Current Issue

Vol 4, No 1 (2022): Sport and Education

Published June 27, 2022

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Thematic articles

Health Education in Primary Schools: A Difficult Task
1-10

This study was conducted in a medium-sized French city, in a neighbourhood falling into poverty, with children aged from 9 to 10 years old. Its aim is to build an adapted strategy to improve children’s healthy habits. Our study was based on a mixed methods interdisciplinary approach using interviews, questionnaires, sleep diaries and accelero...meters. The unemployment rate of the target population is above 40%, and the families have four children on average. The children of the sample (N=29) practice less physical activity than recommended by the institutions in charge of health matters. The parents correctly manage the sleep cycles of their children, and stand firm when they have to go to school the next day. When the next day is a non-school day, children play more video games in the evening, both on their own and with their families. Healthy habits can be improved through cooperation with the various members of the educational community (parents, teachers and structures in charge of the children). Since it is difficult to manage health education solely during PE classes, this process must be continued both inside and outside school by the community, even more so the family.

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Conflicts in Physical Education Classes - A Systems Theoretical Analysis of the Teacher’s Perspective
11-20

This article presents the results of a systems theoretical analysis of conflicts in physical education classes from the teacher’s perspective. Building on the state of current research, a theoretical model to analyse the development and management of sport related conflicts in the school setting is elaborated. This model is used to examine wr...itten assignments collected at university seminars on conflicts in a German sport institute. At these seminars, sport science students submitted 40 detailed descriptions of conflicts in physical education classes, which were either collected through an interview or experienced directly in their role as teachers. The empirical material is analysed using qualitative content analysis. Based on a fictive case that is developed for exemplification purposes, all collected cases are considered against the background of the developed model. It differentiates between trivial, stable, slightly, and highly escalated conflicts and examines suitable management strategies. The study concludes that trivial conflicts are common in physical education classes, that teachers use different strategies to manage them, and that this issue is dealt with differently at the organisational level. This preliminary model can be improved through further empirical research that compares different school forms and levels of education at the national and international level.

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“Narrating” Bodies. Physical “Reflexive” Activities between Gender Images and Socio-pedagogical Processes - Research on the Yoga’s Representations
21-27

This article intends to offer a reflection on how reflexive physical activities can support a socio-pedagogical approach to educating about gender diversity through media communication. We use the term “reflexive” to refer to all those activities aimed at enhancing the person and his relationships, self-realization, selfknowledge, and self-...improvement: in other terms, a circuit of bodily experiences that determine bodily knowledge as a social construction (as described by Connel, 2005). These activities focus mainly on ethical purposes, rather than on performative ones. An example of such disciplines can be considered the practice of yoga which is a currently growing phenomenon both in Europe and in the United States. Yoga is practiced today in the USA by 35.2 million adults, by over 2.5 million people in Italy, and is garnering scientific interest in its contributions to balanced, healthy growth of children and adults. The World Health Organization, in its global action plan on physical activity 2018-2030: More Active People for a Healthier World, calls it a means to improve health. The diffusion of these disciplines responds to a personal and social search for meaning that weighs especially heavily on highly secularized Western culture. This diffusion also portrays a media phenomenon, whose images and messages validate and reinforce capitalist ethics. From this point of view, the “mediated” representation of sports bodies appears to apply to the world of consumers. The images of women practicing yoga, oriented toward alternative values rather than beauty and sexuality, are above all confirmed by the purchase of goods and services that are not related to outward personal appearance. Using the results of an analysis carried out in 2021 of two main international yoga magazines, we are going to discuss the role of yoga as a “reflexive” physical activity and its pedagogical potential oriented to the body as a “primary place of experience”, not just a consumer item, but also a tool for education about gender diversity.

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Investigation of Sporting Habits and the Attitudes Related to Physical Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic
28-40

Several domestic and international studies confirm the benefits of regular sports activities regarding healthy attitudes (Földesiné, 2008; Shephard et al., 2013). On the one hand, our research aimed to survey sporting habits (with a special focus on the impacts of the Coronavirus epidemic on physical activities). On the other hand, we investi...gated the participants’ attitudes regarding daily physical education classes. In the course of our research, we conducted a representative data recording among Hungarian citizens 18 years old or above (n = 1015) regarding gender, age, education level, and type of habitation. The vast majority (71%) of the surveyed population is not involved in any kind of sports activities (which corresponds with the outcomes of previous investigations), however, in this aspect, the impacts of COVID-19 are marginal. Sports activities are most typical to males with a higher level of education, who reside in larger cities. The most popular sports activities are running/jogging (36.3%), cycling (16.6%), and soccer (16.2%). The opinions regarding daily physical education classes are rather positive: the majority consider the increased number of PE classes a useful development. These opinions are held mainly by those who either are active in sports or who live in Budapest. A quintessential part of life in the COVID-19 pandemic, healthier lifestyles could certainly benefit from quality physical and sports education. If this quality is further improved, it may also dispel some of the negative ideas about sporting habits.

