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Study on the emergence of the raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi Barnes) on the basis of temperature data and catches of sex pheromone traps
23-26.

Effective chemical protection against the raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi) should be based on the monitoring of the emergence of the pest. Before the application of sex pheromone traps, the results of several international studies carried out to determine the accumulated temperature needed by the larvae to become adults showed differences in the calculated data. The aim of this paper was to give information on the time of cane midge emergence by using sex pheromone traps and different methods of accumulated temperature calculations. On the basis of three years' results, the use of accumulated soil temperatures turned out to be reliable for the prediction of cane midge flight, and the relative standard deviation was the smallest in the case of 0 °C compared with other values applied as supposed biological zero points. According to our studies, 665 day °C are required for the development of one generation of the raspberry cane midge during the vegetation period. The emergence of the first generation was found at 451 day °C.

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Study on the time of emergence of the first generation of raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi BARNES)
43-45.

The raspberry cane midge (Resseliella rheohaldi BARNES) is a major pest of raspberry in Europe. The accurate prediction of adult midge emergence is an important part of integrated raspberry protection. Calculation of the accumulated effective temperature may be used in prediction. The values of the critical accumulated effective temperature needed for the first flight of the midge differ in the European regions. In our experiments we investigated the first generation of the midge in Hungary. Our results show that the critical accumulated effective temperature for the first flight was the lowest compared with results received in other European countries. The emergence of males of the first generation was found at 145-194 day °C, and females started laying eggs a few days later.

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Grape rootstock - scion interactions on shoot growth and cane maturing
30-34.

Interaction between the rootstock and scion varieties (clones) was examined. Berlandieri x Riparia T. K. 5BB, Berlandieri x Riparia T.5C being the most widely used varieties in Hungary, Fercal, Ruggeri 140 being recently used on special soil conditions ; Georgikon 28 a new established variety and Berlandieri x Riparia T. 8B GK 10 clone were the rootstocks used. The V. vinifera L. varieties were a clone of Italian Riesling and two new hybrids from the same cross population f ( Noble Italian Riesling X Ezerjó) X ( Noble Italian Riesling X Pinot Gris ) }. This study presents the results how the growth habit depends on different scion/stock combinations in the first three years.

Shoot growth characters were observed during the initial years after plantation in the vineyard until we got the first yields. Our results did not agree with those of Pospisilova (1977) that the anticipated vigour of shoot growth will appear later in the vineyard only. However we agree with Zimmerman (1970), who showed that the differences are caused by the rootstocks in the growth habit of vines during the first two years already. The differences in shoot elongation decreased similarly to the rootstocks in the first year of fruit production. It shows us that the intense root development caused vigorous shoot growth, which we think to be a rootstock effect. When the vegetative and generative development are balanced already, the effect of scions in shoot elongation became stronger than the effect of rootstock.

We also found great differences in the maturation of wood each year from planting of the vineyard to the year of fruit production.

During the first years the differences of cane maturation were greater according to the scion varieties, the means were significantly different. In the first ripening year the differences dwindled or increased due to the rootstocks. This means that the effect of the rootstock on cane maturation became stronger in the first year of fruit production.

 

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Production data of wine grape gene bank (Vitis spp.) of University of Debrecen, east Hungary
32-36.

National wine strategy of Hungary promotes the use of “flexible” grape cultivars. These enable producers’ best fit to wine market changes and expectations. This study is aimed to present data on the gene bank of the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Data were collected at a single site, between 2010 and 2018 in east Hungary lowland on acidic sandy soil, own rooted planting material. Our results showed that besides high yield and adequate cane production desired sugar content at convenient pH is to be awaited with moderate deviation between vintages. Presented concept demonstrate technological flexibility of cultivars by their average deviation from regression equation between increasing sugar and pH typical for the vintage composed of data of cultivars of the gene bank. Average positive deviation means higher sugar content at specific pH, thus higher sugar content at desired, conveniently low pH (3.0-3.2 pH).

