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Preliminary data on the effect of semi-synthetic baits for Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) on the non-target Lepidoptera species
Published June 2, 2015
71-80

Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds w...as evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.

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Examination of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball) in Debrecen and Micske (Misca, West Romania)
Published November 2, 2014
77-81

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) was detected first in Hungary in 2013 in Zala County (South-West-Hungary). The disease is a serious danger for grapevine growing and grapevine propagating production. In 2014, the pathogen has been found in several new places in Hungary, viz. in Vas and Fejér Counties, and it was also detected in the former location in Zala County. The american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) is the main vector of the disease. This pest was detected first in Hungary in 2006 and then it has spread all over the country. Since we have not detailed distribution data of this pest in surroundings of Debrecen, therefore we made observations in this region in 2014. The presence of the pest was confirmed by yellow sticky cards in two locations in Debrecen and another site in West Romania near to Hungarian border. We found that S. titanus is present in each sampled sites that cause serious potential danger for the appearance and spread of Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) in this region.

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145
A forgotten sour cherry pest, the stone fruit weevil (Anthonomus /Furcipes/ rectirostis L.) appeared again
Published October 30, 2011
104-106

The stone fruit weewil (Anthonomus rectirostris L.) has been known as the kernel pest of the wild cherry in Hungary. There have been no data about its harm on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) in our country, yet. 5-10% of stone infection has been observed on some sour cherry trees (cultivars: Debreceni bőtermő, Újfehértói fürtös) in the e...astern side of an orchard at Debrecen-Józsa adjacent to a wood in early July 2011. The damage can be in connection with the fact that the yield has not been harvested for years.

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Host plant preference of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the north of Hungary
Published June 2, 2015
84-95

Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made little damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species continually spreading in South and... Central Europe causing considerable damage in fruit crops and various ornamentals. Present study shows the results of a series of observations carried out from 2011 to 2015 at a number of habitats in north of Hungary. The pest could be found at each habitat but the hedge, the tree row, the gardens and the orchard/vineyard were the most infested. Frequency and population density of Metcalfa pruinosa were considerable on Asteraceae, Cannabaceae, Fabaceae, Juglandaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Sapindaceae. Typical vegetation could be functionally classified as ornamental plants, trees/shrubs, fruit plants, weeds and feral plants. Feral plants – some of them also invasive alien species – were found at each habitat. Plant species native to America were among them the most populated. As the hedgerows were neglected, and most gardens, orchards and vineyards abandoned, these are excellent conditions for the quick and long-lasting establishment of the pest as well as they may be reservoirs to infest cultivated fruit crops and ornamentals. The hedgerow was situated along a railway line. The length of similar hedges can be merely in Pest county several hundred km, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infest agricultural and ornamental cultures. On the surveyed alfalfa and maize fields, accidentally very few nymphs and adults were observed. Although, the population density of M. pruinosa was considerable on many hostplants, economic damage or yield losses could not be detected. Economic or significant damage was observed only on roses, raspberries and stinging nettle. This later is cultivated in Germany and Finland. The applied horticultural oil was efficient.

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Pest species of Macrolepidoptera in the Game Reserve of Velyka Dobron’ (Transcarpathia, Ukraine)
Published June 2, 2015
58-64

The Game Reserve of Nagydobrony extends on a marginal area of a former peatland and is covered with extended hardwood gallery forests and oak-hornbeam forests and is surrounded by a mosaic-like agricultural landscape. Due to its richness of nature-like and semi-natural habitats it supports a diverse insect assemblage. By light and bait trapping... 383 species of macro-moths were recorded from which larvae of 85 species are feeding either on forest trees and scrubs or on cultivated plants thus these can be considered as potential pest species. Thirteen species (mostly Geometridae and Erebidae: Lymantriinae) have a special significance for forestry due to defoliating activity in gradation periods. Considering the habitat connections, the composition of moth assemblage is dominated by generalist species with broad spectrum of ecological tolerance but the species connected with humid forested habitats are also richly represented. The bulk of species consists of widely distributed Euro-Siberian species, but also some Holo-Mediterranean species with more southern character and Mediterranean-Subtropical migrant species were registered. The bait trapping provided significant results on the phenology of the dominant species. The faunistically significant and/or protected species were observed in a low number of individuals only, thus the applied trapping methods did not damage the faunal composition.

