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Some Practical and Biotechnological Methods for Improving Reproduction Traits in Sheep
Published September 15, 2003
15-20

However, reproduction in sheep is seasonal, many breeds of sheep are able to mate not only in autumn, but out-of-season as well. The main factor determining seasonality is the photoperiod, but other factors can influence reproductive pattern, such as genetics, management practices and social cues. The fertility of spring and early summer breedi...ng is usually lower; this imposes the need for alternative methods (e.g. hormonal treatments, biotechnological practice), to increase the conception rate.
The author summarize the main practical techniques and biotechnological methods for controlling reproduction completed with some own experimental results in connection with different topics.

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Correlation between body condition change and reproduction parameters of Holstein-Frisian cows after calving
Published December 1, 2010
49-52

The authors examined the body condition with relation to reproduction of Holstein-Friesian cows on three dairy farms in the South Plain region. During the examination they analyzed the data of 516 births of 494 Holstein-Friesian cows. They were trying to find correlation between the first service, the service period and the service rates. The e...xaminations with regard to the correlations were different from the ones published in the professional literature. The body condition at the time of calving affected the interval from calving to the first service but not the conception
rates or the service period. The examinations did not prove any correlations between body condition changes and reproduction.

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Effect of different n-6/n-3 fatty acid proportion oil sources on reproduction performance and fatty acid profile of milk in modern genotype sows - Pleminary results: Preliminary results
Published May 20, 2020
121-128

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on sow’s milk fatty acid composition during the lactation period and on reproductive efficiency of sows in the subsequent gestation period. Data were collected on a total of 213 DanBred sows (108 control and 105 experimental) representing parity of... 2–7, respectively. Control and experimental sows were placed in the same housing conditions during lactation and gestation period. Control group received 6.3 g of sunflower oil (SO) per kg feed as n-6 fatty acid supplementation, whilst experimental animals received the same amount of fish oil (FO) as n-3 fatty acid source. Diets were corn meal-extracted soybean meal based. The experiment was conducted in one replication as being a part of a longer and more comprehensive trial. It was found that the consumed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) appeared in the sow’s milk and changed its fatty acid profile. With this alteration, the n-6/n-3 ratio of experimental (FO) sows’ milk were narrower than in SO group (SO: 13.82 vs. FO: 5.89). The benefits of n-3 fatty acids supplementation were evident for the subsequent reproduction cycle, when experimental sows heated more reliable and earlier than control (weaning to oestrus interval: SO: 5.86 vs. FO: 4.48 days). Only 2.33% of experimental sows (FO) did not heat within 7 days after weaning, but this was 12.36% in the control group (SO). The present study requires further research to evaluate the effect of n-3 fatty acids on maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size.

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The role of type traits of dairy cattles in long productive life
Published May 23, 2006
11-18

In the last few decades, a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Additionally, the reproduction biology of the population was adversely affected by keeping and feeding technologies. Productive lifetime has shortened and the service period has lengthened. However, profitable milk production... requires cows with longer productive lives and larger life-time productions. In our study, we made a comparison between production, culling causes, and type traits of culled Holstein Friesian cows after first calving and of cows with a minimum of eight lactations. We established that the first lactation production of cows with longer productive lives was more or less homogeneous. Disease of metabolism as well as digestive and respiratory problems, were the main causes of the culling of cows with short productive lives, and reproduction and udder problems as well as low production, were the main causes of the culling of cows with long productive lives. We found a significant difference in the distributions of strength, body depth, dairy form, croup width, rear leg side view, foot angle, fore udder attachment and teat placement between the two groups. Furthermore, we established that cows with lower stature, less strength, a somewhat deeper body, better dairy form, narrower croup width, smaller foot angle, looser fore udder attachment and some outside teat placement had longer productive lives.

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Matériel et conditions de reproduction du ver à soie de chêne Antheraea pernyi Guer (Bombycidae)
Published September 15, 2003
58-60

In this study we highlighted the conditions that need to be fulfilled in order to have successful oak silkworm reproduction.
Thus, conditions for best cocoon hibernation should be as follows: strata of 10-15 cm with optimal temperature around 0oC, relative humidity of 60-70%. The cocoons must be moved every 10 days and must also be daily air...ed.
Butterfly mating should take place either the night of their coming out or the second day. It takes 14-15 hours; male butterflies outnumber females by 10%.
After mating, the optimal temperature for laying eggs is 18-20oC; relative humidity is 80%; egg laying takes place in the dark.

