I studied in this research, the weather loach (Misgurnus fossilis). This fish was in Europe common, but in our days desolated from several area. In Europe this fish was protected by law, and it got into the II. appendix of Habitat Directive. Although is it protected, the reserarchers don’t know too much about it’s optimal habitat needs. My...aim was, to specify some habitat parameters of the weather loach. That’s why I analyzed the impression of some parameters, whichs I measured in an optimal habitat for weather loach.
The level of nitrogen supply of a plant population can be quickly measured with non-destructive optical measurement devices and the differentiated determination of nitrogen shortage and the replenishment of nitrogen can also be carried out. The level of nitrogen supply is based on the fact that the chlorophyll content of crops is in close corre...lation with nitrogen content and that the amount of chlorophyll can be easily measured on the basis of the light absorption of chlorophyll molecules. The successfulness of optical measurements can be influenced by the change of weather parameters; therefore, it is important to know the correlations between measurement results and weather parameters when it comes to practical use.
The GreenSeeker Model 505 measurement device determines the relative chlorophyll content in the form of the Normalized Difference
Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on the basis of the intensity of the reflected red and infrared rays of light from the crop population. The measurements were performed in alfalfa population with 10 replications at five measurement heights and four measurement times. The weather parameters were measured by a weather station located in the middle of the alfalfa population and the correlations between the meteorological data and the NDVI values were examined. During the statistical evaluation of the results, it was established that the NDVI measurement is primarily influenced by the relative humidity of the air, secondly by air temperature and thirdly by wind speed. Relative humidity was in strong correlation with the NDVI values which were also influenced by the measurement height and time. Regression was not significant in the case of 20 cm measurement height, but the measurements above 40 cm height showed significant correlations. The correlation was shown to be strong at each measurement time, but the influence of humidity was the lowest at 11:00 and 14:00.
Our research was carried out at University of Debrecen Centre for Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture Institution of Plant Sciences Látókép Research Institute through the breeding year of 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 using cherrnozem soil. In our research we tested 14 chosen autumn wheat varieties during the three crop years.<...br>The different varieties showed very dissimilar ability of resistance against diseases through the three crop years. We could observe both susceptible and resistant varieties. Susceptible varieties got diseases even in favourable crop years. The observed winter wheat varieties showed higher susceptibility against helminthosporium (21.8%) and leaf rost (16.4%). Among the 14 varieties we experienced the least susceptibility in the case of ‘Gaspard’ and ‘GK Kalász’. The research showed that the disease of fusarium undoubtedly depends on the features of the crop year.
In terms of stem solidity we experienced big differences. Among all the observed winter wheat varieties the mid-late ripening ‘Gaspard’ showed the best results in the average of the three years, only 5.3% was beaten down.
The three ripening group of the winter wheat showed the following average yield in the average of three years: 7065 kg/hectare (early ripening varieties), 7261 kg/hectare (late ripening varieties), 6793 kg/hectare (mid-late ripening varieties). Among all the observed varieties the early ripening ‘Flori 2’ produced the biggest yield (7692 kg/hectare).
During the three crop years we reached very different amounts of yield which means that weather conditions had a telling affect on yield. In 2004 we reached an excellent average yield in all the tree breeding groups because of the favourable weather conditions. In 2005 we had a moderate amount of yield because of the unfavourable weather conditions of winter. The year of 2006 showed the smallest amount of yield which is due to the fact that the plant grew less thick than usually.
There were significant differences among the observed varieties in the term of yield, which can be attributed to dissimilar biological basics.
One of he most important questions is the yield stability of the varieties. We had extremely different results at this field. Speaking in general terms we can state that both weather conditions and genetical abilities have a determining effect on yield. In the case of winter wheat varieties the rate of yield fluctuation was quite big, moving in the interval of 33.7-70.3%. Among all the observed varieties ‘Gaspard’ showed the best yield stability (33.3%).
Main field crops in Croatia are maize, soybean, sunflower and sugar beet. By these crops are covered (status 2014) close to 50% (385 234 ha) of utilized arable land. Global warming, have often adverse influence on field crop yields. Aim of this study was testing precipitation and temperature regimes on spring crops yield in Croatia in 15-year p...eriod (1999–2013) and elaboration of the 2014 growing season with aspect of climatic change.
