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Evaluation of the blood product characteristics of meat meal and hemoglobin with non-invasive methods in the VISNIR wavelength
Published March 23, 2016


The separate collection of poultry slaughterhouse trimmings and blood is partially solved in Hungary. Only properly prepared animal by-products, protein meals can be utilized as animal feed additive., different protein meals are appropriate for feeding different animal species. That is the reason why it is important to avoid accidental cross contamination of the products. Meat and blood meal produced on the same technological line, therefore mixing of the products can happen in various proportions during the shift of production.


Thus the aim of this study is to develop a spectral method which will allow to estimate the ratio of meat and blood protein meal in the final product. During the test the products were mixed in different proportions and were examined by the spectral method. Measurements were conducted with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer in visible (VIS) and in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (400–1000 nm) to define the spectral differentiation of the different meal products. Significant difference can be detected in spectral reflectance between the meat and blood product in the VIS-NIR range. The blood product has a characteristic spectral property: in the range of 600 and 735 nm reflectance values are increasing following a sigmoid curve. This property is not observed in the case of meat meal: close to linear rising is detected. Effective protein rate and purity detection could be made by Blood Product Sensitive Mixing Index (BPSMI – R930/R600), and by the calculation of inflection point in 600–735 nm.


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Testing laboratory parameters of compost tea
Published December 28, 2018

During the industrial production of broiler chicken, a large amount of manure is produced, of which easily contained nitrogen content (without pre-treatment) is released into the atmosphere as an air pollutant. In our experiments, we aimed to prepare compost tea, also known as water extract of compost, from pre-treated poultry manure in order t...o create a product can be utilized as liquid nutrient supply. The poultry manure source was the Baromfi-Coop Ltd. located in Nyírjákó, Hungary, where it was treated by composting. As a result of this pre-treatment of the poultry manure, its nutrient parameters improve and nitrogen is present in a form that is better utilized for plants. Furthermore, this product is suitable for further utilization and also can be the base material for a brand-new product. For this reason the effects of compost/water ratio, incubation time, low oxygen level, and extraction time on the parameters of the resulted product were studied in the frame of developing new soil-life enhancing microbial product, so-called compost tea.

Chemical parameters of the compost used as base material strongly determined the properties of the resulted compost tea, especially the ratio of the various nitrogen forms, their concentration and the salt content. It was found that adding water at a higher rate that means 1/40 and 1/50 mixing ratios results in more cost-effective production. In the experiment the compost tea were held under oxygen-poor conditions, therefore pH of the extractions decreased, which influenced the quality and quantity of their nutrient content.

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A study of product strategy priorities at the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region
Published June 5, 2009

Through a non-representative sample of the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region, this paper studies the product strategic priorities enabling us to make a detailed typology of small
enterprises. According to the relevant technical literature, the types of small enterprises have typical strategic priorities. Obviously, each group can... be characterised with certain strategic
priorities, which are sharply distinct from each other. These priority features are shown in the form of characteristic features in the enterprise’s marketing activities, market behaviour (product policy, innovation attitude, technology, price policy). This paper studies the enterprises of the sample through the role of production technology, material quality, low price and branding endeavours affecting product positioning.

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Comparison of supplier quality assurance methods for compound feed manufacturing from efficiency, product consistency and economical point of view
Published December 15, 2010

Feed manufacturing and human food production are the main routes of use for agricultural products. The food industryparticularly has intensively implemented the recent quality management principles and developed systems that facilitate the continuous improvement and efficiency of the industrial production. Feed production has taken similar appr...oaches however the intensity of deployment at the manufacturer and the rollout towards its supply chain has shown slower progress. The methods, that the feed manufacturer manages the supplier chain of mainly primer agricultural products according to, have a certain impact on the efficiency of the inbound operations, feed product quality and its consistency as well as on other resources. These methods have been built on sound quality management principles that are stated not only in quality standards but also in relevant regulations. Current study addresses the questions related to the link between supply chain quality management and feed product. The objective of the frontier research was to highlight the  theoretical possibilities and benefits of the robust design methodimplemented into animal feed manufacturing dealing with highly variable ingredients. 

