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Investigation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Salt Tolerance and Callus Induction in vitro
Published March 4, 2005
51-55

Potato production plays an important role in Hungary and the other countries of Europe. Consumption of potato products has increased to a large extent during the past several years. We can satisfy market demands with high quality and virus-free varieties.
Results of potato production depend on tolerance/resistance to abiotic stresses. In man...y cases, increased concentration of NaCl causes yield loss. Selection of salt tolerant varieties proved to be a difficult problem. Nowadays, the salt tolerance of potato varieties can be determined by cell/tissue/ protoplast techniques. Somaclonal variation provides a great potential for selection of lines resistant to salt stress. In vitro shoots and callus, derived plantlets selected for salt tolerance/resistance provide material for micropropagation.
In vitro shoot development of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kuroda) was investigated under salt stress (40 mM, 80 mM, 120 mM NaCl) conditions. Shoot heights of plantlets cultured under salt conditions were lower than the control through the investigation. However, the shoot development of plantlets originated from in vitro meristems was almost at the same level as the control under 40 mM NaCl concentration.
There was no significant difference in the in vitro biomass production between control and treatment with 40 mM NaCl concentration. We measured a significant decrease in dry-matter mass under 120 mM NaCl concentration. There is a need for more investigation of different genotypes and for a conclusion as to whether in vitro tolerance could occur under in vivo circumstances in plants originated from somaclones as well.
Under in vitro conditions, we investigated shoot and leaf callus initiation using different culture media with different 2,4-D concentrations. Under dark conditions, callus induction of shoot/leaf decreased as the 2,4-D concentrations increased.
In light conditions, there was a little callus induction, while callus initiation from the shoot from 5 μM to 12 μM 2,4-D concentration showed a significant increase

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The Effect of Year and Irrigation on the Yield Quantity and Quality of the Potato
Published October 11, 2006
12-16

In Hungary, the growing area of potato area reduced dramatically in the last few decades, additionally we are lagging behind the Western European countries as regards yields and the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, the unpredictable market conditions, bad consumption habits... and many times unfortunately the lack of quality products.
The ecological and climatic conditions of Hungary are not everywhere suitable for potato, in the area of Debrecen the amount of rainfall was lower, and the monthly average temperature was higher than the requirement of potato in its growing season in 2002 and 2003.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 8 and 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Out of the examined varieties 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up on 49.5 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, out of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the under-water mass, the amount of reducing sugars, the colour index of frying and the element contents of tubers.
Summing up, it can be stated that among the agrotechnical year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. On the basis of our results, it can be stated that in potato production variety should be chosen in accordance with the aim of production and technology should be adapted to that specific variety.

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The Impact of Water Supply on the Quality and Health of Potato
Published May 11, 2003
144-147

Besides its effect on potato yield, water also has a significant impact on yield quality. Excess water (too much precipitation, over-irrigation) and the lack of water (lack of precipitation or irrigation) both trigger stress in the plant and can significantly worsen the quality of the yield (seed potato) and deteriorate the health of the plant ...and the seed potato. Excess precipitaton or irrigation water leaches nitrate-nitrogen under the rhizosphere, consequently, the amount of available nitrogen decreases leading to the deficiency of N in potato. If water cover (the maximally saturated state of soil) exceeds 8-12 hours, it can cause root destruction (because of the lack of oxygen), which leads to the wilting and later to the death of the plant. Abundance of water caused by excess precipitation or irrigation is a major problem primarily on sandy loam, loam and clay loam soils with bad structure and water management qualities, but also on any soils, which are over-irrigated or irrigated at an improper time. Symptoms of the lack of water are detectable mostly when the available water content of the soil (disponible water) decreases under 60-65%.
In the present year, there was a lack of precipitation on the Great Plain, which can be compensated by proper irrigation. Unfortunately, this problem is further intensified by the high temperature, which results in faster ripening and accompanied with fluctuating soil moisture content, in the formation of secondary tubers.

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The effects of different planting methods on sweet potato
Published December 28, 2018
173-177

The aim of our research program is to develop the production technology and to examine the possibilities of the utilization of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam.). In 2016 and 2017, production technology experiments were set up with four replications in a randomized block design on an alluvial soil in Deszk, Hungary. In our field experiment...s, we obtained results of planting material production, planting methods and the optimized fertilization of sweet potato. Experimental plots were set up either with or without ridges. In heavy soils – where usually ridge planting is preferred –, in 2016, the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. In 2017, however, we got opposite results: based on the result of the harvest, the production technology with ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from tubers (primary transplants) or from shoots (secondary transplants) did not show significant differences, however, in both years, yield levels were higher on ridges with secondary transplants.