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Usability of vegetable extracts in the protection against Alternaria alternata
Published July 18, 2012
113-116

In our country, wormwood ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) may cause serious problems. Nearly 5 million hectares of agricultural area was infected with ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), which is believed useless weed. Allergological point of view, most problematic weeds adventive. However, many physiologically very beneficial compound also inc...luded, those with the effects have been known also by the Indians. On this basis, herbs can be thought of as ragweed. Our goal was to present that the ragweed contains antifungal active substances as well. In this paper we tested the biological activity of the extracts against Alternaria alternata F.00750 in vitro. We related based on our examination that ragweed contains biologically active agents, by which it is hampered the reproduction of the Alternaria alternata. The minimum effective concentration was 300 mg extract in a Petri dish, which was three days inhibited the growth of fungus. Full fungicidal effect was observed over dose 525 mg.

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Polymorphism of the bovine GH and LEP genes in a population of Slovak spotted bulls
Published November 20, 2011
19-23

The aim of this study was the detection of polymorphism in the bovine growth hormone and leptin genes using the PCR-RFLP method. A
polymorphic site of the growth hormone gene (Alul loci) that results in amino acid change at position 127 of the protein chain (leucine, L to
valine, V) has been linked to differences in circulating metabolite...s, metabolic hormones and to milk yield. The polymorphism in bovine leptin
gene is situated in the intron between two exons, which results in an amino acid change at position 2059 of the protein chain (cytosine, C to
thymine, T). The polymorphisms were studied in a group of 58 bulls of the Slovak spotted breed. A strategy employing PCR was used to amplify 428 bp (GH gene) and 422 bp (LEP gene) products from blood samples. Digestion of PCR products with restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI revealed alleles: L and V; A and B for GH gene and LEP gene, respectively. The growth hormone gene is a candidate gene for body weight gain in cattle, since it plays a fundamental role in growth regulation. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of feed intake, energy metabolism, growth and reproduction of cattle; therefore, animals with higher leptin gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and will also likely have longer calving intervals. 

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Complex assessment of inland water fish stocks
Published April 11, 2007
74-80

In the domestic fish production, natural waters have yielded for several years about 7-8 thousand tons. This, from the point of view of outputs, considering the almost 130 thousand hectares of natural water, is rather low, it means approximately 55-60 kg/ha mixed fish.Although the various natural waters can differ significantly on the basis of ...yields, yet on the majority of the territories, the results were low. In the case of our extensive still waters and rivers, the reason can undoubtedly be found in the combined effect of the lack of the possibility of reproduction of the fish stock and the over-fishing. Fishery built on planning supposes the best possible knowledge in the given circum stances of the parameters of the water area and its fishstock. Lacking this knowledge, it is not possible to establish the optimal use fulness of the resources, what is more, the management can make faulty decisions – as a result of a lack of information -, which can risk the success of later activities.
It is known that many factors have an impact on the success of the fishery, as well as some information in connection with the water area and the fish stock are necessary, the knowledge of which make it possible to manage the fishery in a planned way. One part of the information is available, while the other part is incomplete or not deep enough. The necessary data are dissimilar depending on their nature, can be obtained from different places, by different methods.
As the first step for executing the field surveys and processing data, I developed a complex model, which contains in a unified system the steps of estimating the fishstock. I made the sampling on the basis of this. Part of the model is a fish faunistic survey, as well as a morphological survey of the water area. The information gained from these are important for making more accurate the system of devices of the samplings for stock estimation (duration, number of net-rows) and for assigning its place (places representing the best way the physical characteristics of the given water area). The major stages of stock-survey: A) faunistic survey, B) physical survey of the bed, and C) sampling with the help of gill-nets. This is followed by the evaluation by the computer module.
The results of the research create a methodological and technical background for the fish faunistic and population biologic surveys still performed in different ways in our country, and by applying these methods together, all basic information about natural waters which help decision-making concerning fisheries can be obtaine deffectively.

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75 years of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr in Europe
Published November 2, 2014
82-85

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is a native pathogen in East Asia and has been introduced into North America and Europe. Historical records and population genetic studies revealed at least three major introduction events from Asia into Europe.