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Interrelations between Sport and Leisure Activities among High School Students
41-52

Research on the education, upbringing and habits of high school students is extremely varied and diversified across all areas of education. In our case, we would like to investigate students’ sporting and leisure habits, as several studies have found possible breakpoints in students’ lifestyles during this period, which is particularly true... for sporting habits. Our research focuses on the leisure habits of students learning in Nyíregyháza and Debrecen. We were looking for answers to the following questions: What is the most common form of leisure time activity among the students investigated? and, what social and sport-related variables are associated with differences in leisure time use? We conducted a questionnaire survey in secondary schools in the two cities (N=450) to answer our questions. The analyses showed that screentime activities continue to play a dominant role in the leisure time of the age group studied, followed only by activities that can be linked to active leisure.

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Inquiry into the Correlations between Sports Activity and Value Preference among Students in the Northern Great Plain Region as Regards the Role of Everyday Physical Education
53-65

The vision of society can be influenced by the values young people hold regarding their way of life and physical well-being. Today, we are experiencing a crisis of these value preferences (Perényi, 2010). The aim of our study is to examine the effect of transferred sports values on the lifestyles of physically active and inactive students in l...ight of the role of everyday physical education. In our research, 1521 students of the University of Debrecen and Nyíregyháza filled out the online questionnaire. Two-variable analyses and a multivariate principal component analysis were used, and the data were processed using SPSS. Regarding the relationship between sports activity and value orientation, the students included in the sample mostly focused on the “open” or post-material value dimension representing individual autonomy. This is in agreement with previous research data (Kovács, 2013; Perényi, 2010). Since this is a complex mechanism of action, we are unable to show causal relationships in our analysis. However, with regard to our research sample, it can be said that in the period since the introduction of everyday physical education, it has not yet had a demonstrable role in the physical activity and value system of students. Thus, promotion of an active lifestyle will, in the future, be critical in the lives of everyone. It will also prove essential in shaping the physical condition and mental well-being of the future’s society, not to mention it will help save the national economy. The first step in this process is the actual participating in physical education.

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Assessing the Role of the Coach in Terms of Dropping out from Youth Sports
66-74

Much of international research deals with the subject, so we can say that probably one of the most important issues in the field of youth education today is to explore the causes of early drop-out from organised sport. The aim of this essay was to test our self developed measurement tool and gain insight into what coaches see as causes of dropp...ing out within their own sport and what percentage of this phenomenon is experienced in their field. The main question for us is, why junior athletes between the age of 13–16 are dropping out of competitive sports, what role the coach’s personality has (in this), and what other reasons might the phenomenon have. In our enquiry, we sought to find out the opinion of coaches of team sports such as handball, football or icehockey, in addition to individual sports, like athletics and karate. In the research, we used only certain parts of the interviews during the analysis, paying special attention to the coaching attitude, the coach-athlete relationship, and the ways of motivation and methods used by the coach. The results confirmed that the causes of dropout should be sought for in the dimensions which we set up earlier. In the respect of the exploratory nature of the study, we cannot draw far-reaching conclusions, but we certainly consider it as a good starting point for our further research.

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Tools Supporting the Measurement of Fair Play in Sport
75-79

In the course of our work so far, we have repeatedly emphasized the loss of morality and value in societies, which has an impact on all areas of life (including sport). Today, we are far from the original values of sport and the ideals of Baron Coubertin; fair play as pure play. Among the ethical issues of sport, special attention should be giv...en to two extremes: fair play and doping. In our study, we aimed to review the available literature related to the topic of fair play in both the domestic and international setting. In selecting the processed research, our main goal was to present results that are useful for Hungarian educational science, including specific, internationally validated fair play attitude surveys and educational programs. Our current study is the first theoretical partial result of a larger-scale research, which includes the Hungarian adaptation of the presented tests.

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The Impact of Sport on the Health Related Quality of Life of Primary School Children
80-85

By participating in some organized physical activities, even at school or in a sports association, children will have an impact on their intellectual, emotional and socialization abilities, as well as develop their motor skills and abilities. As a result, an athlete’s health will also be at a higher level and their Healthrelated quality of li...fe (HRQOL) will change. In the survey, we were researching if there is a difference in the results of the HRQOL dimensions of lower-grade athletes and non-athletes at Ferenc Gál University’s Szarvasi Training Primary School and Training Kindergarten. In the cross-sectional study, 89 parents responded to questions in the Kidscreen-27 / proxy questionnaire, which asked about their child’s subjective quality of life and its relationship with sports. Based on the statistically processed data, it can be shown that young athletes have higher HRQOL values compared to their non-athlete counterparts in all dimensions. From this, we can conclude that sport has a positive impact on the health and well-being of athlete students, their relationships with family and friends, and their effectiveness at school.

