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The role of meteorological variables of blossoming and ripening within the tendency of qualitative indexes of sour cherry
Published January 3, 2010
7-10.

We analyzed the relationship to sour cherry quality parameters of average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum
temperature, night and day-time temperature, precipitation and climatic water balance variables. Three cultivars of sour cherry were included
in the selection: “Debreceni bôtermô”, “Kántorjánosi”, and “Újfehé...rtói fürtös”.We conducted regression analyzes on the three varieties, but
present only those that proved to be the best fit.We couldn’t find any significant differences in the weather tolerance of the varieties. The data
base of sour cherry quality parameters covers the 1998 to 2008 intervals. The researched parameters were the following: dry matter content
(%), sugar content (%), C-vitamin (mg), total acid content (%). Maximum temperature, the difference of night and day-time temperature and
minimum temperature all have a significant correlation with the investigated quality parameters of sour cherry. Minimum temperature shows
a quadratic relationship with sugar content, while night and day-time temperature differences show the same with dry matter content. The
other weather parameters had a linear correlation with the quality parameters of sour cherry. The research results show that an increasing
amount of precipitation causes decreasing tendency in total acid content of sour cherry, so that increasing temperature has a positive influence
on total acid content. Big differences in night and day-time temperature also has positive effects on the dry matter and sugar content of sour
cherry while the amount of precipitation has a negative effect. High minimum temperatures cause decreasing sugar content respiratory energy
losses are significant if dawn temperatures do not drop considerably.A more favourable climatic water balance has a positive effect on vitamin
C content in cases of a large negative water balance, vitamin C content is generally low.

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101
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Connection of fertilization conditions of sour cherry and meteorological parameters
Published January 3, 2010
17-21.

Our analyses showed that the degree of free fertilization is mostly influenced by maximum temperature and sunshine duration.We found that free fertilization ratio increases with higher daily maximum temperatures; similar results characterise sunshine duration as well, namely we observed higher free fertilization ratio at higher sunshine duratio...n values. Total amount of precipitation during the period between blossoming and maturity and the difference between the average daytime and night temperatures have an important role in the tendency of maturity time. Photosynthesis and respiration are essentially significant in the development of biological systems. These two processes are mostly regulated by the daytime and night temperatures. Therefore, it is not surprising that if the difference between daytime and night temperatures is large, it means intensive photosynthesis and a low degree of respiratory loss. Under these conditions intensive development and ripening can take place; however, in case of a low temperature difference intensive respiration slows down the process of development. Duration of ripening is also significantly influenced by the amount of precipitation of the period between blossoming and maturity.Abundant precipitation slows down the process of ripening, while dry weather accelerates it. Self-fertilization takes place in a space isolated from the environment. In spite of that, we found that effectiveness of self-pollination significantly depends on the meteorological conditions. Degree of self-fertilization is influenced directly by temperature and indirectly by other climatic parameters. We found a significant connection between the values of maximum and minimum temperatures during blossoming and the ratio of self-fertilization. Increase of maximum temperature reduces the effectiveness of self-pollination.A 1 °C increase of maximum temperature reduces self-fertilization ratio by 0,6%. In the case of minimum temperature we can state that the morning minimum temperature of 7,5–8,5°C is the most favourable. If minimum temperatures are under 4 °C or above 12 °C, self-fertilization ratio reduces to the quarter of the value characteristic at 8 °C. We believe that the effectiveness of self-fertilization can be improved considerably by the rational placement of isolator bags within the crown area, avoiding their placement to the external, western crown surface.

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Relation of sour cherry blooming dynamics and meteorological variables
Published September 2, 2009
17-23.

The aim of our research was to identify the role of weather parameters in the development of the start date and length of blooming. In order to achieve this, we examined how meteorological conditions of a particular year influence the start date and length of blooming in different years (dry, wet, cool, hot, sunny, cloudy). The meteorological p...arameters were the following: maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, precipitation, length of sunlight, difference of daytime and nightime temperatures, potential evaporation-PET, Huglin-index,Winkler-index, climatic water balance which can be calculated as a difference of precipitation and potential evaporation. In this study we wanted to find out whether early start of blooming results in a longer blooming period or if there is a generally faster blooming period when blooming starts later. Based on the results we can say that early start of blooming resulted in extended blooming period for three sour cherry varieties at the examined production sites. The start of blooming showed the closest relation with the difference of average daytime and nightime temperatures of the 30-day period prior to blooming. Significant relation was also detected with the thermic indexes as well as with maximum temperatures, climatic water balance and the degree of potential evaporation.We examined how weather 30 days prior and during blooming influenced the length of phases. Results showed that precipitation prior and during blooming is in significant relation with the length of blooming. We detected significant relation between daytime and nightime temperature differences and the length of blooming. The nature of the relation indicates that blooming periods were shorter in case of increasing temperature differences.We found that shorter blooming lengths occurred when maximum temperatures averaged between 13.5–14.5 ºC 30 days prior to blooming when examining the relation between blooming length and maximum temperature. If the average of maximum temperatures was below 13 ºC or exceeded 15 ºC during this period, then we could calculate with a blooming period longer than ten days. We proved that little precipitation and high temperature accelerates physiological processes, therefore we could calculate with an accelerated blooming and shorter blooming period.

