No 65 (2015)

Published March 24, 2015

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Articles

Brief overview of the polymorphism analysis of genes affecting pig prolificacy (LEP, PRLP, ESR BF, EGF, FSH-β, H2A.Z)
5-10

Researches are being performed around the world to increase swine prolificacy by using marker-assisted selection (MAS). The present study processes researches of polymorphism examinations on 7 genes. The result of the experiments showed that the leptin gene (LEP) prolactin receptor gene (PRLP), estrogen receptor gene (ESR), properdin B (BF) epi...dermal growth factor (EGF), follicle-stimulating beta gene (FSH-ß) and Z member of the H2A histon family gene (H2A.Z) and their alleles have a positive effect on reproductive characteristics of different swine breeds. In addition to this, leptin gene (LEP) influences the build, meat production and growth of body fat. Further studies are concerned with the polymorphism of an increasing number of genes, which enables a faster genetic development of swine breeding.

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Investigation of intersexual polled goats
11-15

The sex reversal may occur in all mammalian species, but is connected to a favourable trait – the polledness – only in the goat. Later abnormal sex ratio was noticed in these goat populations, in which a part of the phenotypically male individuals was sterile. These males have two X chromosomes. In goats the PIS (Polled Intersex Syndrome) m...utation is responsible for the absence of horns in homozygous and heterozygous individuals. This same mutation causes a female-to-male sex reversal, but only in the homozygous polled genetic female goats. The PIS mutation inhibits the expression of the FOXL2 gene which is responsible for ovary development, and a protein encoded by this gene inhibits the activity of the Sox9 gene. The Sox9 gene stimulates the development of the cells of the testis. When the FOXL2 gene is inhibited, the Sox9 gene is activated and transforms the ovary cells into testis cells. In our article we briefly introduce the morphological and chromosome investigations of three intersex individuals we found.

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Search for polymorphism in exon 5 of cattle pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide gene
17-20

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is a neuropeptide expressed primarily in the hypothalamus and in other tissues, which divergent and extensive physiological functions are proved. Large number of SNPs in PACAP are published involved SNP that is associated with phenotypic trait of cattle as well. Hungarian Grey, Hungarian Simmen...tal, Holstein, Charolais and Angus cattle breeds were involved in this study to search for polymorphism in exon 5 1–391 bp and G/A transition. Our results of PCR RFLP and PCR SSCP did not prove the occurrence neither G/A transition, nor any other SNP in cattle breeds involved.

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Anthropogenic effects on the fish fauna of River Hernád
21-27

The fish fauna of the River Hernád was examined in 24 sampling sites in summer of 2014. As a result of the survey 31 species were detected of which eight are protected and three are highly protected by law in Hungary. The presence of the adventive tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris) in the estuary of the Hernád was observed for the firs...t time by us. The most frequently detected species (with 100% frequency of occurrence, FO) were the chub (Squaliuscephalus), the bitterling (Rhodeusamarus) and the bleak (Alburnusalburnus), in addition the bleak was also the most dominant fish of the river. The hydraulic works have detrimental effect on the number of species and specimens and on the diversity of the fish fauna as well. The natural sections of the River Hernád have the most diverse fish assemblages.

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Comparing skull formation of the Hungarian (Hortobágy) Zackel sheep breed by geometrics morphometrics
29-33

This work seeks to explore the morphological changes of the Hungarian (Hortobágy) Zackel sheep's skull, which occurred in the past 50–70 years. In this study, we compared individuals skull forms by geometric morphometric methods. The origin of the breed is not known, we do not know when entering the Carpathian Basin. Therefore, the compariso...n involved the only known early archaeological findings. We have shown that there is no difference between each period colour variations, but over time change has occurred in the skull formation of the breed.

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The effects of bioactive feed additives for the production parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings in intensive recirculating system
35-41

For the appropriate quantity and quality of fish meat the pond farmers need to use up to date nutrition and feeding technologies. Recently the intensification of the carp production is stepping up with the availability the proper quality of the artificial feeds. The using of different feed additives make a better feed conservation ratio, faster... growing rates and more uniform stocks.

In our experiment what is made with common carp (duration of the experiment was 8 weeks long) we compared two different kinds of feed additives in different doses. One of them contains only natural mineral elements and the other additive is a natural origin probiotics. Both additives were used in the quantity of 0.5, 1 and 2% of the total feed. By the result of the 8 weeks experiment it could be said, that the using of the humic acid based mineral elements feed additive. Makes a better FCR comparing with the control stock, but was not as good as the using of the probiotics. At the humic acid treatments the more doses, the better FCR value, but at the probiotics it wasn’t true. The 0.5% probiotic treatment gave the best result. It is concluded that the using of the probiotic feed additives always gave a better performance of the fishes (average weight, biomass, FCR) than the humic acid treatments. The using of the feed additives hasn’t got an influence for the survival rate of the carps.

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Effect of supplemental pig milk replacer on piglet weight gain and sow backfat thickness
43-47

Sow milk production is the major factor limiting pig growth to weaning. Although the milk production of the sows incremental many environmental factors affect the actual performances. The supplemental milk replacer can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and try to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to ...their appetite, to enlarge the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of liquid milk supplement on weight development and litter performance of the piglets during the suckling period. Data were collected from 60 farrowings, the weight of 649 piglets in a total were measured at birth, 14 days old and at weaning (28 days), respectively. In the control group (n=319) the piglets were suckled and got prestarter feed from day 10. In the experimental group (n= 330) the piglets had got liquid milk replacer in 10.71% solution, from day 10 after birth together with suckling and prestarter feed, as well. Based on the Duncan's multiple range tests, there were no significant differences in birth weight between the control and experimental group but we found significant differences between the 14 days weight and the weaning weight, subsequently. Based on the CV% of weight the experimental group became more homogenous, in contrary to the weight of the control group at the end of suckling period. The milk supplementation can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to their appetite, to enlarge and uniform the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately.