Four growing seasons (2000, 2003, 2007 and 2012) were less favorable for maize because annual yield was bellow 5 t ha-1 (average 4.38 t ha-1), while in four more favorable years (2005, 2008, 2009 and 2010) annual yield was above 6.8 t ha-1 (average 7.32 t ha-1). Average precipitation and temperature for the April-September period in Osijek were 226 mm and 496 mm, 19.6 oC and 18.6 oC, for less and more favorable years, respectively. Yields of soybeans and sugar beet have mainly similar trend as maize yields in function of weather conditions, while sunflower is more susceptible to extremely moist growing seasons (for example, 2001 and 2005: 650 mm and 697 mm precipitation and very low yields in level 1.7 and 1.6 t ha-1, respectively). On the other side, under drought conditions of 2003, 2007 and 2012, yields of sunflower were above average in range from 2.5 to 2.7 t ha-1), while at same period yields of maize, soybean and sugar beet were drastically reduced.
Average precipitation in the April-September period of 2014 for eight selected sites of Croatia was 756 mm or for 68% higher in comparison with the long-term average 1961–1990 with variation among the sites from 520 mm in Osijek to 910 mm in Varazdin. On the other side, average air-temperature in 2014 was 17.8 oC or for 0.7 oC higher with variations among the sites from 17.2 oC in Daruvar and Varazdin to 18.2 oC in Osijek and 18.3 oC in Gradiste. Under these favorable weather conditions, annual yields of maize (8.1 t ha-1), soybeans (2.8 t ha-1) , sunflower (2.9 t ha-1) and sugar beet 63.6 t ha-1) were considerable higher than usual.
We studied the effects of crop rotation, fertilization and crop protection technologies on occurence of the major ear- and leaf-diseases (powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis, leaf rust, Fusarium wilt) and the degree of lodging in the winter wheat variety Mv Pálma in two very different years (2006/2007=dry; 2009/2010=rainy). The experiments were... carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen CAAES in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at five fertilization levels by applying three different crop protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive).
In the cropyear of 2006/2007, the disease severity of leaf diseases was higher than the average in both crop rotations in spite of the fact that the weather during the whole vegetation period was dry. Infection by powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis and leaf rust increased with increasing fertilization, the highest infection was measured at the highest fertilization level (N200+PK) in the extensive crop protection technology. According to the results, no infection of ears by Fusarium and no lodging occurred in either bi- or triculture due to the dry year. The extremely rainy weather in 2009/2010 was favourable not only for the vegetative development of the stand, but also increased the occurance of leaf-, stalk- and ear-diseases and a high degree of lodging was observed. The highest infection by powdery mildew was observed in the plots with the highest fertilizer dosage under an extensive crop protection technology. A much higher helminthosporiosis infection was measured than in the cropyear of 2006/2007. The wet weather and higher than average temperature promoted the occurence and spreading of leaf rust. Under an extensive crop protection technology, a leaf rust infection of 24% and 31% was detected after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively, in the N200+PK treatment. As opposed to 2006/2007, the disease severity of Fusarium was 3–8% and 2–7% in the control after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively. This value, similarly to that of other pathogens, increased with increasing fertilization levels. Due to the large vegetative mass, a significant lodging was observed in the wheat stands in both bi- and triculture (17–100%, 12–100%).
The possibilities of examination the growth of fish species are verry difficult, and much of methods are oblique. With the weather loach is the work especially complicated through the small scales. Till now the growth of weather loach is in Hungary unexamined.
We applied self developed catch method in three explored channel. The length
The growth of the fishes is different, but the growth of the body length was nearly the same in the three channels. The one year old fishes can growth to a maximum of 130-140 millimeters, the two years old fishes can growth to maximum of 180-190 millimeters. Longer fishes by 180-190 millimeters are 3 or more years old. The data of sex-ratio is deviant than the literature wroted. The fish from Fényes are growing faster, than the others. This species can be 190-200 millimeters long after 2 years from birth. It is a very fast growing.
