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  • Measuring the vibration of a brush cutter in different operation modes

    The vibration load of a hand-held machine depends on many factors not defined in the ISO 5349:2001 standard about the measurements and evaluation of human exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. In this study, the effect of different operation modes on the vibration emission of a brush cutter was investigated. The frequency weighted r.m.s. acceleration was measured at the front (left) and rear (right) handle in three orthogonal directions according to ISO 5349 (2001). Two set of measurements were performed with three subjects for
    idling and cutting operations. In addition, the acceleration was measured with two holding positions, i.e. the cutting head is tilted by 45˚ to the left and tilted by 45˚ to the right. The standard vibration evaluation method, with the cutting head parallels to the ground, significantly under-estimated the vibration emission of the tilted tool to the left and right. The results suggest that the use of different holding positions would improve the reliability of the standard method of assessing the vibration of hand-held tools.

  • Tending operation models for black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands growing on sandy soils in Hungary

    A more intensive integrated research and development approach to the work carried out on the growth on sandy soils of stands of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) has been adopted in recent years, revealing several factors influencing stand growth. The fact that certain ecological factors influencing fundamentally the growth of trees have become unfavourable in Hungary in recent years has led to the more extensive use of black locust in the course of afforestation and forest regeneration schemes. The study presents a new,  simplified tending operation model for black locust stands and age, growing space and target diameter models suitable for qualitaty log production and for mass assortments. The simplicity of these practice-oriented
    models may foster the qualitative development of black locust management in Hungary and in some other countries where this tree species may gain greater acceptance by landowners and the forest industry.

  • Seed protectant potential of Mitracarpus villosus and Phyllanthus fraternus extracts on germinative capability of stored food grains

    Seed storage is an essential post-harvest operation that decides the success of seeds viability and germination in next generation. The study explored Mitracarpus villosus and Phyllanthus fraternus extracts as bio-insecticides seed treatments on stored wheat and green gram seeds viability and germination. M. villosus and P. fraternus plants powder were sequentially extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (Petroleum ether, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform and methanol), concentrated and tested for insecticidal activity by fumigant toxicity. The extract which showed maximum activity, was selected for seed viability and germination test. Five replications each were made for the treatment and the control. The plant extracts strengthen the non-phytotoxic nature of plant products against seed viability and germination. Seeds treated with extracts (50-400 μg seed-1) did not lose their viability as it resulted in successful and normal germination within the range of 90 – 97.67% irrespective of the extracts concentration. While, seeds in control recorded 95.55 and 100% germination which were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared to the treated seeds. Based on findings from the study, potential exploitation of M. villosus and P. fraternus as food grains protectant in insect pest management strategies is recommended for the resource poor farmers. However, further investigations are suggested on biosafety and effects of the extracts on the organoleptic contents of the grains prior to consumption.

  • Fire blight in Hungary between 1996 and 2003

    Shoot blight of pome fruits caused by Erwinia amylovora, i.e. fire blight, is present in numerous countries of Europe. The disease must have entered into Hungary in the middle of the 1990's and it was first noted and, respectively, identified in 1996 (Bacs-Kiskun county). The losses caused by the pathogen appeared — in orchards and scattered sites of production — in four counties, namely Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes and Csongrad at the beginning. From June 1996, a process of eliminating infected parts started in the course of a large action performed under the control of the Department of Plant Protection and Agro-Environmental Economy of the Ministry of Agriculture, under the direction of the plant protection inspectors of the then existing Stations of Plant Health and Soil Conservation. The 'operation' against the disease commenced by cutting back out the infected parts of the canopy and, grubbing them out, respectively. As for the spread of the pathogen (1996-1998) it could be observed that the disease entered into Hungary from the south, south-east and then it also spread into the middle part of the country. As a result of adequate official action and efforts as well as of adequate chemical and antibiotic treatments, moreover because of the introduction of more modern technologies of plant cultivation and those of plant protection it can be reported on that the pathogen hardly appears or does not occur at all on the northern, north-western part of the country. The infection also appears mainly on the parts east of the Danube. Cultivars less susceptible or non-susceptible to the disease are planted in recently established orchards what is also a considerable factor in respect of preventing spread of the pathogen.

  • Relation between the germination and infection ratio on Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby seeds under hot water treatment

    Sida hermephrodita or virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through between ten and twenty years. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use it as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favorable features like fast growing and resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in base stage of domestication therefore has a serious disadvantage the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seed/acre instead of 10-20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a disposable ,basically wild Sida population. We examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenus or endogenus infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65, 80 and 95 oC), 29,33 to 46% germinated of the seeds collected from the population of S. hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5-10 % wihitout treatment and rised using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46 %) after the hot water operation in spite of the previus studys (Spooner 1985; Chudik et al. 2010; Doliński R. 2009.). We discovered that there are a distinguished close relationship between the seeds collecting time and the infection, as well as germination percentage. Thus, 2009 season was the most favourable in case of contamination (control:17,33 and 80 oC treatment:0%) as well as germination percent. It could be concluded that, the best season for our findings was 2009 due to autumn harvest of Sida seeds. In our oppinion, the autumn harvesting should be the best time to overcome the problem of the low germination and high infection percentage.

  • Irrigation management of a peach orchard

    The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. Mainly Sweet Lady (early ripening), Red Heaven (medium ripening) and Weinberger (early ripening) species were installed. In order to achieve the optimal developement level of trees and maximal yield amount and fruit diameter (Sweet Lady 60–75 mm, Red Heaven 60–70 mm, Veinberger 50–60 mm) continous water and nutrient supply is required. The irrigation modeling was set by CROPWAT 8.0 based on the climatic, crop and soil data inputs of the last 10 years. Based on the results, large amount of water is needed for optimal growth of fruit trees, particularly in the summer months, in case of active ground cover (+) and bare soil (–) as well. The irrigation requirement of a tree was found maximum 4 l/hour in certain cases. This irrigation intensity can be achieved – calculated with 12-hour operating time – by using continuous water NAAN Tif drip tube with 2 l/h flux on 3 atm pressure with 16 mm pipe diameter. If lower irrigation intensity is required irrigation can be controlled by the decreased the operation time.

  • Tending operation models for white poplar (Populus alba L.) stands growing under sandy soil conditions

    Integrated research aimed to intensify the practices of afforestation especially of white poplar and grey poplar woods. A new, simplified tending procedure has been developed to substitute earlier models considering the target diameter by right spacing as a tool to achieve adequat quality of logs. The practice-oriented model may help the qualitative improvement of white poplar growing technology in Hungary as well as in Serbia.

  • Evaluation of producer organisations in the fruit and vegetable sector: Experiences from Hungary and Belgium

    This paper focuses on the Producer Organisations (POs) in the fruit and vegetable sector in Hungary and in Belgium. Findings are drawn from a survey among members and leaders of POs. The aim of the research is to evaluate the operation of the Hungarian POs and to compare the results with the Flemish ones based on the perception of the respondents. We mark out from the research results that Hungarian PO members and PO leaders' perception significantly different in the following constructs: satisfaction with the CMO, environmental friendly production and willingness to cooperate. The most important difference between Hungarian and Flemish respondents was about the willingness to cooperate, and about the innovations in trading activities.