Experiments are going on all over the world assisting the joint effort of researchers and practicing specialists to identify the methods which can help either in the reduction of production costs or in the increase of yields.
The task of the growers is to make profitable use of the forcing facilities and to satisfy market demands at an...acceptable price by means of improving production technology and applying new scientific, technological and technical information.
For the last few years, rockwool based forcing has been gaining in importance. The subject of our scientific work was the analysis of an important question of this technological variant, the selection of the variety. Besides, we also tried to identify the most suitable pruning technology for the varieties studied.
In Hungary, the highest demand is commonly known to be for the light yellow fleshed varieties which are suitable for stuffed dishes. In the future, due to their special quality and appearance, as well as to the Hungaricum character, they could become important export goods on the European Union market. It was within this variety type that comparison between varieties already common in production (HO F1, HRF F1, Danubia F1) was carried out, trying to get an answer to the question which of the three varieties could be produced with the greatest success. Considering the quantitative and qualitative indicators, it was H6 F1 that proved the best out of the three varieties tested under unheated forcing on rockwool. It excelled the other two varieties both in quality and in average fruit weight, preserving this advantage until the end of the growing period.
The major part of the pepper growing farms in Hungary operate as family enterprises with areas varying between 1,000 and 3,000 m2. As a result of the small size, their profitability is greatly dependant on the technological level and market circumstances. Most of these farms are characteristically affected by the lack of capital, the...refore, they are unable to implement any further developments with their own forces. Greenhouse pepper production on rockwool had already been subjected to analysis earlier in our research, however, those calculations were directed solely at the profitability and efficiency of production. Based on the data from 2004 in 2005 yet another and more profound analysis was set as the objective. Besides the methods already applied before, several dynamic indicators have been introduced which could also be useful for practical applications. The graphs can permit growers to monitor the temporal distribution of the costs incurred and revenues earned during production. Thereby it is easier to plan the costs and more simple to distribute them more rationally over the production period. Our experiences suggest that this sort of analytical method is applicable only in cases where a very careful and precise collection of data is ensured and the results obtained can not be generalised as being valid only for the single farm analysed. Experiences and results, however, make us consider the dynamic economic analysis as being very useful both for beginners and practicing horticulturists.
In the publications available for us, exact levels of physical factors and those of the growing technology determining Ca2+ deficiency are rarely detailed. Although the influencing role of the various environmental factors (humidity, light, temperature) is known, we had only little information about their exact values which could be presented f...or the growing practice. Sweet pepper varieties of the same type grown in various substrates responded to the environmental factors in different ways. Our results revealed that increasing temperature of the root zone had the most significant effect on the incidence of Ca2+ -deficient fruits. Their amount, however, gave different results depending on the growing substrate. In forced sweet pepper grown in soil the proportion of Ca2+ - deficient fruits were significantly lower compared to the plants grown on rockwool. Fruits derived from forcing on perlite, in container were damaged the least by the blossom end rot deficiency symptoms. Our experimental results and technological suggestions are based on measurement results of three years.
Nowadays one of the most important issues of greenhouse vegetable production in soilless media is the protection of the environment, in particular, the selection of the root medium to be applied. The objective of the trial was to test the applicability of baked (expanded) clay granules in hydroponic pepper growing with special respect to the gr...owing pot (plastic tubes and buckets with bottom and lateral holes). From the result of the experiment it can be concluded that baked clay pellets, similarly to rockwool, are a suitable medium for providing root anchorage for pepper, however, it is necessary to examine some technological issues (e.g. fertilization, irrigation) prior to starting a large scale commercial cultivation. Relative to the three growing containers tested, it can be concluded that with the 4-8 mm crushed clay pebbles cultivation can be carried out successfully both in the white plastic tube and in the bucket, with the latter it is recommended to locate the drainage holes on the side of the growing container (at 6 cm from the bottom of the bucket).
Cucumber production by soil less culture on rockwool substrate in Hungary is an open system regarding its water and nutrient supply. Environmental and economical reasons require the recycling of nutrients of the system. Experiments have been planned in order to estimate the utilisation of individual nutrient elements applied. All around the veg...etation period, chemical analyses monitored the depletion of the elements initially administered by sampling the solutions at successive phases from the injection to the overflow. The results have been compared with earlier experiences refering to general rules. It has been stated that the intensity of photosynthesis is decisive in determining the composition of the overflow. The less changes are observed during the period of frequent watering.
The absorption of the nutrient elements varied between 25-51% deperiding on the individual elements. The differences are significant. Further examinations are needed in order to clear:
- which are the main elements of technology, which are decisive in utilisation of nutrients
- what are the possibilities of the secondary utilisation of nutrients.
The European market demands vegetable products of the highest quality and this commercial quality must be maintained till the goods reach the customer. One of these important quality parameters is the fruit firmness of pepper.
The experiments were aimed at to find out the influence of different growing methods (soil or rockwool-based) a...nd pruning technologies (to 1, 2, 3 or 4 shoots) on the yield and fruit firmness of three pepper varieties (HO F1, Karpia Fl and Pritavit F1) which are common in Hungary. Fruit firmness was measured by the non-destructive impact method.
On the basis of the results, in unheated forcing the pruning to 1, 2 or 3 shoots can be suggested for all three varieties, as well as the utilisation of rockwool in their growing.
The non-destructive impact method has been found suitable for testing the fruit firmness of pepper varieties. In the experiments involving different growing mediums pepper stands were found to show significant differences, however the different pruning methods had no significant influence on fruit firmness.
Laboratory germination tests have been made with three white fruit pepper varieties and with one spice pepper in filter paper rolls wetted with KCl solutions of different concentration. Parallel tests have been conducted with the other species (lettuce, tomato, kohlrabi) to compare the salt tolerance of paprika with that of other vegetable crop...s.
In greenhouse, the action of KCl has been investigated with transplants raised in soil mixture, in rockwool and with seedlings transplanted from rockwool into soil mixture. Like the trials in the laboratory, the experiments in soil mixture have been made with other plant species, too.