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Decreasing Energy and Water Use in the Meat Industry
Published March 4, 2005

The technology supervisions are needed from time to time in order to involve the new research results, experience, new technologies and equipments organising principles into the production and to make it cheaper and with less expenditure to increase the profitability and competitiveness. In the course of our investigation we aimed the analysis ...of the traditional technologies and improving of it. In this article we detail the heat treatment curing process. We applied the principles of experimental design for the determination the main influencing parameters in the processes. Then we made simulations and modelling in seeking for the environmentally better technology programs. We developed a method for measuring the temperature development of products with small diameter using the similarity theory in unit operation. In the course of the analysis of the heat treatment processes we could state that the heat treatment time can be reduced significantly by decreasing the size of the product and choosing the right ratios among the surface heat transfer intensity, ambient temperature and involving the lethality obtained during the cooling phase. The total sparing were about 10-20%. We solved the problem associated with the sensor placement error using a plastic material (metamid). We establish a curve between the real product temperature and plastic rod temperature by which the monitoring of the process became more accurate. We determine the size modification for different product sizes. In case of curing we observed very similar phenomena. For the determination of the diffusion coefficient we adopted the Ball-method not using in this field till today. We could reduce the excess saltiness and loss of NaCl with about 5%.

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Ecotoxicological impact of DON toxin on maize (Zea mays L.) germination
Published February 25, 2014

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most significant arable pathogen in Hungary, and various types of trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly DON, deoxynivalenol) are detected most commonly in cereals (Biró et al., 2011). Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production could not be eliminated, and infected maize by Fusarium sp. cannot be exploited as food..., seed, or animal feed. However it can be raw material of biogas production. In this research we would like to investigate the content and effect of the toxin in the end product of biogas production on plant germination. The Fusarium sp. can cause mildew and seedling mortality in seed of maize (Zea mays L.), so we examine the effect of this on germination. In preliminary examination Fusarium sp. was not detected in the bioreactor of the Institute after the retention time (30 day), however it can be assumed that during the hydrolysis of the fungus growth and mycotoxin production also increased exponentially. There were no appropriate tools to detect the toxin in the end product of biogas production so modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis was necessary. The effects of hydrolyzed product for germination were also detected.

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Product orientated sewage sludge composting technologies in the practice of AKSD Ltd.
Published October 10, 2008

In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used for biogas production or composting. The direct use of sewage sludge in agriculture is limited by its hazardous microelement content, but it can be used effectively in composting. The limitation parameters can be extinguished with corr...ect compost-mixture and technology variants. The exact determination of the technologies and mixtures result a stable, constant quality product. The compost, as a classified product, is friable structured. The end-product is a
homogeneous mould with good water capacity, does not contain any weed seeds and pathogenic organisms. The compost does not have a acidify effect on the soil. It is an effective fertilizer thanks to its macro and microelement content.

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The effect of herbs on the microbiological stability and nutritional quality of pariser
Published May 20, 2020

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of dried herbs (Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Salvia officinalis L.) to improve the quality characteristics and microbiological stability of Hungarian meat product, pariser. The addition of herbs did not affect the microbial properties of the product. According t...o the Decree No. 4 of 1998 of the Ministry of Health, pariser can be considered safe. The nutritional quality of the different forms of pariser was also acceptable. However, the addition of oregano, sage and thyme changed the flavor characteristics of the parisers and the higher meat content would increase the final price of the product.


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The examination of the profit-making capacity of the wooden chip-based large-scale product path
Published March 5, 2015

Heating with wooden chips would provide a significantly cheaper energy production alternative for the local governments in heating their facilities and in district heating as well. The raw material should be available in the appropriate quality, quantity and at the right time. This type of heating requires the well-organized and joint work of t...he forestry, transporting, processing and receiving plants. This activity might be realized in the form of non-profit clusters. In order not to suffer any losses, the participants of the product path should carry out a very careful planning regarding the factors appearing in heating with wood but missing from gas heating. One such critical element is the transportation distance which might make the basically cost-efficient wooden chip-based heating process significantly more expensive.