Weather conditions have an important role in fruit production. In the last few decades, this role is increased and basically determines the
fruit quality and quantity. Despite of this statement, there is but very few information about impacts caused by weather anomalies in
Hungarian orchards. Regarding this, the relation between the exter
the changing of the temperature and precipitation in a dry year (2009) as well as in a rainy year (2010) were investigated. The examined
apple varieties are grown at the same training system (rootstock, spacing, training, pruning system). The average weight, average diameter,
acid content and soluble solids were higher in 2009 than in 2010, although the precipitation was higher in 2010. Due to the many rainy days
the intensity of sunshine and the number of sunny days were less. To produce better quality it is very important the amount of the sunshine
and heat, the optimal temperature and the precipitation rate.
We searched for connections between weather conditions (with its sub-parameters as precipitation and average temperature) and the yearly formation of two quality parameters (protein content and baking value) on three levels of mineral fertilization, based on the results of a variety comparison experiment on chernozem soil, to select those weath...er parameters and critical periods which have significant effects on the quality of winter wheat flour.
We established that the protein content of winter wheat flour can be increased with increasing levels of mineral fertilizers. Protein content is lower and has higher deviation during non-fertilized conditions in different cropping years than on higher fertilization levels. Thus, it seems proved again that quality (as protein content) is mainly formed by the crop year, but can be improved with adequate agricultural engineering (with mineral fertilization in the present case). The higher sum of precipitation in May, and the lower average temperature after flowering, have the highest increasing effect on the protein content of flour of the examined parameters. Based on the results of the examined period, the rainier and warmer term than average before flowering and lower – average amount of precipitation and colder circumstances are favourable for higher baking values. The analysis with data of decades, proves the importance of the first half of May and the middle of June as especially important periods for quality formation. An increasing nutrient supply has different effects on the varieties; mineral fertilization increased the baking value of GK Öthalom winter wheat variety in almost every case, but the second level of fertilization decreased it in half of the examined years. Additionally, mineral fertilization played a role in the stabilization of the quality of highlighted varieties.
A polifactorial field trial with rape was carried out in the crop-years of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 at the Látókép Research Centre of University of Debrecen, 15 km away from Debrecen. The soil type of the research area was a calcaric chernozem, with a levelled and homogeneous surface. Our investigations on the dynamics of lodging proved that...rape can easily be lodged under unfavourable weather conditions, which results in a significant crop failure: In crop-year 2009 yields were 1.0-1.5 t ha-1 higher than in 2008, when the weather conditions were more unfavourable. In both crop-years the influence of sowing time on the crop yield of rape was examined in three soil cultivation systems, with ploughing, loosening or disking. Different sowing time influenced the yield of rape in both crop-years significantly. In the crop-year of 2007/2008 – due to mild winter – we got the highest yield in the first sowing time (at the end of August) with loosening (3930 kg ha-1) and disking (3727 kg ha-1), while in case of ploughing we experienced the highest yield (3770 kg ha-1) in the second sowing time. There were no significant differences between the first and second sowing time (the end of August and the beginning of September), and in the third sowing time (end of September) also a moderate crop failure (-6.7%) cold be obtained, due to the favourable weather in winter and the water supply of the crop-year 2007/2008. In 2008/2009 all the three cultivation systems showed the best yield-results in the second sowing time (ploughing: 4886 kg ha-1, loosening: 5186 kg ha-1, disking: 5090 kg ha-1), and the first sowing time hardly differed from this (-4.1%), while the late September sowing time resulted in a significant crop failure of -11.1%.
The yield safety of maize has not been satisfactory in Hungary for decades. Yield is influenced by the combination of several factors.
In recent years, the frequency of dry years increased and fertilization decreased. These factors call for a rational determination of the plant density.
I studied the relationship between plant density and
In 2003, the weather was dry. In the vegetation period, the amount of precipitation was 78.5 mm lower and the temperature was 0.97 °C higher than the average of 30 years, the number of hot days was 47-60 (days with a temperature higher than 30 °C). However, we obtained favourable results under experimental conditions in 2003 after wheat as a forecrop using the fertilizer Kemira Power.