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83
97
Reproductive biology of Duranta repens L. (Verbenaceae) in relation to its environment
Published May 19, 2008
51-55.

Impact of environmental changes (temperature and RH) on reproductive biology in Duranta repens (Verbenaceae) growing at ten different sites of Agra was studied. It flowers throughout the year, with optimum flowering in September. The flowers are arranged in loose clusters on terminal or axillary racemes. They are either blue or lavende...r in colour, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic and complete. The plants exhibit floral polymorphism (increase and decrease in number of petals and stamens) and considerable variation in extent of pollen fertility, floral density, insect pollinators and fruit-set percentage. The changes in temperature and relative humidity during the entire flowering period, was found associated with the variation in floral structure, pollen fertility and fruit-set percentage. Based on the percentage of fruit-set during different seasons of a year, there were three distinct periods, namely maximum, moderate and minimum periods. The present paper deals with the comparative view of reproductive biology of this ornamental plant in these periods. During the months of August—November when temperature ranges between 13.7-36.6 °C and RH between 79-89% the plant exhibits maximum fruit-set percentage (68-85%). This was associated with maximum flowering, increase in floral size, and increase in visitation rates of pollinators and higher degree of pollen fertility. On the other hand, with temperature reaching to the maximum (15.1-41.5 °C) and reduction in RH (14.1-41.3%), the percentage of fruit-set was reduced to the minimum (21-30%). During this period, number of flowers/plant, floral size, pollen fertility, visitation rates of pollinators were reduced to the minimum. During this period floral polymorphism was also 'recorded.

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103
127
Damages caused by winter frosts, their temporal variation and frequencies in the main fruit growing region of Transdanubia and of the East Tisza regions of Hungary
Published July 26, 2012
89-97.

The aim of the study was the study of winter frost damages, especially their changes expressed in temporal frequencies on the main fruit growing regions of the country. In our earlier paper, we introduced the calculation with the term LT50 as the quantitative expression of temperature threshold, when the lethality halves the survival of plant o...rgans, buds or cells causing 50% death rate. The damage is highly dependent on the temperature and on its duration (length of time), but not at least on the frost tolerance of the fruit trees. The incidence and severity of damage is analysed according to the apricot and peach varieties of their different susceptibility or tolerance too. Four fruit growing regions, two of the in Transdanubia and two belonging to the regions east of the Tisza river have been selected to trace the incidence and severity of frost damages. For that purpose, we analysed the history of the past 60 year period, 1951–2010, utilising the database of the network of 16 meteorological stations of the countrywide service. Being aware of the values of LT50 during the rest period and afterward, the compulsory dormancy caused by low temperature, the number of days, the probability of frost damage could be predicted. The role of the orographical profi le, the height above sea level and the exposition of plantations are also decisive. Within the same plantation, 20–30 m difference of level may cause large diversity in temperature and frost damage. Air circulation and regular incidence of winds within the Carpathian basin modify the occurrence and severity of damages. Lowlands near the southern and northern country borders are particularly exposed to winter frosts. Most damages are reported in February, as temperatures below –20 °C especially if the fi rst part of the winter was mild, or in January was a warm period. With the end of the physiological rest period of the trees, the frost-susceptibility increases signifi cantly, and a cold period of –15 °C may cause heavy damage. This study proves that tolerance of varieties infl uence the damages substantially. By planting frost tolerant varieties, winter frost damages could be diminished by 40–50% at the same growing sites. Present results may also offer a tool to estimate the risk of frost damages and express the security of yields at a given site based on the data accumulated in the database over many years.

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92
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Relationship between several meteorological factors and phenological features of apple cultivars
Published February 19, 2008
13-19.