One of the main findings of my paper is that the transportation distance should be at most 23 kilometers for the wooden chips to be worth (economical) using against gas. From the viewpoint of practical use, this can be interpreted as the distance between the forestry and heatproducing units. By determining the constant and varying costs of transporting and chopping and from calculating the initial contribution, I concluded that the profit-making capacity of the product path would be sufficient for an energy-related investment. According to my calculations, by remaining within the economical transporting distance of 23 kilometers, such long-term savings might be achieved compared to gas heating which would partly cover the establishment of a biomass-based power plant or heating plant.

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Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
Published November 20, 2011

Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per co...w could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

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The relationship between gluten proteins and baking quality
Published July 31, 2012

Wheat, one of the most important cereals, is grown on the largest area in Hungary. During hydration of storage proteins of wheat – gliadin and glutenin – the gluten complex is evolved. The gliadin is responsible for the extensibility of gluten complex as well as the glutenin for the strength of gluten. The structure, composition and rheolog...ical properties of gluten proteins influence significantly the baking quality. The gliadin/glutenin ratio and the quality and structure of glutenin fraction play the most important role in evolving gluten complex. Changes in the steps of breadmaking technology also have effect on the quality of product. Several tests proved that the higher glutenin content increases the strength of dough while the higher gliadin content increases the extensibility of dough and decreases maximum resistance to extension. The monomer gliadins play a great part in plasticity of glutenin polymer. The quality of glutenin fraction significantly influences the evolving gluten complex, because of the spiral structure of glutenin which deforms under stress conditions, then the β-spiral structure resumes their original conformation by releasing from stress.
The final quality of product evolves as a result of complex characteristics of wheat proteins, so detailed knowledge on the roles of different protein compounds is the base of the quality oriented product development.

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Examination and statistical evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of windrow composting
Published May 20, 2020


The treatment and utilization of plant and animal waste and by-products from agriculture is very diverse. Traditional environmental management practices for waste management have been retained through soil conservation and the applied of recycle degradable organic substances in soil. The management o...f by-products from agriculture (animal husbandry) is important because a closed loop can be created to utilize by-products (manure, feathers) from the production of the main product (eggs, meat, milk) and to form a raw material for a new product. It is important to treat the resulting by-products, especially deep-litter manure, as it has served as a basis for compost-treated manure to develop an organic-based, soil-conditioning product line. Poultry manure by itself is not suitable as a substrate for aerobic decomposition, so it has to be mixed with other substances (zeolite, bentonite, soil), because of its high nutrient capacity, it is an acidifying substance.

The aim of this study was to compost the mixture of poultry manure and hen manure by the addition of zeolite and to monitor the composting process. It was also our aim to statistically determine the effect of the zeolite on parameters describing the composting process.

The windrow composting experiments were set up in the composting area of the University of Debrecen, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. The composting experiment was 62 days long, during which the main parameters describing the composting process were continuously monitored: temperature (°C), moisture content (w/w%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), organic matter content (w/w%), examination of nitrogen forms (w/w%). In this study, three factors were investigated: temperature, humidity, and pH. For statistical evaluation, R software and RStudio user interface were used. We developed a repeated measurement model, in which the fixed and random effects were determined for our parameters under study, and the resulting relationships were shown on interaction plots.

Based on our results, the temperature of the prisms has become independent of the ambient temperature and the composting stages can be separated in both the control and the zeolite treated prisms. In the repeated measurement model, we proved that treatment, time and treatment: time interaction were significant at both temperature and pH.

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Following-up organic pollutants in the course of producing foods
Published July 16, 2007

We analysed the raw materials in various food products, including additives, carrier solvents and end product for several selected organic pollutants. We analysed these food products for the type of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other currently used pesticides.
We analysed three product categories: bakery ...products, canned mushroom and meat products. The analysis of the bakery products and of the canned mushroom did not conclude in positive findings, which means that these products contained the agents given during the production of the product and the environmental pollutants in undetectable low concentration.
However, the results for meat and fish products indicate that polychlorinated compounds are persistent and are of a lipophyl character, as some of these components have been detected in these food products, the concentration of the PCBs were detected in the range of 9.8-24 μg/kg.