The weather in 2004 was favourable. In the vegetation period, the amount of precipitation was 93.2 mm higher than the average of 30 years. Although, the distribution of the precipitation could have been more favourable. The yield of the hybrids ranged between 8.87-10.42 t/ha. Among the studied seven hybrids, the early hybrids gave the highest yield at the highest plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha (PR38Y09, PR38A67, PR37D25, PR37M34). However, FAO 400-500 hybrids gave favourable results also at the low plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha (8-9 t/ha). At this plant density, the aeration of the plant stock was better and the hybrids were prone to bringing several cobs. Yield stagnated with increasing plant density (60 thousand plants/ha), then at 75-90 thousand plants per ha, the yield started to increase again.
In 2004 the yield of hybrids was considerably higher than in the previous year. In contrast to yields of 8.87-10.42 t/ha in 2003, yields in 2004 were around 9-12 t/ha.
The yield of the hybrid XO 902 P is above 12 t/ha already at a plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha. It gives maximum yield at the plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha.
The hybrid PR38P92 showed a good response to changing plant density, but its yield was only 9 t/ha at the low plant density value.
In a favourable year, the yield of the hybrids PR38B85, PR37W05, PR37D25, PR37K85 at a plant density of 45 thousand plants/ha 11 t/ha, while at the higher plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha, it ranges around 13-15 t/ha.
Hybrids PR36K20, PR35Y54, PR34H31 have a good individual yield and they are prone to bringing several cobs in favourable years at a low plant density. Their maximum yield at the plant density of 90 thousand plants/ha is almost 16 t/ha.
In 2007, the weather was similar to that of the extremely dry year of 2003. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was 41.9 mm lower than the average of 30 years and its distribution was not favourable either.
In the optimum NPK fertilizer treatment at an optimum plant density, the yield of hybrids ranged between 9.32-10.73 t/ha. The highest yields of 10.22-10.73 t/ha were measured for hybrids PR38A79 (FAO 300) and PR35F73 at a relatively low plant density of 60 thousand plants/ha.
In the average of the hybrids, the optimum NPK dosage was N 131, P2O5 82, K2O 93 kg/ha active ingredient.
Besides agro-techniques the climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. Weather extremes are
significant hazards to many horticultural regions all over the word. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a
crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements i
stresses. Nowadays, the weather extremes cause more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary.
The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake followed from climatic anomalies and response it. In this study
we focus on water supply problems (water-stress).
Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:
· Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
· The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
· Proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of
· Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
· The role of foliar spraying, mulching and fertigation/irrigation is increasing continuously.
· Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as
Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar
fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees. Moreover, mulching is regarded as an excellent water saving
Based on the results of a previous experiment, we concluded that by choosing a suitable cultivar, it is possible to produce artichoke in a one-year cultivation system in Hungarian weather circumstances. The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the performance of two Californian artichoke cultivars (Green Globe, Imperial Star)...under the local conditions. Experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003, by using four
different sowing and two different planting dates (03.01. and 03.20. – planting 05.07.; 04.24. and 05.06. – planting 06.12.). For both cultivars, 100% of the plants initiated buds. In most of the cases, Imperial Star produced higher total and marketable yields than Green Globe did, while it formed bigger and more uniform buds. Our opinion is that the main reason for this result was that Imperial Star tolerated the dry and warm Hungarian summer much better. Irrespective of the variety by earlier sowing dates higher total yield was achieved. Based on our results, we found that under Hungarian circumstances, both cultivars could produce acceptable total yields. However, the weather circumstances of the given year influenced bud quality, and thus marketable yield, to a great extent.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to analyse the problems caused by the unfavourable (dry and wet) weather and its consequences in the R1 growth stage of maize (Zeamays L.), as well as their management and the alternatives of preventing yield reduction by using agrotechnical measures fertilisation, irrigation), also, we wanted to examine whether the Chl content measured in the R1 growth phase provides reliable prediction of yield per hectare.
