No 44 (2011)

Published November 20, 2011

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Articles

Effect of vitamin e and selenium supplementation on the antioxidant content of milk and dairy products in dairy cows
9-12

In 2007, the aim of the Ányos Jedlik program and the call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants - in this case: vitamin E and seleniu...m – used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an increased level of vitamin E and selenium content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E and selenium as feedadditives can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E and selenium in the milk and also in the diary products.

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Nest-site preference of Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix L.) in Debrecen, Hungary
13-17

In the past decade, the population of the Hooded Crow has shown significant growth in Debrecen, Hungary. The aim of this study was to become acquainted with the nest-site selection behavior of Hooded Crows in urban spaces. While our research revealed that the Hooded Crow is not particular when it comes to selecting among tree species for nestin...g, we did notice differences regarding nesting height. Hooded Crows living in the city build their nests higher up than those living outside Debrecen’s city limits. We also discovered a slight, insignificant difference between nesting heights and tree species, which is probably due to the different characteristics of the given tree species. As for nesting heights, we found that in typical urban habitats there were no relevant differences. However, when we compared these habitats in pairs, it came to light that nesting heights -when comparing solitary trees - wood segments and tree rows - wooded segments- did show significant differences, which can be explained by the various conditions provided by the habitats mentioned.
In summary, the following results emerged from our research:
1. The Hooded Crow prefers approximately the same nesting heights in all kinds of habitats, urban environment and tree species.
2. The nesting height does not significantly depend on the habitat itself or on the tree species.

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Polymorphism of the bovine GH and LEP genes in a population of Slovak spotted bulls
19-23

The aim of this study was the detection of polymorphism in the bovine growth hormone and leptin genes using the PCR-RFLP method. A
polymorphic site of the growth hormone gene (Alul loci) that results in amino acid change at position 127 of the protein chain (leucine, L to
valine, V) has been linked to differences in circulating metabolite...s, metabolic hormones and to milk yield. The polymorphism in bovine leptin
gene is situated in the intron between two exons, which results in an amino acid change at position 2059 of the protein chain (cytosine, C to
thymine, T). The polymorphisms were studied in a group of 58 bulls of the Slovak spotted breed. A strategy employing PCR was used to amplify 428 bp (GH gene) and 422 bp (LEP gene) products from blood samples. Digestion of PCR products with restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI revealed alleles: L and V; A and B for GH gene and LEP gene, respectively. The growth hormone gene is a candidate gene for body weight gain in cattle, since it plays a fundamental role in growth regulation. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of feed intake, energy metabolism, growth and reproduction of cattle; therefore, animals with higher leptin gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and will also likely have longer calving intervals. 

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Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary – looking for causes of lameness
25-29

In the last 20-30 years, lameness in cattle was found to be third the most influential disease next to mastitis and reproduction disorders. Studies have been established to explore reasons for lameness and prevention. The problem with more robust prevention plans is that knowledge and research evidence is not strong enough to run an effective p...revention plan. The aim of the research is to look for reasons of lameness by observing number of cows on 6 farms during 2 lactations. Performance data will be put together to body condition score (BCS) and lameness scores. Other examination is focused on monitoring of 40 farms. This part of the project is more related to extension, collecting and sharing solutions for decreasing lameness. Producers are advised what kind of measures are possible to reduce occurrence of lameness. Effectiveness of those actions will be measured at the end of the study. The first preliminary results show lack in almost all preventive measures needed to be taken in minimizing lameness. Those areas are related to poor facilities, lack of straw, problems with labor and basic management.

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Inner pelvic measurements in dairy breeds
31-35

Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons done on dairy breeds in Hung...ary.
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jerseys turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshire, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the apparent ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however, this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Although this dairy breed is the lightest, when the pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.