Nowadays, chestnut blight is present in almost the entire distribution range of European chestnut, i.e. from the Iberian Peninsula to the Caucasus. The C. parasitica population in most countries has been studied in respect to the diversity of vegetative compatibility (vc) types and the occurrence of hypovirulence. The vc type diversity of the different populations varied considerably. Typically, a high diversity of vc types has been found in areas with a long history of chestnut blight and where sexual recombination between divergent genotypes commonly has occurred. On the other hand, newly established populations often showed a low diversity with only one, or a few vc types present.

Hypovirulence, i.e. the occurrence of C. parasitica isolates infected by Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 has been found widespread in Europe. Natural dissemination and active biological control applications have lead to a high prevalence of the hypovirus and to the recovery of many chestnut stands. Virulent cankers became hypovirus-infected within a short time and ceased expansion. There is concern that the diversity of vegetative compatibility types could increase in Europe through sexual reproduction between C. parasitica genotypes originating from different introductions. A higher level of vegetative incompatibility would not only hamper hypovirus spread within a population but could also select for lower virulence in CHV-1 and subsequently lead to an erosion of biological control. Recent studies, however, indicate that the vc type barriers are not so restrictive than previously assumed and that so far no evidence for an erosion of biological control system in high diversity populations can be observed.

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Examination of Reproductive Performance of Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Hungary
Published December 14, 2004
33-38

The objective of the research partly is to compare the reproduction performance of the populations living in different regions with regard to some special characteristics (age, condition).
When estimating the age through tooth wear and cementum-layer-counting there was a difference of 0.87 years in favour of the first one (r=0,840; p<0,00...1). I found cementum layers at 42% of the does in the study after examining the MI teeth.
There was lose connection between the weight (eviscerated, with head and legs) and the KFI (r=0,296; p<0,01), and for further analysis, I used only the KFI as the index for condition.
The regional average KFI varied from 0.24-0.37 in fawns, 0.82-1.73 in does, with individual extremes of 0-4.05. Within the examined regions the highest index belonged to the prime-aged does, while the 1-year-olds had a lower rate, and it was the lowest in the does older than 8 years.
The rate of fertility was between 83,3(ns)-100% as we can see from the presence of the CL. All the examined does were fertile, except in one region, while among the female fawns in two regions I only found three with active ovaries. The average number of CL was 1.5-2.13, and this varied by regions; all in all it was the highest in the 2-7-year-old group (1.96) and in the ones over 8 years (2.00!), while it was lower in the does younger than 1 year (1.90). The high fertility of the does over 8 years is remarkable.
I could examine the number of embryos in two regions during the post-implantation period, and beside 100% fertility I found significant differences among the does, which can be associated with the condition. The ratio of CL carriers and the pregnant does was 100% and 73% in the two regions, the average number of CL were 1.92 and 1.72, while the average embryo number were 1.83 and 1.36 per doe. The difference between the CL and the embryo numbers on the two regions were 5% and 21%. The difference (prenatal loss) is in connection with the age (age class) of the doe. It is possible, however, that in some cases oestrus was not followed by gestation. But in roe deer, owing to the commonly known lack of luteolysis-mechanism (Flint et al., 1994), the regression of the CL of the does that did not get pregnant takes place in December and January, so the CL found in January cannot prove a previous pregnancy, which might have been followed by an abortion.
Although it has to be proven, it seems that the number of the CL (potential progeny) can be associated with the age (r=0,418; p<0,01) and the weight (r=0,312; p<0,01) of the doe, while the embryo number (realised progeny) is influenced by the age of the doe and probably by external factors.
It is essential to continue and extend the research to increase the reliability of the results and their correlation.

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Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary – looking for causes of lameness
Published December 16, 2012
47-50

In the last 20–30 years lameness in cattle was found to be third the most influential disease next to mastitis and reproduction disorders. Studies have been established to explore reasons for lameness and prevention. The problem with more robust prevention plans is that knowledge and research evidence is not strong enough to run an effective ...prevention plan. The aim of the research is to look for reasons of lameness by observing number of cows on 6 farms during 2 lactations. Performance data will be put together to body condition score (BCS) and lameness scores. Other examination is focused on monitoring of 40 farms. This part of the project is more related to extension, collecting and sharing solutions for decreasing lameness. Producers are advised what kind of measures are possible to reduce occurrence of lameness. Effectiveness of those actions will be measured at the end of the study. The first preliminary results show lack in almost all preventive measures needed to be taken in minimising lameness. Those areas are related to poor facilities, lack of straw, problems with labour and basic management.