Sweet potato yield may vary widely among producers due to improper ridging and planting orientation. The aim of this study was to establish the proper ridging and planting orientation, so as to enhance constant reliable yields among sweet potato producing farmers.

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Experiments of sweet potato technology in South Hungary
Published May 16, 2017
161-165

The overall objectives of our research program are to examine and to develop the possibilities of use and to expand the national production technology of sweet potato. In 2016, we have set up production technology experiments in many regions, from which we report the results of the experimental field in Deszk here. In our field experiments we o...btained results of planting material production, planting and nutrition optimization of sweet potato. Rating the effects of different nutrition doses, between the averages of treatment we didn't experience any significant differencies. On hard soil we set up experimental plots with or without ridges. Based on the result of the harvest the production technology without ridges proved to be more effective. The transplants originating from cuttings from shoots or from tubers did not show significant differences, but it does matter how many tons of sweet potato tubers we harvest per hectare.

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The dynamics of biodiversity structure of soil microorganisms under the impact of biopreparations during potato growing season
Published October 24, 2016
67-74

The use of biological preparations such as Phytotsid and Planryz contributes the increase of the general number of soil bacteria population by 13.0–36.1% in the case of potato variety Scarbnytsya and by 4.5–24.6% for potato variety Oberig compared with control. It also increases the number of saprophyte microflora, which compete with plant ...pathogens, micromycetes, and causes 1.2–1.8 times reduction in the number of soil fungi – Fusarium and Alternaria. During the application of Rovral Akvaflo the Shannon ecological index of species biodiversity is lower than during the biopreparation use. The decrease of species biodiversity was observed as well as strengthening the dominance of some species (dark pigmentation in fungi).

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The effect of plant density on the yield of sweet potato
Published May 23, 2019
125-128

A field study was conducted in South-East Hungary during the main cropping season of 2016, 2017 and 2018, with the objective of determining the effect of plant spacing on the productivity of sweet potato. Production technology experiments of four repetitions were set up in a randomized block design on sandy soil. The performed treatments consis...ted of four variations of plant spacing (row distance x plant-to-plant distance): 80 cm x 20 cm, 80 cm x 30 cm, 100 cm x 20 cm, 100 cm x 30 cm. The plant material was the Hungarian registered sweet potato variety ‘Ásotthalmi-12’. Analysis of variance revealed that planting density significantly affected the average yield of storage roots. The highest yield per plant was achieved with the 100 cm x 30 cm (2016, 2017), as well as with the 80 cm x 30 cm (2018) setups. On hectare level, our results showed that the highest plant density of 62,500 plants ha-1 (80 cm x 20 cm setup) could give the highest yield. Comparing the highest tons ha-1 results to those achieved with the plant spacing setups resulting in the highest yield per plant, the differences can be even 13 or 14 tons at hectare level. This finding underlines the importance of choosing the proper planting density towards the higher end.

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Effect of Irrigation on the Yield and Quantity of Potato Varieties
Published December 6, 2005
53-61

In Hungary, the growing area of potato area dropped dramatically in the last few decades. Additionally not only are we lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields, but the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption hab...its and, often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2003 and 2004, in two years of significantly different precipitation, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, from which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
In Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However the effect of irrigation depends on the crop year. In a draughty year, like in 2003, irrigation could increase the yield by 10%, while in a more favourable wet year, the improving effect of irrigation was low.

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Laboratory and small plot fungicide trials to control potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) next to Sepsiszentgyörgy town (Romania)
Published November 2, 2014
72-72

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Our experiments were carried out during 2009 and 2010 years on Szépmező field, next to the Sepsiszentgyörgy town, Kovászna county, Romania. The experimental area situated at 520 - 580 m altitude, its soil is a humus rich chernozem, the yearly average temperature is between 7 - 8 oC, the precipitation is 500 - 600 mm/year. 7 different fungicides efficacy were studied for control to potato late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans on three potato varieties, viz. Ostara, Santé and Desirée.

In the laboratory the fluanizam (500 g/L, ALTIMA 500) fungicide was the best in inhibition of growing fungus while on the field trial plots cymoxanil + famoxadone (22.1 + 16.6%, EQUATION PRO WP*) and metalaxyl** + mancozeb (200 g/L + 1.600 g/L, RIDOMIL MZ 72WP) were the most effective. This facts were confirmed by statistic Duncan-test and data of yields.