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Genetic polymorphism of candidate genes in pig meat production
37-40

H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes were suggested as candidate genes for fat content in pig meat. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation in the porcine H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes by PCR-RFLP method in a group of pigs. Genotyping of pigs was done by PCRRFLP methods. We identified three genotypes in the set of pigs, HH (0.504), Hh (0.412...) and hh (0.084) for H-FABP (HinfI). Allele H showed higher frequency than allele h (0.710 vs. 0.290). Three genotypes were identified for the H-FABP (HaeIII) gene (DD - 0.194, Dd - 0.494, dd - 0.312). The allele D (0.441) showed slightly lower frequency than allele d (0.559). All three genotypes were identified for LEPR (HpaII) in the group of pigs (AA – 0.137, AB - 0.314, BB – 0.549). Higher frequency of LEPR gene was confirmed for allele B (0.706), as compared with allele A (0.294). We identified two genotypes for MC5R (BsaHI) in the group of pigs (AA - 0.348 and AG - 0.652), genotype GG was not found. As conforms with genotype structure, we recognize a higher frequency of allele A (0.674) as compared with allele G (0.326). 

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Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
43-47

Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per co...w could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

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Information and Communication Technologies in tourism
49-53

Technological progress and tourism have gone hand in hand for years. Information communication technology (ICT) and tourism are two of the most dynamic motivators of the emerging global economy. Tourism can be considered as one of the most profitable sectors of the Hungarian economy, and in rural areas it is often the only successful economic a...ctivity.
Development of ICTs and the expansion of the Internet have changed dramatically in the past few decades. This process is noticeable in
Hungary, as well. Platform of tourism increasingly get to the Internet nowadays, which is vitally important because tourism is an information-intense industry. Therefore, it is critical to understand changes in technologies in order to maintain the crucial role of this sector in the Hungarian economy.
The aim of my study is to support the significance of tourism in Hungary and especially in the North Plain Region with the help of statistical data. Then, I try to show how ICTs appear in this sector and emphasize the role of these tools with some concrete examples.

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Formation of Food Clusters in Europe
55-59

In the dictionary of foreign words and phrases we can find the word “cluster” with the following sense: aggregation, group and in a wider meaning: association, integration.
By explaining the geographical concentration of economical and innovation processes in the food processing sector, clusters, and especially
business clusters, play... an important role. This essay deals exclusively with business clusters, so the term cluster is used also for business cluster.
I tried to collect the most relevant indicators determining the formation of clusters in the Food Processing Sectors and to analyze whether a
correlation can be found among the analyzed indicators.

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Interpretation of sustainability in the utilization of renewable energy sources
61-64

The utilization of renewable energy sources (res) is crucial regarding to sustainable reconstruction of energy systems. The target is a balanced, sustainable development of Hungarian energy management considering equally the ecological, social and economic aspects. There are many different technologies of utilization of res varied by sources, c...onversion processes, size and products. The comparison of each technology and their sustainability assessment are required by the importance of efficient remodeling of energy infrastructure. The group of attributes was composed by numerous important parameters in the course of our analysis with the choice experiment (ce) methodology. The estimation of each attributes’ influence on the individual’s preferences and choices was possible by this method and the preferences of the statistical population was concluded. So thus the utility derived from each attribute was estimated. The result of the ce analysis for the population of experts is demonstrated in the current phase of our research.

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Analysis of changes in resources and outputs of companies and partnerships in Hungarian agriculture
65-68

The aim of the study was to examine the achievement of Hungarian agricultural companies and partnerships, particularly agricultural co-operatives based on the aggregated database of National Tax and Customs Administration (NAV)1. From the methodological aspect, descriptive statistical methods and time series analysis were used. One of the most ...important conclusions is that the socio-economic weight of the agricultural co-operatives was strongly decreased in the period after the EU accession. The other important statement is that apart from the general examination of economic actors on aggregated level the comparative analysis of the single organizations forms would be needed. In the case of co-operatives, separated examination of the former type producer co-operatives and the so-called new type ones (e.g. marketing co-operatives etc.) would be necessary.

