are to estimate the employees’ competences and to apply the workforce expediently.
In our opinion, the two most important questions of human resource management (HRM) will be:
• the expectations made of the manager by the subordinates,
• the expectations made of the subordinates by the manager.
The expectations of management have continuously evolved along with the social, political and economical improvement. We consider the most important requirements will be the following:
• the exploitation of employees’ abilities (especially the leaders’),
• the exploitation of human resource,
• aim-oriented leadership related to different management levels.
The actual research covers only the examination of managerial requirements. We experienced that the expectations are affected by many factors starting with the fulfillment of a specific task to the social environment as a whole. Managements of the last century did not require such self-reliance, creativity and broad knowledge from their subordinates as they do today. Employees have to be able to adapt to new tasks, technology and methods; have to react quickly against the problems; and be loyal to the company and the manager.
We plan to expand our research backwards as well, in which we will search for the answer what kind of expectations are formulated by subordinates on the manager. Thus, we can approach and reveal the expectations (the examined factors) from two sides.
Due to this method, we would like to work out such coherences which can help us to demonstrate the opinions of the differently qualified employees of the organisations. The applied method provides us facilities to carry it out in various organisational parameters, such as functional form, size, effectiveness, range of activity.
Mineral water consumption increased dramatically in the last 30 years. One reason for this change lies in the changing consumer behaviour: consumers are increasingly recognizing the importance of healthy nutrition and appreciate the beneficial nutritional physiological properties of mineral water. Local mineral water harmonizes well with import...ed waters. Bottled mineral water may travel several hundred kilometres until it reaches consumers. In the present study, the dynamic mechanical vibration caused by transporting on public roads was simulated in laboratory vibration tests then samples were subjected to microbiological examinations in compliance with legislations currently in force. Due to this vibration, the initial microbe count increased by two orders of magnitude, while after terminating the 4-hour mechanical action it decreased gradually. Growing dynamics of microbes constituting the total germ count at 22 °C and 37 °C were almost similar.
Tokay wine is Hungary’s noblest wine. Beyond doubt, it is one of those uniquely Hungarian products, which has been without rival for centuries. Today the role of quality has become increasingly important and consumers who are ready to pay more for quality wines expect it. This wine will be able to get back its original popularity if the messa...ge of its excellence reaches the public. Knowledge of historical wine-producing regions constitutes a part of basic education and wine-marketing could take important measures to spread it since good products need to be sold properly and consumers require information about wines – with gastronomy – and wine producing regions.
With foreign invested capital, advantageous changes have been started in Tokay-Hegyalja. However, there is much still to do in order to produce, sell and consume Tokay wine on such conditions that are really worthy of a Hungaricum. It is essential to approach the famous oenologists of Europe and the world and to establish suitable production conditions for every winegrower. In addition to following consciously prepared wine-marketing directions, our country needs to make an expected name for this Hungaricum. These aims are important mainly because of approaching EU-accession. There is timely to study on what conditions Hungarian viticulture and oenology could access. It would be a great success of the Hungarian delegation if they could make current Hungarian laws of Tokay-wine-production accepted in the EU. Of course, all of these would be valid after EU-accession. During the pre-accession period, our country needs to fulfil several stipulations. For example, origin-protection, establishment of a registry system, law harmonisation, development of an institutional system.
Strengthening of home consumption has always been an inspirational tool in a product’s life cycle. It is important not only to take the requirements of foreigners into consideration and to produce for export, but we also need to satisfy the home market. Considerable stress should be laid on establishing and preserving viticulture. Increasingly, buyers expect high standards and they are ready to pay more for quality wines. They also demand appropriate professional information and consultation. So there is a lot to do and theoretical approach should be followed by action. In order to get to know what quality expectations exist, we have to examine the consumers of the Hungarian wine-market. Study of the Hungarian people’s consumption behaviour, referring to Tokay „aszú”, was closely connected with my work.
Participants of my study were consumers who buy Tokay „aszú” mainly in shopping centres, supermarkets and low-price shops specified for wine selling. Wine shops have important roles as they give opportunity for salespersons to make closer relationships with buyers. These shops could be communication channels of spreading wine culture. It would be favourable if in every town or city there were at least one wine shop giving the opportunity of consultation besides commercial activity and also providing services that support the improvement of wine culture’s position. The majority of questioned people spend less than 4.000 Forints on buying of Tokay „aszú” in a year. Results of the questionnaire survey support the fact that there is a demand for these wine-specialities, but lack of money strongly effects demand.