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The relationship between silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio bloch) and fish poulations of natural waters
Published April 11, 2007
30-36

The fisheries management on inland waters is very complicated. Often the unclear propriety rights make the normal management difficult, and other times the stocking of the waters is problematic. In the last hundred years a lot of new fish species have been introduced to Hungary. Lot of them have found their place in the Hungarian fishfauna, til...l others have caused big problems for the fish farmers, and the anglers too. The biggest problem was caused by the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Schlegel, 1842) brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus LeSueur, 1819) and the silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, 1782). In this article I show what kind of problems were caused by the silver crucian carp, because it seems that this fish is the most harmful.The damage caused by silver crucian carpposesa complex question. To get into the ponds and rivers, the crucian carps occupy the territory form the native fishspeciesandthesilvercrucian carp competes with these fishes for food, too.The silver crucian carphasa special reproduction method and because of this the speciesis expand rapidly. The silver crucian carp is able to reproduce with other cyprinids, and because the female silver crucian carps are triploids every fingerlings will be silver crucian carp.This fish is a vectorfora lot of diseases, which can easily spread over for other species.

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Application of semen evaluation techniques
Published April 23, 2014
5-11

Laboratory methods of semen evaluation are used to select males for artificial insemination. The current review describes several techniques that have been recently used for sperm analysis. Conventional microscopic methods in combination with the objective computerassisted sperm motility and morphology analyzers and flow cytometry, allows to ob...tain more precise information about the membrane and functional status of spermatozoa. By using several methods to detect motility, viability, acrosomal and capacitation status besides DNA integrity sperm biology and some of the mechanism involved in sperm cry injury can be better understood. The number of possible targets related to sperm quality is increasing, and possible that some of them could enable sperm analysis for predicting freezability and fertility to be improved.

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Results of Brown Bullhead Fingerling Rearing in Recirculating Fish Production Systems
Published December 6, 2005
46-50

Predator fish species are in great demand, both in fish production and consumption. Because of their rarity and perfect meat quality, these species have considerable economical significance and increasing domestic and foreign demand.
The brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) has been in Hungary for more than 100 years, but not popular because... of its early maturation rate, aggressive reproduction and slow growth. Despite of these properties, larger specimens (about 150-200 g) are marketable overseas.
Our objective is to ensure the adequacy of the brown bullhead in intensive fish farming and its biological, technological and economic references. The pre-experiments were performed at the Bocskai Fishing Co-operative in Hajdúszoboszló, where we reared the juvenile age class. In our university’s recirculating system we examinated the brown bullhead from the fingerling age class.
The black bullhead prefers artificial feed, and produces excellent growth parameters and a specific feed-live weight conversation ratio.

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Investigation of the heat shock gene Hsp70 polymorphism in different sheep genotypes
Published December 16, 2012
41-45

Nowadays the climate change has an increasing effect on the animals. The warming climate brings up several problems on the area of the animal husbandry, which ones are really important. From the first time the living beings have defensive mechanisms against the heat shock. In current examination we use– from Hungary and from other countries c...ollected –samples of sheep breeds, which are living on different climate. Our fundamental assumption was, that the animals living on other climate adapted to the changes of the environment and there are differeces in their genetic background. These fixed mutations we are looking for in the HSP70 heat shock gene, but we haven’t found any polymorphism yet. We are going to involve further breeds and more individuals in the investigations.

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The influence of biostimulators in the growth of some shrubs
Published October 5, 2010
49-52

More sensitive than Mimosa pudica and more beautiful than any adornment detached from nature by man, the azalea (Azaleea
indica) gathers through its shapes a real symphony of colours and enchanting hues, of elegant shapes, having no rival in the flower world.
The azalea can multiply through seeds and vegetatively: seedlings, grafting, lay...ering.
The widest reproduction method remains that through semilignified seedlings, a method that can be used throughout the year
avoiding the months less favourable for propagation by seedlings, with poor light: November and October. The best results are given by the
spring propagations by seedlings (February-March) and the summer propagations by seedlings (July-August). The rooting can last for 12-14
weeks until the seedlings can be transplanted in flower pots without risks.
A wide application in horticultural practice is the use of growth substances, that take part in the faster formation of roots and in a
higher percent for species of plants, that, normally, root with difficulty through seedlings. Under this aspect, many synthetical compounds
have proved to be very active (IAA, NAA, IBA, 2,4,5-T acid etc.) (3,4).

