Hungary was considered as one of the most significant raspberry producers in the 1980’ies. The acreage and the produced quantity, however, reflected a decreasing tendency during the past two decades: the 7 000 hectares existing in the year of 1990 reduced to 1 500 hectares, the current territory does not reach the 500 hectares. The annual yield is only 1 to 3 thousand tons. The level of domestic fresh consumption is very low, due to the fact that it is a relatively expensive fruit for Hungarian consumers. The requirement of the processing industry is satisfied by raspberries from mainly Polish and Serbian import. These two countries belong to the biggest raspberry producing countries in the world by producing raspberries of more than 50 thousand tons. Comparing to the Hungarian production costs and yields they are able to transport their products here at a very low price, consequently they hold the prices at a low level. The profitability of the domestic raspberry production is rather unfavourable, production often shows a deficit even in orchards of good standard; furthermore the lack of labour causes an extremely great difficulty, which is an important component of the decline of the production independently from cost conditions.
The raspberry cane midge (Resseliella rheohaldi BARNES) is a major pest of raspberry in Europe. The accurate prediction of adult midge emergence is an important part of integrated raspberry protection. Calculation of the accumulated effective temperature may be used in prediction. The values of the critical accumulated effective temperature needed for the first flight of the midge differ in the European regions. In our experiments we investigated the first generation of the midge in Hungary. Our results show that the critical accumulated effective temperature for the first flight was the lowest compared with results received in other European countries. The emergence of males of the first generation was found at 145-194 day °C, and females started laying eggs a few days later.
Several parameters influencing the antioxidant capacity were measured in our experiments to compare strawberry and raspberry cultivars. The analysed cultivars were: 'Honeoye', 'Elsanta', 'Onebor (strawberries) and 'Glen Ample', Fertődi zamatos', 'Mailing Expoit' (raspberries). Besides the determination of dry matter content the content of glucose, fructose, total phenol and anthocyanine, the reducing power, H-donating activity and total scavenger capacity were measured as well as the compound of mineral nutrients. Among the species and the cultivars, differences were obtained. These results call the attention to the features of cultivars and to count on the antioxidant-capacity describing values in case of consuming these fruits. In early spring and summer the consumption of strawberry and raspberry has a beneficial contribution to the antioxidant status of our body. In this respect these are more valuable than the year-long consumable apple. Accordingly, our measurements showed higher amount of sucrose, phenolic compounds and anthocyanine in raspberries, but strawberries contained more glucose and fructose and had stronger H-donating activity. It is worth to keep in mind that e.g. which cultivar contains more of certain compounds because of the strictly determined allowable dose in some diseases (e.g. diabetes).
Effective chemical protection against the raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi) should be based on the monitoring of the emergence of the pest. Before the application of sex pheromone traps, the results of several international studies carried out to determine the accumulated temperature needed by the larvae to become adults showed differences in the calculated data. The aim of this paper was to give information on the time of cane midge emergence by using sex pheromone traps and different methods of accumulated temperature calculations. On the basis of three years' results, the use of accumulated soil temperatures turned out to be reliable for the prediction of cane midge flight, and the relative standard deviation was the smallest in the case of 0 °C compared with other values applied as supposed biological zero points. According to our studies, 665 day °C are required for the development of one generation of the raspberry cane midge during the vegetation period. The emergence of the first generation was found at 451 day °C.
In our research, fruit colour and the shoot's red pigmentation were evaluated in the hybrids of Rubus idaeus and Rubus parvifolius crossings. Y and Ys genes beside the T genes determine the fruit colour of interspecific hybrids, which is characteristic for raspberry. For the explanation of the significantly higher results of segregation then expected at the yellow fruit colour hybrids, we have supposed the presence of a second yellow gene (Y2). In the yellow colour, a lot of different shade colours can be identified from light yellow to the apricot colour. In the regulation of the production of yellow and red colour, several other genes can participate also. Identification of these genes would require more additional research. The C gene determines the shoot colour of raspberry and in the case of wild raspberries we have revealed the role of a dominant Pr gene. The Y and Pr genes are descended linked. The value of crossing over is approximately 15%. The anthocyanin production inhibitory effect of the Y gene extends only for fruit. At the shoots of yellow fruit plants, strong anthocyanin production was observed.
The hungarian raspberry today and outlooks of its development (Review)
The territory of the Hungarian state is largely suitable for the purpose of growing fruits of the temperate zone species. During the next decennia, the annual volume of Hungarian fruit production is expected to be around 1.1-1.3 million tons, from which some 15% is considered to be a produce of Hungary or "Hungaricum" (90 thousand tons of sour cherry, 50 thousand tons of apricot, 20 thousand tons of raspberry, 10 thousand tons of walnut). These fruits symbolise the country's special quality, which are worth to catch the interest the foreign consumers.