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The Relationship Between the Moisture Content of Sweetcorn Raw Material and the Quality of the Deep-Frozen End Product
Published May 11, 2003

One of the remarkable effects of the economical and social development is the changing of the eating habits, first of all increasing consumption of deep-frozen products. The spreading of the sweet corn under these vegetables is characteristic.
The parameters exerting influence on the quality of the deepfrozen sweetcorn is classed in 3 catego...ries:
• Physical quality: foreign matter, clumps, blemished corn, broken kernel, miscut, pulled kernel.
• Organoleptical features: taste, colour, texture, and sweetness.
• Microbiological features: TVC, mould, yeast.
The moisture content of the raw material influences the organoleptical features to the highest degree.
We take continuously samples from the raw material arriving in to the factory to determinate moisture content, and from the product to specify the organoleptical features.
Based on the data of 2002 we can make the following findings:
The colour of the deepfrozen sweetcorn is less influenced by the moisture content. The taste is between 69% and 72% the most optimal, but over 72% get worse, more „milky”, water-tasted because of the underdevelopment of sweetcorn. The texture continuously becomes better with the increasing of moisture content. Under 67% of water the class „C” is typical, which means a taste with weak charasteric, a bit scathing or bitter, and texture with rubbery inner part and hard pericarpia. The decadence of taste is caused by converting a great part of sugar into starch.
The correlation between moisture and quality is varying by varieties; different varieties have their best quality by different moisture content. By our investigations the best harvest time is at the 69-72% moisture content. At this point are the organoleptical features the most optimal, and the grower has not the loss of yield caused by early harvesting.

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Spent mushroom compost (SMC) – retrieved added value product closing loop in agricultural production
Published September 5, 2018

Worldwide edible mushroom production on agro-industrial residues comprises of more than 11 million tons of fresh mushrooms per year. For 1 kg of mushrooms there is 5 kg of spent mushroom compost (SMC). This enormous amount of waste results in disposal problems. However, SMC is a waste product of the mushroom industry, which contains mycelium an...d high levels of remnant nutrients such as organic substances (N, P, K). The spent mushroom compost is usually intended for utilization, but there are increasing numbers of experiments focusing on its reuse in agricultural and horticultural production. Recently, the increase of the global environmental consciousness and stringent legislation have focused research towards the application of sustainable and circular processes. Innovative and environmentally friendly systems of utilisation of waste streams have increased interest of the scientific community. Circular economy implies that agricultural waste will be the source for retrieving high value-added compounds. The goal of the present work was to carry out a bibliographic review of the different scenarios, regarding the exploitation of this low cost feedstock with huge potential for valorisation.

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Examination of physical properties of final product and drying properties of combined (convective pre-drying and freeze finish-drying) dehydration method
Published March 11, 2014

In this study, the effects of freeze drying (FD), hot-air drying (HAD) and combined drying (HAD-FD) on drying characteristics, energy uptake, texture, rehydration and color of carrot were investigated. Results showed that HAD-FD significantly improved the drying time compared with FD under the same operating conditions, and the HAD-FD can reduc...e the total cost of dehydration. The drying kinetics was described by the Henderson-Pabis and the third degree polynomial models in the case of HAD, FD and HAD-FD. The HAD carrot samples were exhibited shrinkage, case hardening, poor rehydration and brown surface. The FD carrot cubes appeared porous structure, excellent rehydration, soft texture and loose color. The HAD-FD samples were superior to HAD products and was nearer in quality to FD products with respect to appearance, rehydration and surface resistance (texture). Finally, it is concluded that HAD-FD is effective in improving the FD drying rate. However, the combined drying has a small-scale adverse effect on product quality.

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Chemical residue coming forward in an end product in winery technology
Published December 21, 2008

Although many tasks wait for me yet in the course of my research work, I’ve managed to book successes with a certain degree.
On the one part as a producer I regard it as a positive result, that in the capital end product manufactured by me, - that is the wine - , has no chemical residue in it, and in the rest of the intermediary products measure dwindling only. 
On the other hand, that I hit home in cases demonstrable agent residual one in the must, wine, lees, the tendency indicates it, that in the course of the processing (distillation) or the storage they partly, or whole decay (Table 4. and Figure 3.) and a food safety risk is not caused.
But it’s a question for the future, that the more considerable quantity manifested in the grape pip does or not cause a problem in the course of its use with a cosmetic aim, concerned, that the reason of the agent wandering experienced in the other products is the relative density, or possibly the result of some kind of bond.
So I go on with my research and my aim is to gove the most exact answers for those questions, above.