The aim of this study was to determine the combination of treatment levels of crop management factors which can optimize and sustain maize yield under varying climatic conditions. The effect of winter wheat forecrop, three tillage systems (Mouldboard-MT, Strip-ST, Ripper-RT), two planting densities (60,000 & 80,000 plants ha-1...>), three fertilizer levels (N0-control, N80, N160 kg ha-1) with four replications in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments were evaluated over a five year period, 2015–2019. The obtained results revealed that growing season rainfall positively correlated with yield, whereas, temperature negatively correlated with yield. Impact of adverse weather on yield was less severe in biculture, irrigated plots, at lower planting density (60,000), lower fertilizer rate (N80) and in RT and ST, compared to MT. In years with favorable rainfall, yields of MT and RT were significantly (P<0.05) higher than ST. However, in a less favorable year, such as 2015, with 299 mm growing season rainfall and the lowest July rainfall (59% below mean) there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in yield among the three tillage treatments. Higher planting density (80,000), and fertilization rate (N160) in tandem with MT are treatments combination conducive for high yield under favorable climatic conditions, whereas, in years with low rainfall and high temperatures, RT and ST offer alternative to MT for optimum yield with 60,000 plants ha-1 and N80 treatment level. Crop year effect accounted for 20.7% of yield variance, fertilization 35.8%, forecrop 12.8%, plant density 3.4%, tillage 1.2% and irrigation <1%. It is conclusive that with proper selection of the appropriate levels of agrotechnological inputs the adverse effect of weather on yield can be mitigated.
In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.
The experiment...took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a halfindustrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants/ha.
In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2015 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 340.3 mm, which was less than the average of 30 years by 105.5 mm. This year was not only draughty but it was also extremely hot, as the average temperature was higher by 1.7 °C than the average of 30 years. In the critical months of the growing season the distribution of precipitation was unfavourable for maize: in June the amount of rainfall was less by 31mm and in July by 42 mm than the average of many years.
Unfavourable effects of the weather of year 2015 were reflected also by our experimental data. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 5.28–7.13 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.
It can be associated also with the unfavourable crop year that the yield of the six tested hybrids is 6.33 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 7.14 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is only 0.81 t ha-1, but it is significant. Due to the especially draughty weather the yield increasing effect of fertilizers was moderate. In the average of the hybrids and the number of plants, increasing the N80+PK treatment to N160+PK, the yield did not increase but decreased, which is explicable by the water scarcity in the period of flowering, fertilization and grain filling.
The agroecological optimum of fertilization was N 80, P2O5 60 and K2O 70 kg ha-1. Due to the intense water scarcity, increased fertilization caused decrease in the yield. As for the number of plants, 70 000 plants ha-1 proved to be the optimum, and the further increase of the number of plants caused decrease in the yield.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have investigated the effect of the cropyear, the genotype, the nutrient supply and their interactions on the yield and the quality parameters of three different winter wheat genotypes in three different cropyears. The most disadvantageous influence on the yield averages was caused by the moist weather of 2010, when yield results fell behind the mean of the two other examined years and the nutrient optimum was around low doses. The optimal cropyear turned out to be the ordinary 2011, the best yield results were experienced during this cropyear. Although the drier periods in 2012 decreased the yield values, the varieties could realize high yield maximum values. Considering the yield results, Genius turned out to be the best variety. In respect of the quality traits, 2010 turned out to be the best cropyear in case of all the three varieties. Despite the dry weather of the spring of 2012, the precipitation fell during flowering and ripening phases had positive impact on the grain-filling processes and contributed to the development of better quality. As a consequence of the significantly lower amount of precipitation during the generative phenological phases, the worst quality parameters were realized by the varieties in 2011.
The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight and caused by Monilinia laxa. Assessments of incidence were made on cv. Bergeron (susceptible to brown rot) in a flatland and a hilly growing area (at Cegléd and Gönc, respectively). In 2004, when spring and summer weather conditions were wet and cold, inci...dence reached 95 % for blossom blight and 33 % for shoot blight in the untreated plots. Blossom blight incidence was 1.5-2 times higher in the flatland area compared to the hilly growing area. During the blooming period of apricot, two (at flower bud stage and at full bloom) and three (at flower bud stage, at full bloom and at petal fall) fungicide applications were necessary for the successful control at Gönc and Cegléd, respectively. The difference between the two orchards was due to the fact that blooming started one week later in the hilly region (at Gönc) than in the flatland region (at Cegléd), therefore, the critical weather period coincided with blooming in the orchard in the hilly region only partially.