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Testing the antimicrobial activity of essential oils
71-74

The vapor phase of some essential oils proved to have antimicrobial activity. Utilization of the vapor phase of Eos is presently understood as one of the possible alternatives to synthetic food preservatives which could be used in the future. However, testing the vapor phase of EOs against microorganisms causing food-borne diseases (e.g. Salmon...ella enteritidis or Staphylococcus aureus) or food spoilage is relatively new. Consequently, due to the large number of known EOs, research on their antimicrobial activity is still largely in the phase of in vitro rather than in vivo testing. Moreover, no standard and reliable method for fast screening of a wide range of samples exists. Thus, the aim of this study is to show results concerning tests of the antimicrobial activity of EOs against S. enteritidis or S. aureus, which were conducted by two modifications of the disc volatilization method we developed. The lately developed method has the potential to become widely used for fast screening of EO antimicrobial activity in the vapor phase.

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Effect of molybdenum treatment on the element uptake of food crops in a long-term field experiment
75-79

Molybdenum, as a constituent of several important enzymes, is an essential microelement. It can be found in all kind of food naturally at low
levels. However, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high levels of the metal in plants. Our study is based on long-term field experiments at Nagyhörcsök, wher...e different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behavior of elements: uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop. In this study, we present the effect of molybdenum treatment on the uptake of other elements. Molybdenum is proved to be in an antagonist relationship with copper and sulphur, while molybdenum-phosphorus is a synergist interaction. However, in most of the plants we studied, increasing molybdenum-treatment enhanced cadmium uptake. We found the most significant cadmium accumulation in the case of pea, spinach and red beet. 

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Parameter optimization of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for measuring arsenic and selenium
81-85

In the last decades, an increased interest has evolved in arsenic and selenium. The aim is to understand the environmental, agricultural and biological roles of these elements. In the case of arsenic, the major reasons are the relatively high concentration of arsenic in marine biota (mg kg-1) and the arsenic contaminated drinking wat...er bases of some Asian countries, as well as Hungary. The toxicity of higher level selenium content is also known; nevertheless, selenium is essential for several biological functions. Considering its essentialness, in our country, the insufficient selenium intake rate causes a lack of selenium. Measuring the concentrations of these elements provides crucial, but unsatisfactory information, as the speciation, i.e. the form of an element presented in a sample is also required.
In both cases, the most suitable method to determine concentration is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our objective was to optimize the variable parameters of the ICP-MS to attain the lowest (the best) detection limit. For this purpose, we investigated the effect of parameter change on net signal intensity and relative signal intensity. With the optimized parameter settings, the limits of detection for arsenic and selenium were determined, which are 0,032 ng dm-3 for arsenic, and 0,097 ng dm-3 for selenium. 

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The influence of fertilization and tillage method on the formation root system capacity and grain production of spring barley
89-93

To evaluate the interaction of year x variety, year x tillage method and year x fertilization on the grain yield and root system capacity (RSC) of spring barley, we ran polyfactorial field trials in agroecological conditions of a warm corn production area in Slovakia, at  Malanta, in 2009 and 2010. The RSC measurements were done using LCR ...- meter at a frequency of 1 kHz and they took place in four growth stages: at leaf development in the stage of four leaves (RSC1), in full tillering (RSC2), in the stage heading (RSC 3) and at the stage of ripening (RSC4). The values of grain yield, RSC1, RSC2, RSC3, RSC4 reached in 2009 comparison to 2010 were significantly lower. The highest yield in 2009 was reached by variety Marthe (4.49 t.ha-1) and by variety Bojos (7.19 t ha-1) in 2010. The highest values of RSC in observed growth stages were achieved by variety Bojos in 2009, and in 2010 also besides RSC1. Within both years, difference in yields between tillage methods was not observed. The values of RSC in growth stage of 4 leaves and tillering was higher at conventional tillage, butthe values of RSC3 and RSC4 were higher with minimized tillage. The highest grain yield and values of RSC in every growth stage were achieved on the fertilization variant “c“ in 2009 and on the fertilization variant “b“ in 2010. The correlation relationships between grain yield and RSC were significant and positive in every growth stage. The strongest relationship was found among grain yield and RSC (r=0.6047).

