As a part of the research project to establish natural sources of plant pigments, possibilities of introduction of Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet) into cultivation were studied.
As a result of the germination experiment, the relevance of 21 days' duration of germination procedure was proved. To get high germination rate alkanet fru...its are proposed to pretreat by gibberellinic acid (GA3) in the concentration of 400 ppm, overnight before sowing. This method results approximately 50 % germination rate.
The morphological and production properties of alkanet roots are characterized during ontogenesis. Transplanted populations can be characterized by numerous, thick and heavy roots comparing to the spontaneous ones. Thus, seed sowing and transplantation proved to be an effective method for cultivation of the species.
According to our results it can be concluded that in cultivation the optimal harvesting time of roots is at the end of the second vegetation cycle, when the dry root mass of the individuals is about 10-20 g with 3,0-3,5 % accumulation level of active substances.
Considerable seasonal variability have been found influencing not only the root masses, but also the accumulation levels of alkannin derivatives. In a more humid vegetation cycle the root size and mass as well as the content of active substances are much higher.
Shoot blight of pome fruits caused by Erwinia amylovora, i.e. fire blight, is present in numerous countries of Europe. The disease must have entered into Hungary in the middle of the 1990's and it was first noted and, respectively, identified in 1996 (Bacs-Kiskun county). The losses caused by the pathogen appeared — in orchards and s...cattered sites of production — in four counties, namely Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes and Csongrad at the beginning. From June 1996, a process of eliminating infected parts started in the course of a large action performed under the control of the Department of Plant Protection and Agro-Environmental Economy of the Ministry of Agriculture, under the direction of the plant protection inspectors of the then existing Stations of Plant Health and Soil Conservation. The 'operation' against the disease commenced by cutting back out the infected parts of the canopy and, grubbing them out, respectively. As for the spread of the pathogen (1996-1998) it could be observed that the disease entered into Hungary from the south, south-east and then it also spread into the middle part of the country. As a result of adequate official action and efforts as well as of adequate chemical and antibiotic treatments, moreover because of the introduction of more modern technologies of plant cultivation and those of plant protection it can be reported on that the pathogen hardly appears or does not occur at all on the northern, north-western part of the country. The infection also appears mainly on the parts east of the Danube. Cultivars less susceptible or non-susceptible to the disease are planted in recently established orchards what is also a considerable factor in respect of preventing spread of the pathogen.
The Buda Arboretum of the Szent István University is situated in the western-middle part of the city of Budapest. It contains 1640 taxa of woody plants on an area of 7.5 ha. The sheltered position and the urban micro- and meso-climate is favourable for warm-loving, even subtropical plants, of which many species not simply stay alive, but flowe...r, bear fruits and are spreading by seedlings in suitable spots. These instances call our attention to the possibilities that urban climate offers for landscapers, but also to over 110 species, which can be garden escapes in the future. Full list of plants, which tend to escape in the Arboretum is given in the paper.
Lycium barbarum is known exclusively as an ornamental plant in Hungary, and is planted so, as popular belief deem it a toxic plant. The plant’s fruit receives great respect in countries abroad, thus, due to its favourable content values the Lycium has achieved the title of ‘biological gold mine’. The last couple of years has seen the impo...rt of Lycium shrubs and its corresponding products, dried goods or in the form of various processed products which have been marketed and sold at extreme prices (under name of Goji, Wolfberry, Lifeberry). Our goal was to examine the similarities of the content values of wolfberry found in Hungary and those cultivated abroad. Along with Miklós Józsa the domestic Lycium population was surveyed based on foreign examples, between the years 2009 and 2011. Those defined sweet and largefruited were selected for further investigations to be set into a clone repository. This clone repository– which contains 67 different clones from a number of regions of Hungary – was established in the nursery of Dr. Miklós Józsa, located in the city of Szombathely. The phenological and morphological characteristics and the fruit ripening and quality indicators of plants in the clone repository were investigated. Six ‘best’ clones – selected based on flavour, disease-resistance and vegetative characteristics (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) were analysed based on their content values. The control plant was a cultivar imported by a delivery service, found also in growing. In addition to the results of the selection, the results of the content values of the six selected ‘best’ clones (total soluble sugar content, glucose-fructose ratio, carotene content, FRAP value) is documented in this paper. Further, based on the resulting information the possibilities of the fruit’s utilization are suggested. Significant differences were measured in the vegetative characteristics of the clones (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) and of those of
its inner content values. The resulting properties are considerable in regards of the plant’s introduction into cultivation and also utilization. Based on growing characteristics, more favourable clones were selected than the foreign varieties already in growing. Those clones selected by us have had similar or better content values than foreign breeds. The investigation of these content values is still in progress.
