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Evaluation of crop yield and fruit quality in organic apple production
Published March 19, 2007
7-10.

In this study, crop yield and fruit quality parameters (soluble solid concentration, sugar, total acid, and vitamin C content) of 15 apple cultivars including old, resistant and currently grown cultivars. The highest fruit yield among all 15 cultivars was obtained on CV. Jonagold with 15.5 kg/tree, while the lowest yield was measured on the res...istant cultivar Reanda with 8.1 kg/tree. There were no significant differences among the cultivars in fruit diameter ranging from 70 mm in the case of cv. Húsvéti rozmaring to 82 mm for cv. Mutsu. Values of soluble solids concentration of the cultivars varied between 15.5% for cv. Téli Banán and 19.2% for cv. Renora. Sugar content values showed a similar tendency to soluble solids content. The highest and lowest total sugar content was observed on cvs. Jonagold and Renora and cv. Re­tina with 17% and 12.4%, respectively. Total acid content values ranged between 0.18% and 0.53% for cvs. Jonagold and Remo, respectively. Values of vitamin C content for the 15 apple cultivars varied between 2 mg% and 4 mg% for cv. Retina and cv. Mutsu, respectively.

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Composition and storage of pear cultivars from Nagykanizsa
Published March 15, 2011
63-68.

The composition of five pear varieties (‘Abate Fètel’, ‘Bosc’, ‘Williams’, ‘Conference’, ‘Packham’s Triumph’) grown in Nagykanizsa was investigated in three consecutive years (2008, 2009, 2010). A storage experiment was performed in 2008. Four winter pear cultivars were kept in an ULO store for four months and their param...eters measured after two and four months. The parameters tested were: size, weight, water soluble solids, titratable acidity, glucose, fructose, sucrose, water soluble pectin, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity, copper and zinc content. The fruits of ‘Conference’ and ‘Bosc’ varieties were found to contain the highest sucrose and total sugar content, while ‘Abate Fétel’ had the lowest sucrose and highest glucose levels among cultivars tested. ‘Williams’ pear was the most acidic. Brix, total sugar, sucrose and water soluble pectin were decreased during storage. Titratable acidity slightly decreased in fruits of Conference pear. Polyphenols and free radical scavenging capacity did not show a significant change during storage.

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Effects of self and cross pollination on fruit set and fruit quality of sour cherry cultivars
Published January 3, 2010
31-36.

An experiment conducted using factorial based on randomized completely block design during 2005 and 2006. Flowers of Érdi bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány meggy before anthesis and in balloon stages were isolated with paper bags from guest pollens and pollinated in appropriate time. The averages of final fruit set showed the advantage of ...open pollination (14.6% fruit set) in compare with artificial self pollination (13.0% fruit set) and natural self pollination (4.4% fruit set). Siah mashhad sweet cherry cultivar with more than 70% overlap of flowering and 9.8% fruit set in 2005 and 17.9% in 2006 was the best among applied pollinisers for Érdi bôtermô sour cherry cultivar.Also, Siah mashhad sweet cherry with more than 50%overlap of flowering time and 25.8%fruit set was the best polliniser for Cigány megg. Among the pollinisers, Siah mashhad was the best for Érdi jubileum with more than 50% overlap and 15.22% fruit set. Meanwhile, pollens of Siah mashhad caused the increase of fruit size in Cigány meggy cultivar. phenomenon. Pollens of Siah mashhad caused reduction in total soluble solids of Érdi bôtermô fruits, however, it does not have any significant effect on the acid rate of fruits.

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Nutritional quality, fruit shape and relationships among exotic and local Capsicum pepper genotypes in Uganda
Published July 21, 2021
33-39.

Twenty-one hot pepper genotypes comprising of local (15) and exotic (6) types (C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense) were characterized for selected fruit traits after propagation in a glasshouse at the Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute Kabanyolo in Central Uganda using a completely randomized design with... three replicates. Ripe fruits were harvested and analyzed; traits evaluated were all significantly different at P<0.05 with variations in quality attributes. The genotype OHA-B305-10 had the highest ascorbic acid content (128.86 mg/100 g) and is recommended for improvement of both local and exotic genotypes targeting the fresh market. Genotypes CAP0408-12 and UG2 WE0511-22, with highest total soluble solids (16.17 ºBrix) and dry matter content (28.59%), respectively should be used in improvements for industrial use or processing to products such as chilli powder or flakes. BRS-M205-04 with highest titratable acidity (1.04%) can be used in enhancing shelf life of genotypes with low titratable acids as well as for the fresh market. In spite of the intraspecific relationships among genotypes, significant differences were observed in their quantitative traits. These genotypes will, therefore, be useful in improving the quality of hot pepper fruit in Uganda.