The trees observed are grown at Ofeherto, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple cultivars. Each of the cultivars were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenophases, the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001. during this period the meteorological da...ta-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming cultivars start blooming at 10-21April. The cultivars of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2-10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor influencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.

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95
89
Spatial and temporal variation of extremely low minimum temperatures in Hungary during the period between 1951 and 2010
Published July 26, 2012
75-80.

For this study, data of 16 meteorological stations have been processed over a period of 60 years with the purpose to reveal the spatial and temporal structure of the frequencies of absolute extreme minima in Hungary with special reference to the surmised global rise of temperatures on a worldwide scale. In the main areas of fruit growing, the m...onthly or seasonal absolute temperature maxima and minima are presented during the 60 year-long period and projected on the geographical map. For the main fruit- and vegetable growing regions the probability of winter- and late frosts is of prime interest. The time series of extreme temperatures though did not prove signifi cant changes over the period observed, but the information upon changes and their tendencies is a precious tool being utilised in planning, choice of adequate varieties for a longer period of time in the future. The deleterious winter frosts experienced in fruit production is not a consequence of a sole drop to a minimum temperature, but of an earlier period of mild temperatures during the winter, which sensibilised the trees. Frequent and extreme variations of temperatures may cause troubles at any time during the year and reduce the yields conspicuously. We ought to get familiar with the hazards of our climate and fi nd optimal solutions to mitigate the damages expected. The seasonal and monthly distribution projected on the geographical map we can follow up also the spatial relations and the signifi cance of their occurrence. Coeffi cients of variation between meteorological happenings at different localities facilitate the calculation of the probability of risks on the surrounding areas.

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87
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Effects of weather characteristics on blooming dates in an apple gene bank plantation between 1984 and 2001
Published April 19, 2006
37-44.

The aims of this paper was to investigate the flowering characteristic of apples and their relationship to meteorological parameters. The trees observed are grown at Ujfehert6, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple varieties. Each of the varieties were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenophases..., the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001. During this period the meteorological data-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming varieties start blooming at 10-21 April. The varieties of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2-10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor influencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.

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89
97
Relationship between several meteorological factors and phenological features of pear cultivars
Published July 2, 2016
67-73.

The aim of this paper was to investigate the fl owering characteristic of apples and their relationship to meteorological parameters. The trees observed are grown at Újfehértó, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple varieties. Each of the varieties were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenopha...ses, the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001 during this period the meteorological data-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming varieties start blooming at 10–21April. The varieties of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2–10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor infl uencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.

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84
91
Heat waves in Hungarian plant production
Published September 2, 2009
113-118.

A momentous inference of heat waves is the economic effect. The main demage after the human problems will caused by theese extreme events in agriculture. For example a long hot peiod without any percipitation can exterminate not only the annual yield, but also it can demage or in extreme situation it can destroy the whole orchard. Especially en...dangered most of the fruits, because an extreme summer with high temperature which usually goes hand in hand with an arid period can modify growth of the plant. Our investigations show that according to the most widely accepted climate change scenarios heat waves are expected to be essentially longer and hotter than in the past. It might happen that events we now define as heat waves last through entire summer. Although it will not be general, the length and intensity of present heat waves could also multiply. Based on data provided by some global circulation models, we might be face an event that exceeds the hottest heat waves of the 20th century by as much as 12 °C. This study also offers a survey of the methodology of heat wave definition. Besides traditional calculations, we present two unconventional methods by introducing minimum and maximum temperature heat waves. We show in what points this approach is different from those usually adopted and what extra information it may offer.As an extension of the usual studies, with considering the length of events, we analyse the development of two variants – temperature and duration – and, as a result, classify the extreme heat events according to both length and intensity.

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Path analysis and correlation coefficient of environmental factors influencing foraging behaviour of four honeybee species pollinating litchi flowers (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)
Published March 16, 2004
77-82.

Honeybee species Apis dorsata F; A. mellifera L; A. cerana F. and A.florea F. were the most important and efficient pollinators of litchi flowers (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in India. They constituted more than 65% of the total pollinating insects. The ecological threshold for commencement and cessation... of flight activity of each honeybee species varied from one another. In general, 15.5-18.5°C temperature, 600-1700 lx light intensity, 9-20 mW/cm2 solar radiation appeared to be the minimum ecological conditions for commencement of flight activity in Apis species. Cessation of activities in all the honeybee species was governed mainly by decline in values of light intensity and solar radiation irrespective of other factors.