The cooperation of Hungarian professionals with Chinese, Thai, South-Korean, Taiwanese and Brazilian colleagues should deserve much more attention than actually done. We refer to the transfer and adaptation of production technologies as well as biotechnological developments in vegetables, fruits, ornamentals and medicinal plants from the Temper...ate Zone to the tropical and subtropical regions. According to our information Hungarian colleagues involved in extension work are highly esteemed on the same level as Japanese, Chilean, Italian and French colleagues. We could state that immigration of investors, local enterpreneurs as well as those coming from expansive regions of Europe, North America and oversses, representaives of supermakets keeps to be accelerated by the increasing confidence triggered also by the successful management of profitable plantations, vineyards and fruits initiated first about 15 years ago.
For Hungary, the presence and achievements of Hungarian horticultural expertise in tropical and subtropical zones yielded unequivocal advantages. Therefore, the next actual step of development would mean the organisation of a network of the "Units of Horticultural Mission" in the tropic and subtropic countries. We are convinced that those Units will stimulate the traffic of technologies as centers of transfer within and between the regions and contribute to the increasing influence of professionals on the production and trade of horticultural commodities. The introduction and testing of new varieties of vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants (as well as ornamentals), the development of the growing technologies, adaptation and acclimation of Temperate Zone germ plasm representing the general trends of advanced production will be the most important tasks of the Mission with a sufficient oversight upon the whole world. It is taken as a fact that Hungarian horticulture and breeding is competitive on the world market. We are ready to contribute to the development of horticulture on a worldwide scale. The Hungarian R & D will be attentive in the future to manage the accumulated capacities by information and mediating needs and offers to the volonteers of the profession. The reality of the above propositions are amply proved by successes of the Agroinvest Co and of other professionals registered in abroad.
To keep on the top of the world list of the profession we have to follow up the international trends by our permanent presence on the most important centers of administration and production of the world in order to hold on the hot line of the Hungarian administration competent in financing the R & D activities. We need specialists which are open minded, speak languages, familiar with the tricks of informatics, economics and politics, competent in deals, able to make decisions, etc. The education and training should be strenghtened to he conform with those trends. That proposal involves also the need to follow up the activities of the transnational companies, the regular, active participation on international conferences, the permanent attention paid to electronic informations available in the worldwide networks as well as the printed periodicals of horticulture. It is also related to the attraction of investors to the developments aimed within the country as well as abroad. At last but not at least we have to keep in mind that the work performed abroad by the Hungarian professional is a kind of "para-diplomatic mission" which cannot be substituted by any other, sometimes very expensive activity charged on the officia erliplomatic missions. The benefit of it is, however, valid to the whole country because false stereotypes developed during the last 50 years cannot be abolished otherwise.
The present study deals with the actual situation of the Hungarian sour cherry production in order to outline the chances of the future and the trends of the development anticipated. The general conclusion accepted that on the long run Hungarian sour cherry production ought to be reorganised. The conditions of keeping the position on the intern...ational market are outlined: integration of small farms into large plantations (several times 10 hectares), introduction of mechanical harvest and high (15–20 t/ha) yields. For all that, adequate expertise should be developed on the cooperative farms, where the up to date technology could be applied with innovative initiatives. Small farms (up to 1–2 hectares) and home gardens have no chances to stay on the competitive market. The actual volume of sour cherry of 40–70 thousand tons per year cannot be increased in the future. The sour cherry area was 16 000 ha in 2001, the actual is around 12–13 thousand, and will decline during the following 5 years to less than 10 thousand hectares.