In present paper we have examined the effect of climatic change on the extensigraph characteristics of wheat-flours. The baking quality
of winter wheat is largely determined by cultivar, but it can be influenced by weather conditions during growing period. Flours were from 5
cultivars grown at one location in three cropping years. We have
conditions, nevertheless, different cultivars distinctly react to the increase of temperature and decrease of precipitation. In generally, the
higher average day temperature and lower precipitation level is favourable to produce winter wheat flour with better quality
The experiments were performed in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza Research Institutes and Study Farm, Centre for Agricultural Sciences University of Debrecen of 1500 m2 asparagus plantation. The asparagus was planted in 2011. We were determine the number of shoots, plant height and fold thicknes of asparagus hybrid. We can co...ntinuously monitored the growing parameters of asparagus. The harvest of asparagus was started in 2013, so we were able to measure to quantity. The weather was characterized by warm and matched precipitation in the growing season (April–July) in 2011 and 2012. Contrarily, the weather was very hot and dry after the late frost in 2013. The Vitalim produced the largest quantity, then the Cumulus and the end of Grolim hybrid. Number of shoot and plant height sequence is identical to the previous one. The Grolim asparagus hibrid has the largest basal diameter.
Change in chemical composition and nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaroides arundinacea) were investigated in springtime in 2004-2006. The nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass was observed between the end of April and the middle of June relating to the following parameters: crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, ash, N-free extract, ne...t-energy growth, net-energy maintenance, Metabolizable Protein Energy dependent,
Metabolizable Protein N-dependent.
It was also analysed whether a relationship between the climatic factors affecting the growing period as well the chemical composition of grasses and the annual weather were looked for. For the estimation of weather conditions the climate index was calculated. A correlation can be detected between the change of parameters of nutritive value and the quality of the current year. Between 2004 and 2006, the result of the analysis of nutritive value indicated a significant difference with respect to each chemical composition at the rate of P<0.01 depending on the time when the samples were taken. According to the outlined data it can be stated that the change of the value of crude protein and ash show decreasing endency agreeing the research literature. In parallel with the change of nutritive value, the amount of crude fibre and N-free extract increased. However, the value of Net-Energy maintenance revealed an alteration only in the first half of the observed period. The same alteration tendency can be detected
in the Net-Energy growth.
The following material focuses on dairy production and climate related issues in Hungary. All the data was gathered during PhD
project: Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary. Relations between animal welfare and climate changes expressed by
increase in temperature are described. Extremely hot weather creates hard co
compromised. From the preliminary results obtained one might formulate hypothesis that there are still areas on the farms where immediate
actions should be taken to give a relief to cows in hot seasons. There was found significant number of farms with too many animals per one
water trough, dirty water troughs, limited access to water troughs and hazardous surface for cows in critical places where many animals are
gathered. Calves with not sufficient amount of water in hot days and other parts of the year were reported. Silage exposure to the sun and
mouldy food in a silage clump was also found to be an important factor in monitoring impact of warm weather. Half of the farms letting
animals to spend time on the pasture or paddock did not provide shade for animals. Low conception rate of first insemination was predicted
to be influenced by heat stress, what is proved by lack of heat decreasing measures taken on the farms.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Production year 2012 has been characterised by climatic extremities. The weather of this year can be considered very contradictory in terms of maize production. The droughty conditions of the winter and spring months had a negative effect on both germination and starting vigour. The favourable weather of May-July created ideal conditions for intensive growth and generative processes; however the lack of precipitation in August and September had a damaging effect on the development of yield composing elements and grain saturation processes as well. Under such circumstances, the sowing date models caused significant differences in the yield and quality of the hybrids belonging to different growth periods. The growing period of the maize hybrids has been shortened as a result of the unfavourable climatic conditions.
New varieties and fertilization have significantly increased yields of maize in recent decades. It has to be taken into account however that the interactions and the balanced combination of cropping factors (ecological, biological and agrotechnical) are the main factors which determine yields. Weather conditions were rather unfavourable during...the last decade. Extreme weather conditions occurred due to global warming; 6 of 10 years were plagued by drought. Consequently yields increased from 10-20% to 30-50%. In view of varieties the situation is advantageous, maybe the supply of hybrids is too high, nevertheless those hybrids need to be selected which are particularly well adjusted to the ecological conditions. Many technologies can be applied which vary according to intensity, but the balanced combination of cropping factors should be secured on the basis of the hybrid’s intensity. Among agrotechnical factors the compensation of nutrients and technological conditions were inadequate. These days farmers only use nitrogenous fertilizers consequently they significantly decrease the easily available P and K content of the soil which in long term leads to the deterioration of the soil’s productivity. The technological background is therefore important, because sufficient yields can only be expected if agrotechnical operations are carried out in the right time and quality.