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Inheritance of fruit colour and of shoot's pigmentation in the case of interspecific raspberry hybrids
33-36.

In our research, fruit colour and the shoot's red pigmentation were evaluated in the hybrids of Rubus idaeus and Rubus parvifolius crossings. Y and Ys genes beside the T genes determine the fruit colour of interspecific hybrids, which is characteristic for raspberry. For the explanation of the significantly higher results of segregation then expected at the yellow fruit colour hybrids, we have supposed the presence of a second yellow gene (Y2). In the yellow colour, a lot of different shade colours can be identified from light yellow to the apricot colour. In the regulation of the production of yellow and red colour, several other genes can participate also. Identification of these genes would require more additional research. The C gene determines the shoot colour of raspberry and in the case of wild raspberries we have revealed the role of a dominant Pr gene. The Y and Pr genes are descended linked. The value of crossing over is approximately 15%. The anthocyanin production inhibitory effect of the Y gene extends only for fruit. At the shoots of yellow fruit plants, strong anthocyanin production was observed.

91
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Grapevine and apple replant disease in Hungary
57-61.

Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster on rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50 % captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10 % oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 I soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of II wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Bed. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.)Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

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Grapevine - and apple - replant disease in Hungary
29-33.

Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster on rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50% captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10% oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 1 soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of 11 wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Berl. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.) Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

102
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Biological performance of grape varieties in Eastern Hungary
31-35.

Eurasian and interspecific grape varieties and candidates were inspected for biological productivity in the variety collection of the University of Debrecen at the Horticultural Experimental Station in Pallag. In this paper, data are reported on yields (kg/stock), cane production (kg/ stock) and use-up index of wood yield of each cultivar in the experimental years 2011-2012. From the range of Eurasian (Vitis vinifera L.) white wine-grape qualified cultivars and candidates ’Ezerfürtû’, ’Generosa’, ’Jubileum 75’, ’Müller Thurgau’, ’Zöld veltelíni’,’B-11’, ’CSFT-92’, ’Pintes’, from the range of Eurasian (Vitis vinifera L.) red wine-grape qualified cultivars and candidates ’Kármin’, ’Pinot noir’, ’Alicante Bouschet’ and ’Rubintos’ were highlighted. Promising data of interspecific ’Aletta’, ’Csillám’, ’Kunleány’, ’Orpheus’, ’Refrén’, ’Taurus’, ’Viktória gyöngye’, ’Alföld 100’, ’Reform’, ’RF38/32’, ’Toldi’ white, and ’Dunagyöngye’ ’Pannon frankos’ red wine-grape cultivars and candidates were emphasized. Published data refer only to the biological performance of the cultivars. The thorough evaluation of varieties needs respect to data on resistance to fungal disease and climatic extremities, and other characteristics concerning production technology and oenological parameters.

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Polyphenol- and anthocyanin content changes effected by different fermentation- pressing and aging technologies
65-67.

Different grape processing, fermentation and aging technologies were compared in our study on the white wine-grape variety Grüner Veltliner between 2012 and 2014 in Hungary,Cserszegtomaj. The vines are grown on brown forest soil on dolomite bedrock, stocks were planted 3x1 m row and vine space, respectively in our experimental area. The soil has slightly alkaline pH, the orientation of the vine rows are East-West. The training system is modified Guyot cordon, with 1 m trunk height and cane pruning method. After the harvest half of the yield has been put into the de-stemmer crusher before pressing while the other half has been pressed immediately (whole bunches). From the filtered and bottled wine anthocyanin, and polyphenol content was measured in 2013 and 2014. Another enological technology testing experiment has been set on aging of Grüner Veltliner in 2013. The wine was fermented with addition of fine lees from juice sedimentation. Traditional (racking only), battonage and fast ready-made aging technologies have been set together, each treatment in three replicates were observed.

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