In this study we summarize the results of a five-years period concerning seed traits examinations on Iris pumila, Adonis vernalis, Primula veris and Alkanna tinctoria, with special attention to seed dimensions, seed mass and other traits concerning plant fitness, to their variability and the relationship among them. We found t...ight correlation between seed weight and seed dimensions in Adonis and Primula, at the same time no correlation exists among the same characters in Alkanna tinctoria. Consequently, the seed weight and seed dimensions can be used as synonyms in the form of „seed size" only after preliminary detection of correlations among them.
The variability of seed traits is higher in natural categories (individuals, morphs) than in seed mass categories as speculative groups. When we need homogeneous plant stand (e.g. for an introduction experiment) it is suggested to use seeds pre-selected in this way. For ex situ conservation, where the central goal is to maintain the genetic variability, seeds originated from different individuals are preferred.
Hungary faced many natural disasters in 2007. Due to the estimation of the Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture, the amount of natural disasters that occurred in Spring 2007 (frost, hailstorm and drought in April and May) is about 100 billion HUF. Frost and drought caused damage on about 250 thousand hectares of arable land. Currently, there are fo...ur insurance companies dealing with agricultural insurances in Hungary. Their income was nearly 20 billion HUF in 2003, whereas it barely exceeded 6.6 billion HUF in 2004. The reason behind the significant decrease of insurance fee is the state provision made in 2004 stopping fee subsidisation which originally started in 1996, enabling farmers to require a 25-30% reimbursement of the amount paid for insurance. Launching a state subsidisation again would greatly increase the number of agricultural insurances. The law about the national agricultural mitigation system passed last Autumn. This provision declares that the mitigation of agricultural damage that cannot be insured on a business-like basis is based on the common risk-taking by the state and the farmers. The introduction of this system is explained by the fact that the mitigation of damages through disaster can only be carried out if those affected also take part in it, according to EU rules.
Due to the geographical situation of Hungary the introduction of late ripening apricot varieties holds great interest. In apricot production floral bud development during winter, blooming time, and the fertilisation properties are important factors. These characters were studied in six late ripening Romanian apricot varieties (Callatis, Com...andor, Litoral, Selena, Sirena, Sulmona) in Szigetcsép representing the northern site of the lowland growing area. During the mild winter of 1997/98 the dynamics of floral bud development in the Romanian varieties was a few days slower during the whole examination period compared to Gönci magyar kajszi. Their meiotic divisions occurred between 1 and 5 February. Next winter the meiotic division started later at 28 February, due to the cold weather. In these conditions the dynamics of bud development was similar in all the varieties. Averaged over seven years blooming of the Romanian varieties started 1-3 days later than in Gönci magyar kajszi. All the Romanian varieties showed self-fertility to some extent, however, application of other pollen donor sources is necessary for the safety of production, with the exception of Callatis.