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Identification of cow’s and buffalo’s milk and dairy product using a DNA-based method
Published November 13, 2012

Aim of our study was the optimization of a DNA method, that is appropriate for reliable, low cost identification of animal species in milk and dairy product (cheese) and to determine the ratio of species. Mitochondrial DNA was used in our work to analyse buffalo/cow milk mixtures contained different ratio of bovine milk such as 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, ...1.5%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% (v/v%). Buffalo cheese were produced using buffalo and cows milk (0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% – v/v% cows milk in buffalo milk). In case of milk mixtures, using species specific primers, the PCR assay showed a 0.5 v/v% detection limit. Cattle, in the buffalo/cows milk 99.9/0.1 v/v% mixture, was not detectable. The identification of buffalo and cows DNA in cheese was successful. The intensity of eletroforetic PCR fragment indicated the increase of cow milk ratio in milk and cheese samples as well.

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Some strategic aspects of animal protein production
Published September 5, 2018

The access to food shaped human societies and dietary models throughout the history of mankind. Animal protein consumption became a part of human culture. Data are presented showing the relationship of daily calorie and animal protein consumption as affected by capita GDP changes. Examples are presented how genetic improvement of animal and fod...der plants influenced the resource efficiency and the overall environmental footprint per unit product. The two examples presented are: the dairy industry of the USA the 1944 and 2007 situation, and the Hungarian broiler chicken sector considering data relevant to 1930, 1960 and 2010. In both cases, dramatic improvements in resource efficiency could be demonstrated. The agricultural area required to animal feed production was reduced by more than 80% in both cases per unit product. Future possibilities are briefly discussed, referring to the still unutilized land reserves of the Globe, the new evolving technologies in progress inclusive the CASPR/Cas 9 genetic editing methods.

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Microbial assessment of potential functional dairy products with added dried herbs
Published May 20, 2020

The market of dairy products is a dynamically developing sector of the food industry. Potential, functional dairy products, made by adding herbs or spices, will have antimicrobial and antioxidant effect due to the active biochemical agents of the plant additives. Furthermore, these active components will widen the storage life of food produ...cts and enhance their organoleptic properties too. We worked out a technology for creating fresh cheeses using a gentle pasteurizing method by treating the mixture of raw milk and 1.5% fat contained in commercial milk. As herb additives, we used citronella (Melissa officinalis), and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) harvested by us and dried them via Tyndall-method in convective dryer on 40 °C for 5.5 hours per day. The drying period took three days. We bought dried citronella and mint from the supermarket, which were dried by ionizing radiation, to compare the microbiological pollution with the herbs dried by us.

The main target of this research was to create a microbiologically stable, potential functional dairy product. However, because of the bad quality of the raw milk and the gentle heat treatment we used for sterilizing bulk milk, or else, cheeses were not safe for human consumption. As a consequence, we need further studies to modify our technology and get a microbiologically stable product.

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Influence of collective wine marketing on hungarian wine sector
Published February 23, 2008

Nowadays, the importance of marketing is increasingly obvious. The number of those who apply those possibilities and methods provided by the marketing with which more efficient operation and higher amount of profit can be obtained is increasing. Special marketing fields have appeared that make the marketing characteristics of the single trades,... product groups and industrial branches are widely known and utilized. During the more than 10 years following the changes of regime, the Hungarian wine market underwent a huge change. It is obvious, that this process has not stopped, and further market rearrangements may be claimed. The product and price policies have changed. Out of the marketing mix elements, mostly the marketing communication has changed, and the costumer has come to the centre. This marketing approach resulted in the formation of the newly established Hungarian Wine Marketing Public Benefit Company. The common marketing activity of the organization should have positive impacts on the industrial branch, although its efficient operation still has hindrances

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The parameters of homemade jams after storage
Published March 11, 2014

Nowadays producing jams is considered a traditional way of plum processing in Hungary. Plum jams without added sugar can be stored

This research aimed to analytically determine which quality parameters of the jams and to what extent they change during storage. Furthermore, this study intended to find out whether a concious consumer can ...presume any difference between varieties or the year of harvest, or wheather a one-time customer should suspect differences in quality parameters of the different products. This study focused on those differences or alterations in the parameters that occur in the jams made from several different plum varieties produced in different years.