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Response of sour cherry cultivar `Érdi jubileum' fruits to modified atmosphere packaging after ethephon spraying
Published March 25, 2009
81-85.

Sour cherries are not adapted to long storage. The largest percentage of sour cherries reaches the consumer either directly or indirectly through the tin can or the frozen pack. Different concentrations of ethephon usually are used commercially to facilitate harvesting sour cherry fruits that this hormone influences on fruit quality. The object...ive of this study was effect of ethephon preharvest application on sour cherry fruits quality during storage period at modified atmosphere packaging was investigated. Modified atmosphere packaging used with 10, 15 and 75 percent for 02, CO, and N2 respectively that those held at 0 °C. This gas compounds synchronous to 0 °C temperature caused to increase shelf life postharvest of fruits. Fruit samples were evaluated at harvest date and after 6 weeks in storage. Skin fruit colour, pH, total soluble solids, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, firmness were monitored. Ethephon concentration influenced on total soluble solid, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio and L* value. In more case, 225 ppm ethephon's concentration has no observable different to control samples. Thus, the best ethephon's concentration was 225 ppm ethephon's concentration.

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Composition and sensory properties of sour cherry cultivars
Published May 10, 2010
19-23.

Fruits of different sour cherry varieties cultivated, in 2008 and 2009, under organic farming and integrated cultivation conditions were analysed for their quality attributes, antioxidant activity and subjected to sensory evaluation.. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity e...xpressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined in freshly harvested fruits. The obtained results indicated that, the principal component analysis can separate and distinguish the seasons of fruit production. The farming system seemed to have slight effect on quality the fruit as compared to varietal factors (genotypes). However, the total polyphenol content was uniformly less in 2009. Total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in Bosnian type sour cherries, and outstanding in Amarelle type cultivar ‘Pipacs’. There was no statistically significant difference between the sensory properties of cultivars tested by panels, except the case of ‘Pipacs’. The organolaptic investigation showed marked preference to the fruits of Eva and Petri cultivars.

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Nutritional values of traditional open-pollinated melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thumb]) varieties
Published May 15, 2007
29-31.

The aim of our experiments was to investigate the internal quality parameters of some old melon and watermelon landraces or varieties whether they have any desirable characteristics. Measurements were carried out using 8 different types of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and 8 accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus ...em>[Thumb]), which were self pollinated under greenhouse conditions. Besides the determination of dry matter content; soluble solids, titratable acidity of the fruit juices, investigation of carbohydrates, total phenol content was measured by spectrophotometer. Total antioxidant capacities were determined spectrophotometrically using the FRAP method. We found some accesions both among melon and watermelon varieties, which could be characterized by outstanding inner content.

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Evaluation of morphological parameters and bioactive compounds in different varieties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta GURKE var. rubra L.)
Published September 20, 2015
31-35.

Beetroot consumption based on pickled beets generally in Hungary which is due to the higher yield from second crop harvested in autumn and processed by manufacturing industry. Researches of the past years confirmed its favourable nutritional-physiological effects on human body so demands, as for fresh salad, also increased. The trial aimed at t...esting the interaction of varieties on quality parameters and in the same time suggestions are made how to use different varieties of beetroot according to its quality. Morphological and sensory evaluations were examined on 10 varieties of beetroot harvested in autumn. The regular spherical shape can reduce the refining loss during the processing of beetroot which is beneficial for the manufacturing industry. In our trial the root shape of Libero, Mona Lisa and Rubin varieties approached most the regular spherical shape (diameter/length – 1.0) which is favoured by not only processing industry but also fresh market. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was observed in Mona Lisa, Akela and Cylindra (34.58–47.66 mg/100 g). A similar trend could be observed in yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) which proves the close correlation between the quantities of the two pigments (r=0.898). Highest total polyphenol (77.13–83.37 mg GAE/100g) and flavonoid (21.73–22.73 mg CE/100g) contents were detected in Akela, Mona Lisa and Bonel. These varieties are favourable for fresh salad and they can satisfy processing requirements also. Highest water soluble solids content was found in Akela (7.15%). In our conditions nitrate (NO3-N) values below 900 mg/kg were examined in all of the varieties which is favourable in the case of beetroot.

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Comparison of apples from organic and integrated farming
Published May 10, 2010
15-18.

Prima’, ‘Gala’, ‘Remo’, ‘Topáz’, ‘Idared’, ‘Releika’, ‘Resi’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Florina’ apple cultivars, both from organic and integrated farming, from Pallag and Újfehértó, were compared. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical sca...venging capacity expressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined at harvest and after cool storage. Organic apples were more acidic, while integrated fruits had mostly higher copper and zinc content. Total polyphenols and TEAC values did not show a significant difference as a function of farming technology. A principal component analysis shows the separation of provenances as well as stored and fresh apples. Results are considered as preliminary.