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The effect of different compost rates on the yield of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
95-98

Protection of natural resources and sustainable natural resources management are essential for the long-term survival of humanity. This makes necessary nowadays the development of environmentally conscious living and spread of that in the future. The amount of organic waste materials, produced during human activities, could be decreased by comp...osting instead of dispose them in landfills. Applying appropriate treatment technology and additives, the compost could be used as fertilizer for horticultural crops and it could increase the easily available nutrient content of soils. Compost utilization prevents nutrient deficiencies and by using the optimal rate, we could reach significant yield increases.

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Comparison of growth parameters of 40 varieties/clones short rotation coppice willow (Salix)
99-104

The plantation of willow varieties was established in 2009. The 40 different varieties and clones of Salix were planted at a research field in Kolíňany (Nitra district). The paper evaluates results from the first growing season in 2009. The survival rate of planted cuttings ranged from 55.56 % to 100.00 % after the first year. The lowest surv...ival rate was reached by Terra Nova variety. The stem numbers per plant ranged from 1.17 ±0.37 to 2.53 ±0.98. The average height of one-year old stem varied from 65.82 ±36.60 cm to 225.58 ±68.61 cm. The average stem diameter ranged from 6.90 ±2.63 mm to 14.34 ±3.39 mm. There were statistically very significant differences in parameters of stem height stem diameter and stem numbers per plant among studied varieties/clones. The statistic method used was analysis of variance ANOVA. The varieties were then divided into 6 groups according to their similarity in observed parameters after the first growing season by cluster analysis. The best results were reached by varieties/clones classified in the second group. The survival rate, stem diameter and stem height values of these varieties/clones were above average. 

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Site and hybrid-specific agrotechnical models in sweet corn production
105-108

The effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and two genotypes on the crop yield of sweet corn was examined on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in two different crop years. Compared to the 30-year average, the climate was dry and warm in 2009 and humid in 2010. The experiments were conducted at th...e Látókép Research Site of the University of Debrecen. In the experiments we applied two sowing times (end of April, end of May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1, 65 thousand ha-1). The hybrids we used were Jumbo and Enterprise. As regards the requirements of sweet corn production, the crop year of 2009 was dry and warm. The effect of moisture deficiency was more adverse on the crop yields with the second sowing time. On the contrary, the other examined year (2010) was significantly humid; the precipitation was 184 mm above the 30-year average and the temperature was average.
In the dry and hot crop year, the best yields were obtained with the hybrid Jumbo (25677 kg-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level on the average of the fertilization levels. The crop yields of Enterprise were also the highest at high plant density level (24444 kg ha-1). With the second sowing time the highest yields were obtained at the higher plant density level (65 thousand ha-1) with both hybrids (Jumbo 18978 kg ha-1, Enterprise 18991 kg ha-1), which confirmed the good adaptation capability of these hybrids at high plant density level. In humid crop year with early sowing time the highest yielding hybrid was Enterprise (at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level 20757 kg-1), at the same time, Jumbo was best yielding at the higher plant density level (18781 kg-1). With the second sowing time the highest crop yield was obtained with Enterprise again (20628 kg ha-1 at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level). With this sowing time the average yields of Jumbo, was 18914 kg ha-1 respectively. We found that dry crop year and early sowing time provided the best conditions for sweet corn production; the highest yields were obtained under these circumstances, which might be the results of the outstanding water management of chernozem  soils.

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Possible alternatives in crop nutrition
109-112

The protection of the environment is our common task. All pollution that exposes our soils, plants or the environment – as taken in any proper or extended sense – will appear sooner or later in the food chain and in human beings who are on the top of the food-chain pyramid. The aim of our work is to give a brief overview of the effects of s...elected industrial wastes on the physiological parameters of corn plants. Sewage sludge and lime sludge were examined. These materials contain lots of useful element for plants (e.g. iron, phosphorus, potassium, zinc). However, their aluminum, chrome and lithium contents are also considerable. The element contents in sewage sludge and the filtrates of lime sludge, as well as the dry matter accumulation and relative chlorophyll contents, were measured. The disadvantageous and advantageous physiological effects of the examined materials were confirmed. The compensation effect of the environment is excluded; however, the neutralization of environmental impacts is not infinite under natural circumstances.