Extreme weather conditions are becoming more and more frequent in the crop years, thus increase the risk of sunflower production.
The objective of researches into plant production is to minimize these effects as much as possible. In this sense, the optimization of
agrotechnological factors is of high importance. Within these factors, the
and optimized, rational crop protection technologies are important, especially in the highly sensitive sunflower cultures. The effect of
sowing time, crop density, and fungicide treatments on the yield of sunflower hybrids was analysed in different crop years in 2008
and 2009. In each case, the infection was highest with the early sowing time and at the highest crop density level (65000 ha-1). When
one fungicide treatment was applied, the rate of infection decreased compared to the control treatment. The further decrease of the
infection rate was less after the second fungicide treatment.
In the humid year of 2008 the crop yield was the highest at 45000 ha-1 crop density level in the control treatment and at 55000 crop
ha-1 crop density level when fungicides were applied. In the draughty year of 2009 the maximum yield was gained at 55000 ha-1 crop
density level in the control treatment and at 65000 crop ha-1 when fungicides were applied. In 2008 and 2009 as regards the crop
yield, the difference between the optimal and minimal crop density levels was higher in the fungicide treatments than in the control
treatment (in 2008: control: 517 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 865 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 842 kg ha-1), (in
2009: control: 577 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 761 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 905 kg ha-1).
In each and every case, the first treatment with fungicides was more effective than the second. In 2008, the highest yield was
obtained with the third, late sowing time in each fungicide treatment. The differences between the crop yields with different sowing
times was less than in 2009, when the results of the second treatment exceeded those of the first and third treatment in each case.
Research of blanched asparagus has begun at the University of Debrecen Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm Research Institutes of Nyíregyháza in 2011. Establishment of the plantation took place in May 2011. The Grolim hybrid was used in the trial, 16 medium plot trial area has been formed under field conditions, with fou...r repetitions and 36 m2 plot size. In the course of our studies, the effect of different nutriment supply methods (untreated, manure, sheep manure compost, fertilizer) has been analysed on the spear yield of the Grolim asparagus hybrid between 2013 and 2017.
In our studies, the beginning of vegetative growth has been recorded upon the constant presence of 10 °C of average soil temperature in the case of the Grolim asparagus hybrid. The beginning and length of spear harvesting are both influenced by the time and dynamics of initial development in spring. During the analysed period, the dates of spear harvesting were various, the earliest being on 23rd March, 2014 and the latest on 23rd April, 2015; the rest of the three years have been varied within this one month interval. The total of heat units required for the vegetative development of spears has been determined; it provides important information for cultivation practice.
Spear yields turned out to be hectic during the analysed period. In 2013 and 2014, yields have surpassed the amount of 50 kg/harvest period/plot in the case of every treatment version. However, in 2015 a significantly lower specific yield has been recorded due to the unfavourable weather conditions in spring; a yield decline of nearly 50% was recorded in the case of the control treatment compared to the previous years. Yield was also lower in the rest of the fertilization treatments compared to 2014; however, in these cases, the degree of yield decrease was around 5–10%, which suggests the yield stabilising effect of fertilization. In 2016, a slight yield increase was measured in comparison with the base year. In 2017, there was a decline of yield in the control treatment; however, the different fertilization treatments resulted in yield increase as compared to previous years.
On the basis of our studies, it is clear that the best yield results have been provided by the artificial fertilization treatment in all of the five analysed years. It was followed by the sheep manure compost and manure treatments in terms of their effect on spear yield. During the three harvesting periods, the lowest yield on acidic sandy soil was recorded in the case of the control treatment. The most remarkable effect of nutriment treatments has been realised in terms of the decreased deviation of yield results, which perfectly represents the yield stabilising effect of nutriment supply in the case of perennial crops – asparagus – as well, even on a poor nutriment supply characteristic sandy soil.