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Biological control of sweet chestnut on Pécsbánya, Hungary
Published June 30, 2018
77-81

The supervision of plant hygiene of sweet chestnut grove on Pécsbánya (South Hungary) started more than four years ago. Hypovirulent strains were applied as a biological process to control Cryphonectria parasitica fungus which causes the chestnut blight disease. By now the performed interventions have shown obviou...s results, the vitality of the trees has greatly improved, the amount of harvested nuts is increasing, and the hypovirulent strain has been spreading within the area. During plant health inspection the galls of chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) was found in the year of 2015, which is the obvious symptom of new occurrence of the pest. The pest was eradicated by destroy galls, which allows taking out of consideration the damage by now in this area.

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Status and Prospects of Integrated Pest Management in Apple Production in Hungary
Published December 6, 2005
307-316

Farming methods supporting the ecological function of agriculture will play an even more dominant role in the near future than they do now, as much in Hungary as in the rest of the EU.
Several farming techniques supporting sustainable development have already evolved, and in this essay, I deal with integrated production i.e. integrated fruit... production in Hungary and its perspectives. I analyze both European and Hungarian regulations on integrated production and their development.
It is obvious that in the orchards of Europe, integrated production is gaining ground. We can expect the increased spread of this western trend to Hungary, too, because one of the conditions for remaining on the market will be a product from integrated production. However, we cannot expect any rapid increase in the future. In my opinion, there are three ways to propagate integrated production:
− changes in the approach of farmers;
− vocational training of farmers because of the greater „knowledge-demand”; improving the consultant network;
− strict monitoring of the production process.

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Usage of interactions among plants and pests in biogardens
Published November 10, 2010
126-129

Experiences has been gained in the last 25 years with plant extracts, fermented juices, infusions and brews of plant origin presented in present paper. Interactions among vegetables growing in mixed cultures have been also summarized with special regard to insect repellent plants and to those interaction when the target plant’s odour is cover...ed and the pest cannot find it. These methods – after the ecological balance of the garden has been returned – can help the growers to keep the pest density under the economic threshold. The allelopathy can be the basis of the presented results.

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Arthropods assiciated with the stinging nettle in Hungary
Published October 30, 2011
97-103

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica Linnaeus) (Urticaceae) is a well known medicinal plant cultivated in some European countries for a long time. Because of its multiple usability (food, medicinal plant, feed, fiber), adventageous agrotechnical qualities and low demands for plant protection, its more extensiv utilization can be expected. However, du...ring cultivation from time to time little damages can be occurred on it. The aim of this paper is to show and estimate the most important arthropods (pests and natural enemies) of stinging nettle. Under the pests characterized in the paper according to the references the peacock and the small tortoiseshell are the most important species living on stinging nettle. Their individuals from time to time propagated can cause an important damage on nettle leaves in cultivated nettle stands or assemblages. On the base of a 12 year observation period (Gödöllő, Debrecen, 1998-2010) the following species have been observed: Psylliodes attenuata, Chrysomela fastuosa, Phyllobius pomaceus, Pleuroptya ruralis, Inachis io, Aglais urticae, Microlophium evansi, Microlophium carnosum, Aphis urticata, Dasineura urticata, Tritomegas sexmaculatus. Inachis io has been the only species which during the observation period did danger the stinging nettle stand. The other pest species have not threated even timely either the stinging nettle stand or a single plant. The number and diversity of natural enemies was rather low: running crab spiders (Philodromidae), tangle-web spiders (Theridiidae), crabbing spiders (Thomisidae), lacewings (Chrysopa perla, Chrysopa formosa), coccinellids (Coccinella septempunctata, Propylea quattuordecimpunctata, Adonia variegata), hoverflies (Episyrphus balteatus), earwigs (Forficula auricularia), scorpionflies (common scorpionfly (Panorpa communis) and European paper wasp (Polistes dominula) predominated. 