Sour cherry growing and consumption grows dynamically around the world. The present volume of 1 million tons will incerase within 10 years with 20-30, or even with 50%. In the world wide sour cherry production, Europe is a decisive factor, i.e. 2/3 of the volume is grown there. Prominent capacities are concentrated in East-Central Europe, mainl...y Poland, Germany and Hungary. In the future, new concurrent exporters are expected on the European market as Turkey, Iran, Serbia-Montenegro. Hungarian sour cherry production has rich traditions, so the growing techniques and the assortment of sour cherry varieties make Hungary a „Great Power" on this field. Fresh fruit and products developed from sour cherry represent values distinguished as „Hungaricum" on the markets. Sour cherry growing and the path of its products are one of the „pulling branches" of Hungarian fruit growing. Sour cherry occupies 15% of area for fruit growing and 40% within the stone fruits. Sour cherry was grown widely in Hungary, it was grown everywhere as for utilizing waste areas. This is the main reason that yields are low as a mean of 15 000 ha and the volume is low (50-60 000 tons) only. To that poor figure the heavy infections of Monilia contributed substantially in the last couple of years. The two most valid arguments of using the present varieties as the best solution are 1) the cross bred new varieties, and 2) the selections of local, traditional varieties, which substituted the earlier dominant 'Pándy meggy' variety, which had a good quality but yielded poorly. Sour cherry growing of Hungary shifted from the dry regions of the country toward the cooler and more humid regions, where the weather excesses secure a less risky production. The most decisive region is the Norther Great Plain Region comprising SzabolcsSzatmar-Bereg county, where more than the half of the Hungarian sour cherry volume is produced, and which is bound to increase its production in the future. The majority of sour cherry produced in Hungary is processed, moreover, an important fraction of the exported fresh fruit is also used by the industry. The main importer of Hungarian sour cherry is Germany. The industry manufactures mainly canned products, a smaller fraction will be processed to other products. The expected volumes of sour cherry grown in Hungary in the next 5 and 10-year-period was estimated from data based on the ratio of young plantations, predicted consequences of the global climatic changes, phytosanitary aspects, furthermore, on the development of the technological level. In the region, the volume grown within 5 years, 40 000 t/year will increase within 10 years to 55 000 t/y. The processing in Hungary is not sufficiently differenciated, which is attributed partly to the characters of the varieties, partly to the weaknesses of the processing industry. One of the reasons is the suitability of varieties mainly for canning products. Processed sour cherry products could not be sold at the same price levels achieved by concurrent sour cherry growing countries. The vertical structure of the path of products of sour cherry disposes of adequate processing capacity being ready to be developed or there is sufficient intention of making investments for the purpose of manufacturing special sour cherry products. Significant tasks of development are actual in the field of the ecological and biological conditions of production. Volume and yield security as well as the maturity time and diversification of processing possibilities are the main endeavours in widening the assortment of varieties to be grown in the near future. The main objective in growing techniques is the modernization of phytotechnical procedures, and new solutions of methods of mechanical harvesting and related technical innovations are necessary in the sour cherry verticum. A key question is the effectiveness of phytosanitary procedures with special reference to the Monilia fungus and to the cherry fruit fly as the most important pest. There are two points of break through in the Hungarian sour cherry verticum. On the one hand, meeting the increasing demands in fuits for fresh consumption, on the other hand, the diversification of processed sour cherry products and their introduction to the markets. Both are aiming to increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian sour cherry. For that purpose, outstanding varieties and excellent as well as internationally recognised fruit qualities are ready to be utilized. The most susceptible problems of the Hungarian sour cherry verticum are associated with marketing, alliance of the grower-and processor organisations and their co-operation because no overall integration within the sour cherry verticum has been established yet. Most urgent necessity as well as possibility of changes are felt in the Northern Great Plain Region.
Since the isolation of morphine by Sertümer in 1805 more than 40 alkaloids have been isolated from the poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Some of them have high biological-pharmacological activity and economical importance, while others have none, or restricted ones. The increasing demand for poppy alkaloids is the consequence of the wide...ning of the medical application of morphine and its related compounds: the quantity of morphine used for the treatment of pain reached a record level of 17.9 tonnes in 1997, compared with an annual average of 2.2 tonnes used during the period 1978-1983. However, the production of raw material (either opium, or dried capsule is produced) has to be re-evaluated taking into consideration the UN Convention signed in 1988 against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. The countries were forced by the Convention to introduce new arrangements in poppy production including selection and introduction of new cultivars.
In the present work up to date results of poppy selection are reviewed explaining the biosynthetic and eco-physiological background of their alkaloid accumulation. The effectiveness and the possibilities of traditional selection methods as well as the probability of the application of biotransformation for producing cultivars accumulating low or high alkaloid content or plant material with special alkaloid spectrum (codeine, thebaine, narcotine) are discussed. The examples of Hungarian cultivars 'Monaco', 'Kék Gemona' and 'Tebona' are given in more detail.