The appearance of Phytophthora infestans epidemic was influenced by the climate conditions too during May and June when the minimum temperature was 12 oC, and the maximum 20 oC, the rain quantity more than 120 mm, the air humidity above 75%, these conditions promote the appearance and spread of fungus.

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Effect of year and irrigation on yield and quantity of different potato varieties
Published May 23, 2006
7-14

dramatically in the last few decades. We are lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields. The ecological conditions are not favourable for potato, but the low yields other causes: the use of non-suitable seed, the low level of irrigation and nutrient supply and out of date machinery. The competitiveness of production is further ...decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption habit, and often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and selected quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2004 and 2005, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat (2004) and two rowed barley (2005) as a forecrop. The varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated. We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages and changes, and selected parameters of quality and chemical composition due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However, the impact of irrigation depends on the year effect.

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Effect of the media on morphology of Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr isolates and their Vegetative Compatibility Groups
Published June 2, 2015
38-42

The most dangerous pathogen for the European and American chestnuts is the blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr. Short after its introduction a big number of chestnut trees were destroyed on the infested area. The control could be really complicated, because of the numerous vegetative compatibility groups of the fungus. There i...s a type that carries a mycovirus viz. hypovirus in the cytoplasm. We are able to control effectively this pathogen by using mycovirus-carrying strains (called hypovirulent fungal strains also). In laboratory it is easy to multiply the virulent and the hypovirulent strains of the fungus but do not easy to differentiate colonies visually on simple PDA medium. During our research, we tested different types of media, based on potato and chestnut bark extract respectively. It was observed that on potato medium the virulent strains produce more orange pigments. So it is more easy to differentiate virulent or hypovirulent isolates of chestnut blight fungus based on colony colour and morphology.

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Findings on the cultivation of potatoes in organic farming
Published November 20, 2011
113-116

This paper explores the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato production in the Czech Republic. The mulching with chopped grass (GM) and black textile mulch (BTM) were compared to non-mulching control variant (C) with mechanical cultivation. Especially in plots with BTM were first formed ridges and covered by the black polypr...opylene non-woven textile and then they were planting. During vegetation the infestation of Colorado potato beetle (CPB), weeds biomass, course of soil temperature and soil water potential were assessed. The results showed that surface of GM had a positive effect on soil temperature reduction, soil water potential depression. This study also indicated a positive effect of GM on the larvae of CPB diminution, on the other hand higher incidence of larvae and higher defoliation was observed in BTM. GM had a significant effect on the yield of potatoes. The yield of ware potatoes was higher by 27 % higher on plots with GM and by 16 % lower on plots wit BTM in comparison with C. NeemAzal T/S decreased statistically significantly % of defoliation and increased yield of ware potatoes by 35 % in comparison with control.

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The irrigation influence under the soil, microclimate and plants in maize from Crişurilor Plain
Published October 5, 2010
180-186

The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Oradea in 1976, for establishing
the soil water balance. In the irrigated variant the soil moisture was determined 10 to 10 days for maintaining the soil water reserve on
irrigation depth (0 – 50 cm for wheat and bean, 0 – 75cm for m...aize, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potato and alfalfa 1st year and 0 – 100
cm for alfalfa 2nd year) between easily available water content and field capacity. Thus, an average irrigation rate of 2560 m³/ha was used
in the 9 experimental crops. The average of the annual rainfall for the 1976 – 2008 period was of 625.0 mm. The technologies used were
correlated with the needes of the crops, such as melioration crop rotation, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the chemical export on the
yield, manure (40 t/ha) was used in potato and sugarbeet. After 33 years of the irrigation use the soil structure degree (38.62%) did not
decrease when compared to the unirrigated maize – wheat crop rotation (37.01%). Bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance and
hydraulic conductivity have worse values than the ones in the unirrigated variant. The humus content is very close to the humus content
determined in 1976, the phosphorus and the potassium content increased very much in comparison with the initial content (117 ppm vs 22.0
ppm); (180.0 ppm vs 102 ppm). The use of the adequate fertilization system and of the irrigation water with a good qaulity did not determine
a decrease of the pH value of the soil. The irrigation determined the improve of the microclimate conditions, the increase of the plant water
consumption, yield gains very significant statistically and higher protein content of the maize grains.

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Fusarium culmorum isolated from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) in Debrecen (East Hungary)
Published October 24, 2016
93-96

Wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) is an East-Asian originated weed species and it has been spreaded worldwide by now. The first occurrence of this species in Hungary was observed and published in 2008 nearby Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, North-East Hungary) than in the summer of 2011 a significant population was discovered n...ext to Debrecen city (Hajdú-Bihar county, East Hungary).