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Sunburn assessment: A critical appraisal of methods and techniques for characterizing the damage to apple fruit
Published August 16, 2010
7-14.

Many methods and techniques have been introduced for measuring alterations in the fruit and in its surrounding environment related to sunburn incidence. The research objectives, fruit materials and the environment to be evaluated dictate the methods to follow. These procedures are either non-destructive and involve techniques that allow us to t...rack the course of sunburn development and related environmental parameters, or destructive and involve the removal of fruit from the tree for field/laboratory measurements. Techniques employed can be used for pre-symptomatic monitoring (before symptoms become visible) or characterizing the symptoms already present. The principles behind the measurements and their usefulness for sunburn assessments are discussed and critically evaluated in this review paper. Descriptions and evaluations of the methods and techniques were made in the following groups: 1. Thermal measurements; 2. Visual assessments; 3. Fruit quality measurements; 4. Measurements of physiological and biochemical alterations; and 5. Practical evaluation of sunburn damage. Thermal measurements involve methods tracking the ambient temperature and fruit surface temperature, and their relation to sunburn formation. Visual assessments cover all measuring techniques (skin color, chlorophyll fluorescence, radiation reflection, electron microscopy) that are able to detect changes on/in the fruit skin related to sunburn formation. Fruit quality measurements are used to point out differences in qualities (soluble solids, firmness, titratable acidity, and water content) between unaffected and sunburned areas of the fruit. The measurements of physiological and biochemical alterations (gas exchange, pigment analysis, enzyme activity, gene expression) give us a better insight to the mechanism of sunburn formation. Practical evaluations involve many procedures that are used by scientists to characterize the susceptibility of cultivars, evaluate protection technology, etc. For this purpose, the following methods are in use: expressing the percentage of the total fruit surface area affected by sunburn or the percentage of the total number of fruits damaged on the tree, or even a scale based on the severity of the symptoms occurred. All assessing methods and techniques described here have their pros and cons as well as their specific applicability, therefore any of these cannot be favored to use exclusively for assessing sunburn incidence. The combination of these techniques will be the best choice to meet a given research objective perfectly.

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Impact of planting dates on yield and pod quality traits of snap bean under short-temperate season climates
Published July 27, 2022
57-63.

Snap bean, a warm-season crop, have low frost tolerance. The optimal temperature for seed emergence and plant growth is important. Therefore, appropriate planting dates for adapted varieties has paramount significance in improving pod yield and quality of snap bean under short cool season climates. Three snap bean cultivars planted at 3 differe...nt dates were examined to evaluate the effects of planting dates on snap bean pod yield and quality traits in a 2-year study in a short season climate in Manitoba, Canada. Results of this study showed that three, two weeks apart, planting dates had a non- significant effect on marketing yield of three different cultivars tested in this study. Planting dates showed significant effect on un-marketable yield, pod fresh weight, pod length and total soluble solids. Higher marketable and un-marketable yields along with longer pod length and soluble solids, in all three cultivars, were more profound when seeded at mid and late planting dates. Snap bean grew under higher temperature and accumulated more growing degree days (GDD) when planted in mid June and early July when compared to early June planting. These results conclude that marketable yields of snap bean were not significantly affected by planting dates when seeded-two weeks apart-in shorter growing environments which allow commercial and market gardeners, in northern areas with shorter growing seasons to optimise planting snap bean, without reducing pod yield and quality.

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Effect of seedling quality on growth, yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
Published July 27, 2022
64-72.

A two trial greenhouse experiment was carried out at Rwanda-Israel Horticulture Centre of Excellence located at Mulindi Station to evaluate seedling quality on growth, yield and quality of tomato. The seedlings were grown in different growing media and produced seedlings with varying quality indices. The growing media of peat moss 100% (T2) and... sand + goat manure + carbonized rice husks 50%: 10%: 40% (T8) were revealed in seedlings with the highest mean quality indices of 31 and 28 respectively, while sand 100% (T2) presented the lowest quality indices during both trials. The transplants were planted in polybags filled with 2:1 of topsoil and kitchen manure arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using HSD test at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed that the seedlings grown in T1 (S1) and T8 (S8) consistently presented tomatoes with better growth performance and yield. S1 and S8 produced mean yield of 93.59 and 92.35 t/ha respectively while S2 had the lowest yield with 53.86 t/ha. The fruit produced from seedlings grown in T4 (S4) had the highest mean sugar acid ratio of 5.88 but not significantly different from 5.61 and 5.44 of S1 and S8 respectively. Hence, there was a positive relationship among seedling quality and growth and yield performance of tomato but not in fruit quality.

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