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Dual Career through the Analysis of Policy Documents: A Case Study Focusing on Athletics
86-96

Careers can be influenced by several factor groups: opportunities provided by (1) the environment, (2) ambition, and (3) personal aptitude (Juhász & Matiscsákné Lizák, 2014). In the case of a dual career in sports, an athlete’s career is not limited to sports only, but also can include education. It is worthwhile for sportsmen to lear...n alongside their athletic career. For, a sporting career can come to an end at any time due to any unexpected event (Baráth et al., 2014). This dual career’s success depends heavily on the people in the athlete’s immediate environment. In our research, we used a qualitative method to conduct a content analysis of policy documents and semi-structured interviews with Olympians of three countries, one from Slovenia, one from Germany, and one from Hungary. We divided up our investigation into questions related to funding, professional background and studies. Their opinions showed that all three athletes are satisfied with the support they receive for their current dual careers, with only the Slovenian athlete feeling a slight deficiency. They have successfully combined their studies and sport, and all three have attended or are currently attending higher education. It can be concluded that all sport policy efforts show the potential for dual career assistance with a focus on self-efficacy. No differences can be found in the expectations of these elite athletes, and all feel the need to continue their studies in addition to sporting, regardless of whether or not it coincides with their previous studies. As regards the need to continue studying, the Slovenian athlete felt the least need. This degree of “need” does not affect the performance of the athletes in their respective sports, as all of them love sports. All receive adequate funding as well. In all three countries studied, we found such a level of support for the athlete that ought to be held up as ‘good practice’. The German competitor in particular possesses such professional staff that we would highlight and recommend it as good practice to follow.

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A Survey of the Vision of Future the Members of the Football Academies have at the Academies in the Capital City and in the Provinces
97-107

Although research into various dimensions of Hungarian football academies has become more intensive over the recent years, there is still a wide range of questions and problems to be addressed, most of which can be identified in the educational-pedagogical dimensions of the academies. Our present research concentrates on the players of 3 academ...ies in the provinces and 3 in the capital city (N=560). As a method of the research, we opted to use an inventory to collect the answers of the players (Rábai, 2021). We interviewed them about the way they imagine their future and their responses were, at each question, analysed in a comparison of the provinces and the capital. We assumed that there were considerable differences between the two groups, based upon the review and findings of the relevant literature. We found significant differences between the answers of the players of the two groups of academies, primarily in the aspirations to achieve vocational qualifications (p=0,039), the students’ views about their prospects of a professional career (p=0,000) and a career abroad (p=0,047) (Rábai, 2021). Our findings suggest that the majority of the young football players we contacted have a largely positive vision of their future. It especially applies to the students of academies in the capital city. In a number of their responses, students in the capital city provided answers that were highly confident.

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Research papers

Children’s Literature in Transcarpathian Schools for Teaching English as a Foreign Language
108-120

Since the origins of formal foreign language teaching, literature has always played an important role. Currently, modern language teaching trends suggest starting foreign language learning as early as possible; thus, the use of children’s literature in foreign language teaching is undergoing a revolution. This situation encouraged us to exami...ne the use of children’s literature and the attitude of foreign language teachers to it. This article focuses on primary and secondary school English language teachers in a western county of Ukraine (N = 118). The results of the qualitative research revealed that the teachers’ general attitude to the use of children’s literature is positive; they are aware of their advantages but still avoid using these materials. Most teachers do not apply children’s literature in their foreign language teaching because the school curriculum is too congested and fast-paced, they do not have access to appropriate authentic children’s literature, or they were not taught how to utilize authentic children’s literature during their university years. Results suggest that teachers should be encouraged to use children’s literature, though there is no universal solution. The first suggestion is for schools themselves to support teachers, but it would be a significant step forward if this approach were also to be taken in in-service training.

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Digital Diet and Relevant Minority Aspects during Home Preschool Education
121-130

The aim of the present research is to provide an outline of the home education situation of Hungarian children enrolled in educational institutions in Romania. The research focuses on the perspective of early childhood teachers and education experts. Our objective is to identify the factors influencing the digital diet in minority preschool edu...cation and investigate whether this phenomenon, along with practices in home education, have specific distinguishing features as compared to trends in mainstream education. Approaches to digital diet and preschoolers’ use of digital tools are basic components of our interpretative framework. We set out to investigate this pedagogical phenomenon in the light of minority education, considering the educational situation in dispersed and block regions. Our descriptive study, built on a questionnaire (own design), presents the good practices in home education focusing specifically on minority aspects. Our sample consisted of 403 early childhood teachers and 14 minority education experts resulting from convenience sampling. The investigation reveals a more liberal home education style. According to experts, the national regulatory framework for home education gives rise to conflicting interpretations and specific minority provisions and recommendations are less straightforward. During home education, the proportion of the areas of development and that of learning content is distorted, and the language of instruction as a factor influencing the digital diet becomes especially prominent. Research results did not focus primarily on the minority features of home education and the digital diet but rather on regional and local distinguishing features.