The Following summarises the history of Tokay wine, tasks of Hungary and the expected effects relating to EU-accession. Regulation of oenology and the wine-market, referring to quality wines and main results of the survey are also overviewed in the text.
This work is about the molybdenum-accumulation of cereals analyzing soil and plant samples from a field experiment set in
Nagyhörcsök by Kádár et al. in 1991.
In this long-term field experiment different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected
from the experiment station to study
In this report results of maize, winter wheat, winter barley and soil analysis are presented. The conclusions are as follows:
– Analysing soil samples from 1991 we have found that roughly half of the molybdenum dose applied is in the form of NH4-acetate+EDTA soluble
– Comparing element content of grain and leaf samples we have experienced that molybdenum accumulation is more considerable in the vegetative plant parts
– Winter wheat accumulated less molybdenum then maize in its vegetative parts. Comparing molybdenum content of winter wheat to winter barley we found that the concentration of the element in wheat was lower by half than in the winter barley. It seemed that molybdenum accumulated to the least degree in winter wheat.
During my research work I will exame the state of pig production and the pigmeat trade in Hungary as well as in the EU. In this article I am looking at this branch, I plan to ask consumers about this topic. There is no point in importing pork if there is no market for it. The reality is that we like what is new, unusual and different. What lies... behind this way of thinking?
Everybody agrees, consumer habits differ culturally, and this is true in European countries as well. I find it interesting to examine what parts of the pig are favoured the most by consumers in certain countries. As habits are different we can say that certain countries prefer pork chops while on other countries’ menus pork knuckles can be found. If we follow this train of thought it becomes apparent that due to these differences the price of pork varies from country to country.
According to figures, it is clear that certain countries are able to produce pork products cheaper. Since market works on the principle of supply and demand, those who offer their products cheaper will have a greater chance of remaining in this sector. Those on the other hand who can only produce their products at a higher price will eventually disappear from the market. The price is determined by the rate of the forint to the euro. Today’s strong forint is leading to the growth in imports. Recently, pork exports have fallen, but if the rate were to be 280 forints as it has been in the past, then it would be more favourable to sell pork products.
As Hungarian prices are high, meat processing companies are forced to import from neighbouring countries, which means a cheaper source of product. This has led to a decrease in the number of pig in Hungary meaning that we are now an overall importer of pork products rather than an exporter.
European Stone Fruit Yellows(ESFY) phytoplasma disease on apricot was identified by molecular methods for the first time in 1992 in Hungary. Currently, the pathogen is known as’ Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’. Since, the pathogen become wide-spreaded and manyof the apricot-plantations had to be eliminated. In 2009 and 2010 in the countryside of...Boldogkőváralja the infection of the apricot-plantations was about 77%. As the disease spreading and causing large damages, we studied the roleo fpossible vector,the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni Scopoli) in the areas of Boldogkőváralja, North-East-Hungary. Studies were done in the year of 2016, monitoring the behaviour of the psyllids in four different areas, and caught 41 them for further examination. We collected plant samples from those apricot trees, on which the plum psyllids were caught.
In Hungary, the cocklebur species significantly endanger row crops (i.e. corn, sunflower, sugar beet). Their fast spreading is caused by many reasons: long-lasting emergence, reduced sensitivity to many kinds of herbicides, vigorous competitional ability, allelopathy, fast initial growth and changes in climate. The means of allelopathy is used...by many species of plants in the competition with one another, as well as by the cockleburs. But the efficiency of this is influenced by many factors. Species with allelopathical effect could show different behaviour under different conditions: they can produce compounds with retarding and stimulating effects in different quantities or compositions. The actual condition of the acceptor plant and the mediator agent (i.e. soil) influence the final effect.
In this experiment influence of phenology and rainfall was studied on allelopathy of cockleburs in May, July and September. A stronger inhibition was observed on growth of cress before rain in July than in May, but this retarding effect disappeared after rainfall. However, the samples collected in September have significant inhibitory effect after rain. Inhibition of sugarbeet’s germination was stronger in May than in July, and the difference increased after rain.