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Analysis of vitamin E content in pilot dairy products
49-52

Within the framework of Ányos Jedlik program we started an experiment on feeding anti-oxidants with dairy cows at Körös-Maros Biofarm Kft. The purpose of the experiment was to test whether vitamin E and selenium fed as feed-supplement have an effect on the composition of milk produced. Furthermore we examined the cheese and yoghurt made out ...of the milk to explore how much vitamin E and selenium is retained in the products after processing. Our goal is to develop such functional dairy product which can be part of the daily diet helping us to remain healthy.

After analyzing the data we found out that the anti-oxidant fed to the cows resulted in elevated vitamin E and selenium levels in the milk and that these were retained in the cheese and yoghurt in relatively large amount.

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Differences in content of beet root and beet root juice, and it’s suitable to develop functional foods from animal sources
53-57

In Western medicine is beginning to increasingly focus on the key role of healthy nutrition and lifestyle in preventing certain diseases. Therefore, it is important to emphasize the importance of primary prevention in our country, and to promote it; not only the health care team work, but broaden the recommended foods, which have benefit for hu...man health as well.

Polyphenols are antioxidants, which are easily consumable with diet, however, food processing can influence the level of them.

In our study, nutritional assessment was made of raw beet root and a juice, made from this beet root. We investigated in which special diet referenced to eat this foods and whether this is suitable to develop functional foods from animal sources as a row material.

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Association analysis of TNNI1/XbaI polimorphism on carcass quality in hybrid pigs
59-62

The contractile protein, which is encoded by troponin I 1 (TNNI1) gene, is located on the thin filaments of slow fibres in striated muscle. TNNI1 protein is a part of the troponin complex which plays an important role in regulation of muscle contraction by preventing actin-myosin interaction in absence of calcium. According to biological role, ...this gene can be potential marker for meat production related traits. The aim of this study is to define whether the previously reported gene polymorphism (EU743939:g.5174T>C) is connected with the slaughter traits measured in a standard slaughterhouse of the examined four-line European hybrid. The study included data from 404 gilts and barrows from 2 different samples. The polymorphism was detected using PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method with XbaI restriction enzyme. In this study the allele frequencies were found as follows: C: 0.84 and 0.808; T: 0.16 and 0.192. Based on result of the present study no significant impact of polymorphisms on production parameters was found.

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Role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in feed intake regulation of livestock species (literary review)
63-68

Energy balance is the net result of the energy intake (nutrition) and expenditure (basic metabolic rate). The purpose of the daily feed intake is to provide energy and nutrients for maintenance, production and fill and maintain energy storages in form of glycogen and fat. Animals can adjust their feed intake to ensure their energy demand. Food ...intake regulation in animals and human is a very complex process, in which the digestive system, the central nervous system, the joining hormonal and non-hormonal factors, and the integrating hypothalamus take part. This review primarily focuses on the action mechanism of some important appetite regulating neuropeptides, and their impacts on the performance traits of the economically significant animal species.

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Coincidences between molecular genetic and studbook data of gidrán mare families on the basis of mtDnA
69-73

The traditional Hungarian horse breed, Gidran has been close to the edge of extinction several times. Despite the multiple bottleneck effect, the breed has retained a part of its genetic variability, and performed prominently in carriage driving and show-jumping competitions. Maintaining of the Gidran breed is important in the point of view of ...world heritage; because besides Hungary, smaller Gidran populations exist only in Bulgaria and Romania. Taking advantage of the special inheritance features of mtDNA, our study focused on two mtDNA regions of Gidran mares. Altogether, 251 hair samples from various Hungarian studs were examined. The analysis was successfully made in case of 251 samples of the cytochrome b and in case of 246 samples of D-loop regions. Because of the distinct mutation rates of the two mtDNA markers, the number of the haplotypes and the way of grouping samples into haplotypes was different. Our key finding was that most haplotypes may be compatible with mare families of the stud book; however incidental mistakes in stud book have occurred only in a few cases. Our results indicate the importance of the preservation and breeding those mare families, which are molecular genetically more diverse than the others, and are in the edge of extinction.

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Recent data about the fish consumption of great Cormorant in the area of Hortobágy Fish Farm Co
75-80

The cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) is a bird species that nests sporadically but in colonies, besides larger fishponds and rivers in Hungary. The number of its individuals has been increasing during the last two decades. The species eats solely fish, therefore it can cause serious depredation of the fish stocks in fishponds of intensive system... and after the freezing of the ponds, in larger rivers, which are not yet frozen. The aim of our research was to reveal the damages the birds can cause on the studied areas and the extent of the losses the Hortobágy Fish Farm Co. has to realize.

Our studies were carried out between April 2012 and November 2014. During cleaning, the investigation of the craw contents of the birds and their biometric studies were conducted. The results revealed the diverse food base of the species. In the samples, we have determined 379 fish individuals; in 368 cases, the exact fish species were determined, too. Significant differences were found between the consumed fish species rations of the units (P=0.05% beside). We have also found significant difference in the fish consumptions of adult males and females.

Under the ever harder fish production conditions, the presence and thus the permanent predation of the birds affect the fishermen. In favour of maintaining ecological balance as well as to hold the income of the fish farmers, elaboration of adequate protective and preventive methods will be needed in near future.

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