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The Use of Linguistic Features in Indonesian Students’ Texts at Hungarian Universities
131-141

Students enrolled in a higher level of education may face challenges in producing assignments, including writing an essay. They need to present appropriate linguistic features in the text to demonstrate their writing quality. Comparing linguistic features during university study is one fundamental aspect of administering writing quality and sho...wing student writing development. The topic presented in this study describes an initial statistical analysis and the frequency of linguistic features in the texts produced by Indonesian graduate students enrolled at Hungarian universities. This study proposed two research questions: 1) How frequently do pre-selected linguistic features appear in the texts of Indonesian graduate students? 2) How do these features appear in a paired T-test statistical analysis? Seven MSc and MA graduate students took part in the study to meet the goal. They are students at three different universities in Hungary, which all have a Social Science Faculty. During their second-year studies, fourteen essays with a minimum text length of 2000 words were collected. The findings revealed an increase in conjunctions, adjectives, abstract nouns, concrete nouns, noun phrases, expanded noun phrases, active verbs, verb phrases, and passive forms. Meanwhile, the frequency of linguistic features such as prepositions, definite articles, indefinite articles, noun clauses, adverbial clauses, and adjective clauses decreased. In addition, both the rise of nine linguistic features and the decrease of six features in the second semester are not statistically significant.

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Is it Worth Getting a Doctorate?
142-149

PhD training is part of the global education competition. The number of doctoral students per 100,000 people is a feature that moves together with the scientific performance of a country. Thus, doctoral training is an important element of a country’s innovation, in which Hungary is lagging behind. We assume that the main reason for the limite...d amount of doctoral students in Hungary is the low level of individual demand for training which, in turn, is due to the fact that the academic career of doctoral students promises low earnings compared to the placement of university graduates in other spheres. The earnings test and life earnings analysis presented by the study support this assumption: the earnings of those entering academically qualified academic careers are significantly lower than those of graduates working in the corporate sector. Though there are limitations present which impede the generalizability of these results, it does call to attention important trends to be acknowledged in future research.

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The Effectiveness of the Let’s Teach for Hungary Mentoring Program
150-160

The situation of disadvantaged students has been a problem in the field of education for decades, -so much so that several disadvantage-compensation programs have been set up in an effort to reduce its effect. This includes the mentoring process, the primary purpose of providing support and assistance to younger individuals. The subjects of the... research are the 7th grade students participating in the Let’s teach for Hungary mentoring program. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the autumn of 2019 (n=585), during which I focused on the children’s expectations of the mentoring program, their learning difficulties, learning motivations, and their plans for further learning. Classifying students in clusters based on their motivations, highlights the fact that the range of participants is not homogeneous this aspect. The Coronavirus epidemic has posed a significant challenge to traditional education, and the opportunities offered by personal mentoring have been pushed into the background over the past year and a half. Educators and students alike have struggled through the transition to digital education (Kristóf, 2020). Attendance mentoring was forced to continue in the form of distance mentoring. In my current research, I examine the existence of distance mentoring, the exploration of experiences, and the preparedness of the participants in the Teach for Hungary program. Data collection began in December 2021, and the query process is still ongoing. I carry out the survey using a mixed-method. I collect quantitative data among students with the help of questionnaires, which focus on the experiences, opinions and readiness of the children. In addition, I use a qualitative, interview-based research method that provides an understanding of more comprehensive experiences. I conduct interviews with educators, mentors, and mentored students. The subjects of the research are primary school students (8th grade students), mentors and teachers of a small settlement in Hajdú-Bihar county and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county (n=60 people). The research results can serve as feedback to the participants on the success of work done during distance mentoring. The results obtained can also serve as feedback for the Let’s teach for Hungary program because the program can be developed in the future from interviews.

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Book reviews

Third Culture Kids: Growing Among Worlds by David C. Pollock & Ruth E. Van Reken
161-163

Bibliography of the reviewed book: Pollock, D., & Reken, R. (Revised Edition 2009). Third Culture Kids: Growing Among Worlds. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

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Women in the Blind Spot: Review of Invisible Women
164-165

Bibliography of the reviewed book: Perez, C. C. (2019). Invisible Women: exposing data bias in a world designed for men. Abrams Press.

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Education and the Significance of Life by Jiddu Krishnamurti
166-169

Bibliography of the reviewed book: Krishnamurti, J. (1974). Education and the Significance of Life. All India Press.

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