In 2013 this weed was also reported from Szentborbás village, Somogy county (South-West Hungary). These observations of spreading and its biological features (production of stolons and large number of seeds, moreover herbicide tolerance) indicate that wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) has a great potential of invasiveness, so it may become a hazardous weed not only in Hungary but in all over the world.

The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) root residue samples which were collected after maize harvesting on arable land in late autumn, near Debrecen. The identification of the fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and the features of conidia developed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. After the examination of axenic culture we revealed that the fungus from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass was Fusarium culmorum. Pathogenicity and/or endophytic relationship between the fungus and wooly cupgrass is still uncertain so pathogenicity tests and reisolations from plants are in progress.

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Comparison of macroelement and microelement contents of conventionally and organically grown crops
Published December 16, 2012
87-92

Nowedays one of the most important issues to discuss is the healthy nutrition: feeding our bodies with high quality nutrients, which is free of chemical residues. The demand for healthy and nutritious food is increasing worldwide, that results in the growing popularity of consumption of organic food. Several studies dealing with the nutrient co...ntent of traditional and organic food have been published lately, since it became clear that eating food contaminated with chemical residues damage to health, food and the environment. Therefore it would be desirable to find out if organic food is really superior to conventional one. In our study we analyzed the dry matter, ash, macroelement and trace element content of organically and conventionally grown crops (carrot root, potato tuber and parsnip). Our results provide further information to consumers about the nutritional value of organic and conventional crops.

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Evaluation some important microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle in chernozem soils profiles
Published October 24, 2016
33-39

Some chemical and microbiological properties of the carbon cycle were investigated in three chernozem soil profiles. The soil profiles originated from a long term fertilization experiment (potato) of the University of Debrecen, Látókép, Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden (grassland) and a large-scale farm (sunflower) of Ukraine. The results of the or...ganic C-content, total number of bacteria, microscopical fungi, cellulose decomposing bacteria, CO2-production, microbial biomass carbon and saccharase and dehydrogenase activities were compared and evaluated with the help of correlation analyses. Close correlation was found between the organic carbon content and the number of microscopical fungi,, saccharase and dehydrogenase enzymes’ activities, as well as close correlation was found between the dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass-C and saccharase activity.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth kinetics study dairy byproduct
Published February 10, 2013
169-172

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">By guess, annual volume of milk whey is 185–190 million tons and this volume probably will increase next years. Whey has significant biochemical oxygen demand due to its high organic matter content so whey as sewage is one of the most pollutant by-products in the food industry. Apart from environmental pollution, benefit of several whey constituents for human health is another reason to utilize whey. Corn and potato, as well as the processing of milk in the food industry in large quantities of by-products generated by low cost, substantial quantities of starch and lactic acid, which are due to high biological oxygen demand are considered as hazardous waste. Some of them are destroyed sewage storage tanks, and those products are excellent substrates for the growth of microorganisms could be. The traditional nutrient solution optimization methods are solution and time-consuming and are not able to determine the real optimum because of the interaction of factors involved.

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A dual infection of two microscopic fungi on common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) in Hajdúság region (East-Hungary)
Published May 16, 2017
189-195

Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) is one of the most noxious and invasive weed species in Hungary. A. syriaca invades arable lands, horticultural and forestry plantations, natural and semi-natural habitats too. In cases of field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mostly in maize (2–10%), soybean (12–32%) and sorghum (4–29%)..., but only with high rate of coverage. It can also increase these problems that the common milkweed can be serve as reservoir and host for viruses, other pathogens and pests.
Because of the importance of common milkweed and in spite of demand to develop effective biological control, until now has not been developed a proper control program against A. syriaca. The aim of our research was to identify the necrotrophic fungal pathogens, which were involved in notable disease occurrence on this weed in different parts of Hajdúság region of Eastern-Hungary in 2016.
To the isolation of fungi from leaves and their identification were based on morphological colony characters on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). To the description of conidia features were used PDA for Alternaria and synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) for Fusarium species, respectively. The examination of axenic cultures revealed that the fungi isolated from the leaves of common milkweed were Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata.

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The change of youth unemployment based on the concept of precariat
Published February 25, 2014
105-108

Youth unemployment is a hot potato issue worldwide, including Hungary and its reduction is a major focal point in every country. Today's labour market is characterized by uncertainties and unpredictability while flexibility, project-related employment are emphasized, which pose different expectations on employees than before. This phenomenon is... included in the concept of precariat. In the present study the labour market status, future potentials and options of youths in the Derecske district of Hungary are described.

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