In between commencement and cessation, the activity of all honeybee species followed the same general pattern as temperature (T), light intensity (LI). Solar radiation (SR). Nectar sugar concentration (NSC) and inversely with relative humidity (RH). Path analysis revealed that all the honeybee species differed in their responses to environmental factors prevailing under similar set of conditions depending upon physiological adaptation of each honeybee species. Of all the factors studied; temperature, light intensity and solar radiation were the three important factors whose influence on foraging population was more pronounced.

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77
106
Path coefficient analysis of environmental factors influencing flight activity of Apis florea F. and seed yield in carrot (Daucus carota L.)
Published March 16, 2004
87-92.

Foraging ecology of insect pollinators visiting carrot flowers (Daucus carota L.) was studied in relation to five environmental variables. The dwarf honeybee, Apis florea L., was the most abundant flower visitors and comprised more than 94% of the total flower visiting insects. Commencement of flight activity occurred when a m...inimum threshold of environmental variables was surpassed while the cessation was governed mainly by decline in values of light intensity and radiation. In between the commencement and cessation, the foraging population correlated significantly and positively with air temperature, light intensity, solar radiation and nectar-sugar concentration and negatively with relative humidity. Path coefficient analysis, however, revealed that direct effect of temperature was high and positive followed by light intensity and solar radiation while the direct effect of relative humidity was high and negative. The direct effect of nectar-sugar concentration was negative and negligible. Evidently, path coefficient analysis gave a more clear picture of effects than did the simple correlation analysis. Apis florea on an average visited 1.14+0.23 and 22.78+2.57 umbels and flowers/min, respectively during different hours of the day. Furthermore, the insect pollinated plots produced significantly more seeds with heavier weights than those isolated from insect visits.

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Relations of phenometrical indices of apple fruits with weather variation in the assortment of varieties of an apple gene bank
Published July 26, 2012
115-120.

The purpose of phenometry is to examine the measurable parameters of the plants in order to follow up the consequences of weather processes. We should fi nd the reasons, why the diameter of fruits grows larger in one season and smaller in the next. Variation may occur as a response to insuffi cient provision of water or nutrients, but also beca...use of pathological effects and of extremely high or low temperatures, moreover, of extraordinary heavy fruit load. There are phenometrical characteristics, which consider the fi nal consequences (density of fl owers, fruits set, drop of fruits), whereas other parameters could be followed up (size, length and width of fruits) as the dynamic components of growth. The quantitative parameters of growth are functionally related to each other, where the weather conditions, soil humidity and nutrients are on the input side, thus it is possible to model the growth of fruits as a function of the environment. Initially, the relations between the main weather variables and the phenometrical data have to be cleared. In the present study, the interactions between the mentioned phenomena are presented and numerically defi ned.

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The effects of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase) gene down regulation on ethylene production and fruit softening in transgenic apple
Published June 24, 2003
65-70.

A detailed examination of the production of ethylene and other ripening parameters during storage period has been undertaken in transgenic apple fruits, where the ethylene biosynthesis was inhibited by antisense ACS (l-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase) gene. Data indicate down regulation of ethylene production, softening and spoilage in... some transgenic lines. In some cases ethylene production was inhibited for over 90 percent, considerable reduction of softening and spoilage was observed probably due to the reduced activity of cell wall degradable enzymes. ACS activity was also monitored during ripening. The fruits of the best transgenic lines could be stored for minimum 4-5 months longer under 5 °C cold room storage conditions and one month longer at normal room temperature. This molecular approach can provide an alternative way to replace the commonly used and costly atmospheric storage of fruits.

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Pollen viability of ‘Besztercei plum' clones depending on the effect of the year
Published June 6, 2000
115-121.

The percentage of dark staining pollen grains was higher in spring of 1996 than in the previous year. Data in 1998 resemble those of 1995, concerning the large amount of medium staining pollen grains in the majority of clones. Some clones produced excellent quality pollen also in the third year. whereas there were significant differences in oth...er clones in various years.

The warmer February-March period in 1995 induced an early blooming, and frost affected the orchard not only in winter months, but also immediately before and during blooming. Thus, frost was the possible cause of weaker quality pollen this year. In 1996 warming began a bit late, but it was not broken by drastic falls in temperature, except for the middle of April, when a smaller frost affected the orchard. It is likely that this frost did not influence pollen quality of `Besztercei' and 'Early Besztercei' plum clones significantly. In 1998 warming was continuous and steady, the orchard was not affected by frost immediately before blooming. In March, however, there was frost almost every day, according to daily minimum temperatures.

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