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Findings on the cultivation of potatoes in organic farming
113-116

This paper explores the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato production in the Czech Republic. The mulching with chopped grass (GM) and black textile mulch (BTM) were compared to non-mulching control variant (C) with mechanical cultivation. Especially in plots with BTM were first formed ridges and covered by the black polypr...opylene non-woven textile and then they were planting. During vegetation the infestation of Colorado potato beetle (CPB), weeds biomass, course of soil temperature and soil water potential were assessed. The results showed that surface of GM had a positive effect on soil temperature reduction, soil water potential depression. This study also indicated a positive effect of GM on the larvae of CPB diminution, on the other hand higher incidence of larvae and higher defoliation was observed in BTM. GM had a significant effect on the yield of potatoes. The yield of ware potatoes was higher by 27 % higher on plots with GM and by 16 % lower on plots wit BTM in comparison with C. NeemAzal T/S decreased statistically significantly % of defoliation and increased yield of ware potatoes by 35 % in comparison with control.

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The effect of copper fungicides on the rate of photosynthesis and the transpiration of hop plants
117-123

The paper evaluates the effect of copper fungicide spraying on the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration of hops, the influence of spraying on the elemental copper content in the leaves and cones hop variety Agnus. Photosynthetic rate was measured by LC pro+ (infrared analyzer) in the Hop Research Institute Saaz in the field in some periods ...of 2008, 2009 and 2010. Dry cones and leaf samples (taken before and after application of copper fungicides) were analyzed in an accredited laboratory for elemental copper.

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Response of maize seedlings to the latent zinc deficiency under different Fe/Zn rati
125-128

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a critical nutritional problem for plants and peoples all over the world. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in Zn, leading to poor crop yield. In this study, the effect of different Fe/Zn ratio on some physiological parameters of maize seedlings were investigated on the dry matter of shoots and root...s and their ratio, SPAD index and the total length of shoots. The relative chlorophyll contents significantly decreased under increasing Fe given to the Zn deficient. The results showed that the different Fe/Zn supplies decreased the total length of shoots - ranging from 9% to 65% - by latent Zn deficiency. Corresponding to several scientific findings, it was observed that the non-optimal Fe/Zn ratio of tissues take part in the evolution of latent Zn deficiency in the case of high Fe concentration.

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Water managed properties of apple and pear trees based on lysimeters
129-132

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant is constituted by foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On the one hand, the canopy absorbs solar energy, which is necessary for photosynthesis; on the other hand, it accumulates the nutrients absorbed by the roots, and most of the water-loss occ...urs through the foliage. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research, we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of the ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner, we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore, we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees. From the examined trees were made a 3D depiction, which show the shape, branching and the location of trees.

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Possibilities of Weed Beet (Beta vulgaris, L. ssp. marritima) Regulation
133-136

Weed infestation regulation in sugar beet belongs to the most difficult growing measures, the aim of our work was to find out, if active substances contained in preparations Roundup and Fazor influence number, weight and germination of clusters in plants of weed beets. Statistically significant differences in germinability were found among cont...rol and all variants in which preparation Fazor was applied. The Roundup treatment did not have significant influence on germination. Presented results are only preliminary and one-year results, more experiments are necessary to determine the effects of the studied applications.

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Regional innovation: State of the art in the Észak-alföld region
139-143

Innovation and innovation performance is gaining increasing importance in European policy, as the targets determined by the Lisbon priorities related to innovation seem to be still far away from the reality in some European countries and at EU level as well. Although the economic crisis determined the priorities of economic development and made... it more complicated to dedicate more budget of Research and Development, one of the five ambitious objectives of the EU’s growth strategy for the coming decade: Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth is still focusing on innovation. As the Lisbon Strategy determined the paths for national targets in the given areas, Europe 2020 will be adopted as well by the Member States. 
In this context, the current work would like to give a short overview how Lisbon Strategy effected the national and regional innovation system in Hungary and will analyze its impact on Észak-Alföld’s region Research, Development and Innovation performance in the recent years and the transition of regional innovation governance system.