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The milk production and prolification of Saanen goats of various body condition and ages
Published November 24, 2008
49-52

In our experiments we tried to find correlation between the age and the body condition of milking goats. We found that these factors significantly incluence the economic parameters of the goats; they have effect on their milk production and reproduction as well. Body condition is the lowest in case of the 3-5-year-old goats, whereas it is the h...ighest in case of the 1-2-year-old. The highest number of kids (2.5) are produced by the 3-5-year-old, while the 1-2-year-old have the fewest kids. Lactation milk production is the highest in case of the 4-5-year-old animals, the lowest in the 1-2-year-old. The lactation period is the longest in case of the 3-4-year old animals in contrast to the younger. The difference is significant in each experiment.

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Fractionation of chicken egg proteome by isoelectric point in liquid phase
Published March 20, 2014
39-42

The application of proteomics is relevant to physiology, reproduction, immunology, muscle and lactational biology in animal science, altough its use is still limited. One of the greatest challenges of proteome analysis is the reproducible fractionation of the complex protein mixtures. The fractionation methods can increase the probability of bi...omarker protein discovery. The fractionation by liquid-phase isoelectric focusing is one of the prefractionation methods. As a result, protein fractions can be easily collected, pooled and refractionated. There is a lack in the knowledge of gel-based proteomic methods of egg as only a limited number of protocols can be found in the literature, thus sample purification and fractionation require a time consuming optimisation procedure. The aim of this study was to fractionate egg yolk and white proteins by isoelectric point in liquid phase.

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Evaluation of Origin and Conformation of Excellent Cows with Long Productive Lives
Published December 6, 2005
13-17

In the last few decades a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Beside this reproduction biology of the population was affected adversely by the keeping-, and feeding technology. Serviceable lifetime has shortened and service period has lenghtened. Whereas profitable milk production needs ...cows with longer productive life, larger life-time production. In our work we analysed the productivity-, and reputation parameters of the 200 highest lifetime-productivity cows of Hungary. We found that inheritance has not got important role in the serviceable lifetime. Adaptability and good constitution of Holstein-friesian is proved by the fact that cows with large life-time production are reared in large plants, some of them in large stocks, industrial environment. We found during the analysis of reputation parameters that these prominent cows mostly have deeper body, higher dairy form, higher rear udder, smaller foot angle. We found some weak connection between the milk production and the reputation. Loose correlations between useful material content and some linear traits were found.

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Population genetic results of Hungarian Botrytis cinerea isolates establishing new technologies with decreased chemical usage against grey mould
Published November 13, 2012
259-261

Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold on a high number of crop plants. Information about the populations of plant pathogen fungi may help to develop new strategies for the effective and economic crop protection with reduced fungicide usage. Hungarian B. cinerea populations were characterized with using different molecular genetic parameters. B. cin...erea group I strains, characterized with high rate of fenhexamid resistance, could be detected only in restricted number. The Hungarian B. cinerea populations were characterized with high genetic diversity, and the regular occurrence of sexual reproduction. These results highlight the importance of rotating different type of fungicide in the plant protection technology against grey mould.

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Occurrence and damage of the alfalfa root longhorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis Pallas, 1773) in old alfalfa stands in Hungary
Published November 10, 2010
82-88

The alfalfa root longhorn beetle is a pest of small importance in old alfalfa stands. It is rarely cited in the international, national literature, or even mentioned in specialized manuels. Plagionotus floralis is common in Hungary but its population density is low. It is a polyphagous species but it has importance - regarding the references ... only in alfalfa. This paper analyses data gained in old alfalfa fields at two different regions of the country (Máriabesnyő, Debrecen). Damage of P. floralis was 56% in the roots of an 8-year-old stand in Máriabesnyő. Lenghts of tunnels were between 3 and 22 cm. In spite of the tunnels the alfalfa plants were viable. There was no root longhorn beetle in the 15-year-old Debrecen stand, however it has been found former in the region. The reason for the important density of P. floralis in Máriabesnyő could be the considerable diversity and covering of flowering weeds around the field. Adults of P. floralis feed on flower pollen and nectar. As to the Debrecen area,weeds were cut regularly, so the edge vegetation was poor. Present conditions (no pest control on alfalfa fields, overuse of old and failing alfalfa stands, many untrained growers) favour the reproduction and possible damage of alfalfa root longhorn beetle. 