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Elemental content of propolis samples from Pest, Zala and Bács-Kiskun county (Hungary)
Published May 16, 2017
149-153

The elemental content of 61 raw propolis samples from Pest, Zala and Bács-Kiskun county (Hungary) were analyzed by ICP-OES. The content of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr and Zn were measured in the samples. Median is higher than mean in all cases based on the summarized results. It can be explained by the outliers, moreover it has ...a non-normal distribution. The concentrations are in an extremely wide range, the ratio of the maximum and minimum is under 10 in case of six elements, between 10 and 35.1 in the case of other six elements,and more than 300 in case of Zn. Significant differences are between counties only in the case of B, K and P based on ANOVA. Other elements have no significant differences. The following order can be set up based on the mean concentrations and the wide ranges: K≥Ca>P≥S≥Fe≥Mg≥Al>Zn≥Na>Mn≥B>Cu≥Sr. Moreover it can be established, that the measured concentrations are near the same or in some cases lower than in other publications.

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Occurrence and damage of the alfalfa root longhorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis Pallas, 1773) in old alfalfa stands in Hungary
Published November 10, 2010
82-88

The alfalfa root longhorn beetle is a pest of small importance in old alfalfa stands. It is rarely cited in the international, national literature, or even mentioned in specialized manuels. Plagionotus floralis is common in Hungary but its population density is low. It is a polyphagous species but it has importance - regarding the references ... only in alfalfa. This paper analyses data gained in old alfalfa fields at two different regions of the country (Máriabesnyő, Debrecen). Damage of P. floralis was 56% in the roots of an 8-year-old stand in Máriabesnyő. Lenghts of tunnels were between 3 and 22 cm. In spite of the tunnels the alfalfa plants were viable. There was no root longhorn beetle in the 15-year-old Debrecen stand, however it has been found former in the region. The reason for the important density of P. floralis in Máriabesnyő could be the considerable diversity and covering of flowering weeds around the field. Adults of P. floralis feed on flower pollen and nectar. As to the Debrecen area,weeds were cut regularly, so the edge vegetation was poor. Present conditions (no pest control on alfalfa fields, overuse of old and failing alfalfa stands, many untrained growers) favour the reproduction and possible damage of alfalfa root longhorn beetle. 

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Studies on the development of food attractants catching noctuid mouths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Published November 2, 2014
86-91

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The monitoring of the most dangerous noctuid pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can be performed by species specific pheromone traps. Recently the development of traps catching female moths became the main objective of the studies. We studied the synergistic effect of vine and beer as natural additive on the effectiveness of baits containing isoamyl alcohol and acetic acid in Forró and Debrecen-Ondód. The addition of vine and beer had positive effect on catches and it was significant in case of two dangerous pest species Agrotis segetum and Lacanobia oleracea. The synergistic effect was also significant with regard to the number of detected species especially in case of lower abundances and rare species.

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An unimportant insect pest with characteristic symptoms: Halticus apterus (Miridae)
Published June 14, 2017
19-23