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On the connection between spatial development and sustainable landscape in the Northern Great Plain region
145-148

This paper tries to find connection between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretations of sustainability from the view ...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change – the polarization of landscapes – will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region from two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of spatial development. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analyzing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation within the subject matters.

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The effect of the “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt on the investment activities of the region and its development of foreign trade relations
149-153

The article analyses the figures of foreign investments and their territorial distribution and their change due to the impact of the “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt. The article studies the consequences of the liquidation of the “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt and the issue of restoring allowances that formerly existed on its te...rritory.
The Free Economic Belt that was founded in 1998 and its customs and tax allowances invoked the settlement of affiliated firms of several world corporations, like the “Eurocar”, the “Yadzaki”, or the “Jabil”. However in 2005 the government of that time repealed all allowances granted by the “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt, and due to this the increasing dynamics of the amount of foreign stocks which was penetrating into the economy of Transcarpathia started to decrease. Many companies halted their work which went alongside with closing-down several thousands of workplaces. The working “Transcarpathia” Free Economic Belt had a positive effect on the social and economic indices of the region, so discussions regarding its restoration have already been started between the president of Ukraine and the governor of the region.

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The Role of Schengen in the Development of Peripheral Borderland Regions
155-158

This study aims to uncover the role of the Schengen borders of the European Union in rural and settlement development. Schengen integration applies certain restrictions at the external border-crossings, so the filtering role is to be taken into consideration. In addition to the disappearance of borders in the globalising economic area, the stri...ct Schengen rules further burden the development of cross-border interactions, bringing about less frequent border crossings. Moreover, the economic integration of the affected borderlands would remain sluggish. The author points to the fact that the dynamics of a border interaction system should include a Schengen border degree between the interdependent and integrated borderland levels. Consequently, the Schengen borderlands should be in the focus of further border studies.

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Regional interactions of bioenergy utilization
159-162

The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to... be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.

Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.

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Development of the reproductive tract of immature gilts
165-166

Mechanisms of regulation of litter size in pigs are complex and depend on many factors, including genetic regulation and also physiological and anatomical development of the reproductive tract in gilts. Improvement of growth rate in present breed pigs raises the question as to whether, with the development of the reproductive tract, sexual matu...rity would also be attained.
The aim of the study was to assess the morphometric traits of reproductive tracts taken from gilts slaughtered at 100 kg body weight, i. e., just when they may become actively sexual mature.
This study was concluded on 80 prepubertal gilts of the Polish Landrace (PL) breed tested at the Pig Program Testing Station. The animals were kept in individual pens with control feeding and standard management. They were slaughtered after attaining 100 kg body weight. Immediately after slaughter, the reproductive tract was removed and carefully assessed. The morphometric estimation of the reproductive tract involved the
measurement of uterus weight with ligament, vagina-cervix length, uterine horns and oviducts length, ovaries weight, height and width. Uterus volume capacity was also determined, based on volumetric method of Kwaśnicki’s (1951) with own modification.
All pigs were divided into three groups in respect to age at slaughter: A – below 160 days (n=38), B – from 160 to 180 days (n=28) and C – above 180 days of age (n=14). The results were elaborated statistically computing the arithmetic means (x) for every traits and standard deviations (s). One-way analysis of variance ANOVA was performed. The significance of differences between age groups was estimated using Duncan’s test.
Calculations were performed with STATISTICA 8PL Software.
Obtained results are presented in the tables below. The most pronounced differences in the development of the reproductive tract are dependent on the age of gilts concerning only the uterus weight (P≤0.01) and uterus vagina-cervix length (P≤0.05). Gilts at age 160-180 days attained the full stage of reproductive tract development. Differences between the compared age groups of gilts dealing with the other morphometric traits
and ovary characteristics were statistically not significant.

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