The category of Hungaricum involves almost exclusively varieties of Hungarian origin as sour cherries, apricots, raspberries and walnuts, and they are representing outstanding qualities on the international markets.
As for the fruit products the fruit brandies are eligible to be "Hungaricum" and are called exclusively "Pálinka". The Pálinka, provided to be distinguished with a geographic mark and will be competitive on the world market. Smaller quantities, though significant produce is represented by the deep frozen raspberry.
In the small demonstration orchard of the College Faculty of Horticulture at Kecskemét the blooming time, the flower density and the honeybee activity was observed at a number of cultivars of 20 flower species during four consecutive years.
Fruit crop species were in flower during 3-4 months altogether. The blooming period of them was classified into five groups as early (almond, apricot, gooseberry), middle early (sweet cherry, red currant, currant-gooseberry, black currant, white currant, peach, plum, sour cherry), middle late (pear, strawberry, apple), late (black elder, quince, medlar, raspberry, blackberry-raspberry) and very late blooming period (blackberry). The blooming period of the members of the groups of early and medium early blooming often coincided partly and the same happened between the medium and the medium late as well as between fruits of late and very late flowering.
The flower density of some fruit species is extremely variable (currant-gooseberry, medlar), while at others it is fairly stable and evenly dense in consecutive years (sour cherry, sweet cherry, strawberry). At other fruit species it is moderately changeable. Some fruit species tended to attract more honeybees than others (plum, apple, quince, medlar) and some of them tended to attract much less (black elder, pear) but most species can be regarded as of medium attractivity.
On the flowers of some fruit species (pear, strawberry, quince) honeybees gathered pollen predominantly. At most fruit species however pollen and nectar gathering behaviour seemed to be gradually changing during the season. Namely most honeybees tended to gather pollen at the flowers of the early blooming fruit species, but on the other hand typical foraging behaviour gradually shifted to nectar gathering at the flowers of fruit species of moderate and late blooming periods.
The aims of this study were on the one hand to compare of examined compounds according to their importance in nutrition and human-health, and on the other hand we made preexperiments to investigate the relationships among antioxidant capacity and the endogenous substances which contribute the antioxidant status of the plants. The following species were involved in the experiment: raspberry, blackberry, black currant, elderberry and sour cherry. These fruits have potent health-promoting antioxidant power. Glucose, fructose, total phenol, formaldehyde and anthocyanin contents were determined in addition to ferric reducing ability. Our results reflected considerable differences in the measured parameters of the analysed species. In blackberries and elderberries the high antioxidant capacity is coupled with low carbohydrate content. Besides the formerly proven correlations between total phenol content, anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant capacity, these parameters also correlated with the measured formaldehyde concentrations, hereby we can follow the methylation /demethylation status of the plant.
Hungary is traditionally a food producer country. 63% of its total land area can be cultivated. Horticulture is one of the fundamental agricultural branches. The country has a moderate continental climate, with a mean temperature of 10 °C. The average hours of sunshine ranges 1,700 to 2,100 hours. Under the geographical condition in the Carpathian Basin the chemical composition of the fruits has a good harmony. The total fruit acreage is 97,000 ha with a crop of 800,000 to 900,000 tons yearly. In 1982 1,934,000 tons of fruit crop were produced since then it has decreased. The most important fruits are apple, European plum, sour cherry and raspberry. The percentage of apple reaches almost up to 60%. In the new plantings sour cherry, apple and black elderberry is popular. The most important fruit-producing region is situated at the North-eastern part of the country. More than 40% of Hungary's fruit production is concentrated there. In ranking the 2nd place is taken by fruit growing area in the middle of Hungary, where the production of stone fruits and small fruits has a considerable proportion.
In the 70s and 80s of last century there was a developed research structure and wide range of research activity in Hungary. From that time the research capacity has considerably decreased first of all in the field of technological development. The main research area is fruit breeding and variety evaluation.
Fruit scientists and fruit grower specialists are held together by the Hungarian. Society for Horticultural Sciences which has a membership in ISHS. Fruit researches and scientists having academic degree are belonged to the Horticultural Board of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
The main goal of our paper is to evaluate the economic performance of processing industry and its significance within food industry, furthermore to define economic weight of processed goods made of nuts and berries. Fruit and vegetable processing industry plays a key role in Hungarian food industry: it provides 10% of its production value and revenue, its export is outstanding and its export-import balance was positive in the last 15 years. Purchase of berries has been continuously reduced in the processing industry, mostly raspberry and blackberry decreased. Nut products is and important group; their revenue was 12% of the industry’s revenue in 2012. Processed goods made of nuts and berries are high added value products, while the purchased quantity is small, the value of finished products is high, especially in case of nuts.