I analyzed the classic chemical parameters (dry matter content and ash content) and physiologically important nutritional components (phenolic and flavonoids antioxidants and vitamin C). In this research I used jams which were produced from 6 varieties grown in 2009 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley), 4 varieties from 2010 (President, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta) and 6 varieties from 2011 (President, Tophit, Bluefre, Elena, Presenta, Stanley). Jams were produced with traditional technology in cauldrons without added sugar. Jars were placed into a relatively dark and cool place and were stored there until the analysis.

Having regard to the results, when consumers choose between the different products they also choose quality since the processed plum variety, and the year of production/processing determine the nutritional value of the specific product. This could be used for market positioning and promotion of the product, however further research is needed to gain more information from the differences that derive from the varieties, year of harvest or other factors. This way fruit and jam producers could turn these informations into market advantage.

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The possibilities of the development of functional dairy products
Published December 1, 2010

Because of our new aged world’s emerging stress, over exhausting and move less lifestyle the pollution, the not appropriate food consuming and the low calories in the consumed food there are more and more the called „civilian” disorders.
Many people have diabetes and osteoporosis others fight with lung, cardiovascular system, problems ...and find cancers of many kinds without age exemptions. 
There could be a solution in changing lifestyle. In the developed side of the world there are presence of food lines with higher content in nutritious and/or vitamins and fibers such as: kalium, calcium, selen, magnesium, plus it contains less saturated fat. Because of that there is a new word in dietetics as functional foods.
Food having more inner content and/or biological values, so healthier, are called functional foods. Those foods components picked carefully for healthiness by modern knowledge of dietetics.
One of the best raw materials for functional food is the milk. It is already healthy by itself. The Körös-Maros Biofarm Ltd. has a goal of developing and marketing, health protecting organic functional foods in hungaricum products from cured milk. The Jedlik Ányos project helps the Ltd. to achieve this goal. We just finished an antioxidant test and we check if the antioxidant in present in the milk than we check the final product of the presence of the original antioxidant and the form and amount of it.
It had been feeding, for two weeks for three herd of cows selected for age, milk output and consanguinity. All of the three herd had been feeding with basic forage. One of the herds had been getting vitamin-E in the amount of 250 mg/bwkg the other group got licopin in the amount of 200 mg/bwkg once a day each by each orally, the third herd was the control group. 
After two weeks we toke a sample of every herd were processed the samples into yogurt and cheese. Than we checked the raw milk, the cheese and the yogurt for antioxidant content with HPLC method. The test ended with good results by finding a great amount of antioxidant, in not only the raw milk but also in the final product. 

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Anaerobe degradation of maize infected by Fusarium graminearum
Published July 18, 2012

Last year intense rainfalls and moisture conditions were beneficial for the Fusarium sp. in Hungary. Fusarium strains decrease cereal quality (for example maize), furthermore may cause yield loss. Due to the toxin production, the fungi have a dangerous animal and human pathogen effect (Placinta et al., 1999).The effects of the Fusarium infectio...n and its mycotoxin production haven’t been perfectly eliminated. Fusariumgraminearum
is the most common agricultural pathogen in Hungary. The utilization of infected maize as an alternative biogas raw material may be an efficient and environmentally friendly disposal method. In this case, Fusarium-, and mycotoxin-content of the maize have to be analyzed as well as the impact of these factors’ on the biogas production process. Our experience was based on the raw material basis of a biogas plant. Different amount of Fusarium free and infected maize grits have been added to the regular raw material mixture. The detection of Fusarium fungi has been analyzed
in experimental digesters throughout the different stages of mesophilic digestion. In the biogas liquid end product the Fusarium was detected by breeding and by microscope. According to our results, the Fusarium sp. was not detectable in the liquid end product after 30 days.

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Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches
Published December 4, 2001

The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
Several hundred hectares o...f grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
– the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
– the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
– the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
– the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
– the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
– the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.

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