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The importance of millet production in regional production, with special emphasis on climate change
Published June 30, 2018
141-146
Regional production is a traditional production structure developed adjusting to the geographical, climatic, biological and soil conditions in given production regions, a certain territorial specification of agricultural production, and a type of farming that best fits the natural conditions and takes the biologic...al needs of plant and animal species into account as fully as possible. The most probable element of risk in plant production is the changeable, extreme weather. That is the reason why the specific characteristics of the place of production and the characteristics of regional production should be considered to a greater extent. The establishment of the range of varieties appropriate for the place of production is the key issue in regional production. One of our historically grown cereal plants that perfectly fits regional production is millet. Due to its short growing season, favourable reproduction ratio and the fact that it is relatively undemanding, it used to be grown in larger quantities in the middle ages. Its good nutritional values made it an important food item, but over time, as a result of industrialisation and technological progress; it has been eclipsed by other cereal crops. In our country it is mainly used to cook porridge, but it is also used in the form of flour and as a base material in the spirit drinks sector. In the recent decades, millet has been applied only in a small area, mostly as a secondary crop in areas that dried out from drainage water in late spring, or as a replacement of extinct sowings due to its late sowing time. Water will be the most significant factor for the future of agriculture, especially considering climate change.
My examinations took place in the area of the Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm of University of Debrecen, in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, in a small-plot experiment with four replications in 2016.
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Analysis of longevity in Holstein Friesian cattle using proteomic approaches
Published July 31, 2012
21-25

The aim of the present study was to determine marker proteins those are associated with functional longevity of dairy cattle. Holstein-Friesian cows were grouped based on their performance as follows: group 1) individuals with good longevity traits; group 2) short production life because of poor reproduction traits; group 3) short production li...fe with low milk yield. Twelve individuals were sampled in each group, blood and milk samples were collected from cows. Blood samples were analysed with two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLCMS/MS. The milk samples were analysed with MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-MS/MS. Using the optimized gel based proteomic approach,
we have succesfully separated 143 proteins in the group1, 139 proteins in the group2 and 136 proteins in the group3, but we could not find significant differences between groups in the expression pattern. Using MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-IonTrap MS, we have found eleven protein sequences those were expressed only in the samples of good longevity group.

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New Possibilities of Brown Bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) Farming
Published May 11, 2003
55-57

The brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) has been settled in Europe at the end of Century XIX from North America. In Hungary it has been brought in 1902. The naturalization of this species was successful because the brown bullhead found adequate conditions for its life and reproduction in Hungary. But it was unsuccessful because lost its excell...ent growth.
In inland water habitats-and that’s why also fishponds-extraordinarily multiplied, but because of its slight growth this species is undesirable for the native farmers. The brown bullhead is concurrent for domestic fish species, on the other hand its weight not more than 150-200 g. Occasionally it was exterminated, but multiplied again and again.
In 1999 we placed out black bullhead offspring in a pool of a new intensive fish farm, in order to breed at least 300-350 g weight for the customers. The accidental trial was surprisingly successful. Consequently, the black bullhead prefers the artificial food, and produces excellent growth parameters and specific feed-live weight conversation ratio.
On the 20th of September 1999 there was placed 23 300 pieces of brown bullhead offspring, with 28 g average weight and 625 kg gross weight. When we sold them on the 22nd of February 2000, the gross weight was 3387 and the live weight gain was 2735 kg. The gross weight of the feed was 3041,8 kg, and the feed-live weight conversation ratio was 1,11 kg/kg.
Because of this successful trial the managers of the farm wanted to start systematic experiments to work out the details of the intensive farming of brown bullhead. We undertook to help to find the right place of the species in the Hungarian fish processing because of the increasing native and foreign demand.

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Andrological examination of Hungarian Large White and Landrace boars
Published December 28, 2018
5-10

The Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace pig breeds have outstanding lifetime performance, production parameters and crossbreeding ability. Nevertheless, during the recent decades, these breeds could not compete with the West European hybrid pigs concerning on production results. In this study, we made a complex andrological evaluation ...of boars in different Hungarian nucleus breeding stocks. After taking blood and semen samples, performing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, ultrasonic and thermographic examinations were done. Laboratory tests were accomplished in reproduction labs of NARIC ABNMS. Our goal was to determine the reproductive performances of boars and collect samples for future genetic examinations, respectively.

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