Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae FITCH) infests immature roots of both Vitis vinifera L. and phylloxera resistant rootstocks. A capability to transmit viticultural viruses would make grape phylloxera a phytosanitary threat even under conditions where direct damage by the insect is not likely. We tested the hypothesi...s that phylloxera could transmit grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) by planting infected and non-infected vines in common 10 liter pots and infecting roots of the infected vine with grape phylloxera. In this test infection of a previously non-infected plant in the absence of nematode population suggests that grape phylloxera is a vector of GFLV.
The root bioassay method allows for 4-6 week continuous observation of grape phylloxera feeding on the grape root. 10 Hungarian phylloxera strains were compared on susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay and the resistant rootstocks of V. berlandieri x V. riparia Teleki 5C and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris...Georgikon 121 in in vitro observations. The strains originated from Villany and Eger (Figure 3) had higher reproduction on the root of V. berlandieri x V. riparia Teleki 5C (201 and 119 eggs) and were more aggressive than the others (average production 10 eggs). The continuous high level of survival, development and reproduction of the Eger strain on Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri x V. ripuria) until day 46 may be due to adaptation.
Most of the cultivars grown before the disaster of phylloxera in Tokaj can be found only in grapevine collections. The aim of our study was to determinate the cultivation values of six old grapevine cultivars of the wine-region, namely 'Balafánt', 'Budai gohér', 'Purcsin', 'Török gohér, 'Piros (red) furmint' and 'Változó (altering) furmi...nt'. Based on the results of the investigations from 2004 to 2006 it can be concluded that among from the examined cultivars of Tokaj `Budai gohér', Turcsin' and 'Változó furmint' match the best with the technological and consumer requirements of recent days. However the yield of 'Budai gohér' in certain vintages is not acceptable and red wine cultivars are not permitted at this time in the wine-region, but in qualitative responses these presented steadily good data. On the other hand the lowest sugar content was measured and development of noble rot was not registered at all in case of Piros furmint' and `Balafánt'. Their spread in Tokaj is not probable.
Powdery mildew, Phylloxera and downy mildew epidemics devastated large areas of vineyards in Hungary in the 1800s. To establish new plantages resistant so called "direct producers" were imported from America (direct means "without grafting"). Direct producers have secure yield but their quality is inferior. After World War II, an organized bree...ding programme was started to replace them and parallel to this the law prohibited their production. As a resistance gene source, the E.2 clone (S. V. 12375 E.2) of Seyve-Villard 12375, Franco-American hybrid selected in Eger was used by Hungarian breeders. Several valuable hybrid families have originated from crosses of this variety hybrid.
In the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology at Kecskemét, two valuable table grape hybrids were registered under the names of R.65=Esther and R.78=Fanny coming from 2 hybrid families of the parent S. V. 12375 E.2. Both varieties may be cultivated "environmentally".