Halticus apterus, a tiny mirid bug with jumping hind legs has not been taught in agricultural entomology courses in Hungary. However, the most detailed agricultural entomology text book, the “Handbook of Agricultural Entomology” briefly presents the pest. Although, it is common in Hungary, its damage is insignificant because of the low dens...ity; it can cause quality loss in feed crops only. Nevertheless, its special symptom – spottedness – is worth taking into consideration. The author has been studying pests and natural enemies of alfalfa for a long time (at least ten years), so he focused attention on this species. Occurrence of H. apterus was only sporadic in the alfalfa field, but it showed characteristic and frequent symptoms at a density of averagely three individuals per alfalfa plants in mixed plant associations at the studied field edge. By presenting the damage appearance and form, it was possible to make a more accurate description of H. apterus’symptoms, and with evaluating relevant European references, also the detailed entomological characterisation, economic importance and assessment of future risks have been achieved. As a difference to former descriptions, the special leaf spottedness of H. apterus does not consist of homogenous round spots but rather of spherical conglomerations of tiny whitish dots caused by the piercing and sucking mouthparts and the injected saliva

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Pest-fauna of grasslands and seed-grass varieties
Published November 2, 2014
56-59

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The present paper deals with various herbivorous species living in grassland ecosystems. The research focused not only on the complexity of pests in grasslands but also on individual pest species; their biology and the severity of damage, with special regard to seed feeders of some frequent herd’s grass species. The observed pests are showed in two ways, both taxonomically and according to their localization on the crop that is where they cause damage. An attempt was made to present the results being easily understandable for practitioners.

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Study on distribution and relative abundance of click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) in Hungarian maize fields
Published October 30, 2011
107-113

Click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) of 24 sites in different regions of Hungary were studied in 2011. A. brevis, A. sputator, A.
obscurus, A. lineatus, A. rufipalpis and A. ustulatus were sampled by pheromone traps in maize fields. During the study 65895 beetles were
caught. A. ustulatus and A. sputator were the most abundant sp...ecies. Beyond that 23 additional species were trapped so the total number of sampled species was 29. The distribution of the six studied species was uneven. In east Hungary A. ustulatus were the most abundant, while
in the Transdanubia A. sputator was dominant in the most studied sites. A. obscurus occurred mostly in Transdanubia (western Hungary), and it occurred only in one site of eastern Hungary. 
The abundance of one or simultaneously two species reached the threshold of significant damage in 14 sites. Additionally there were three sites where the total abundance of the two most dominant species reached the threshold. There were only six sites where we should not expect significant damage. In this reason we have to monitor the populations of these pests and if it is necessary we have to take actions against them.

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The importance of predator species in the population dynamics of the Brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) – Literature review
Published August 29, 2017
43-49

One of the conditions for successful small game management is the good management of predator species. The predator species play an important role in the sustainable utilization of the domestic brown hare populations. A portion of these species are under nature protection and with the rest of the species can be utilizing by the wildlife managem...ent professionals. Important prey species of brown hares: perspective are red fox, domestic dog and domestic cat. Based on latest date of the National Game Management Database in hunting bags increasing every year the number of the European badger, the stone marten and the golden jackal. In Hungary the brown hare’s most important predator bird species are common buzzard, marsh-harries and goshawk. The human race is not only as a top predator affects the number of the population of brown hares with the wildlife management but indirectly with traffic, (soil cultivation, mowing, and pest control) as well. The control of predators is absolutely necessary for successful small game management, but without sufficient habitat size and habitat development it is hardly sufficient.

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The Examination of Some Determining Elements of Efficient Practical Sweet Corn Growing
Published November 2, 2009
81-85

We did the detailed agronomy examination and assessment of sweet corn cropping technology by analysing the data of TONAVAR Ltd. The Ltd. developed a special sowing construction which is based on band application of main sowing and double growing. In main sowing they use super sweet hybrids, and in double growing they use normal sweet varieties.... In double growing sugar peas and the sweet corn can be cultivated together successfully. In every two years appearing sugar peas has a good effect on the sweet corn growing in monoculture. At the same time
the long-term successfulness of this questionable onto the illnesses of the peas because of the considerable sensitivity.
According to our examinations in main sowing the optimal period is between May 1. and 30., and in double growing the optimal period of sowing is between June 1. and 20. The optimal plant density is different too for the two sowing time. For super sweet hybrids the optimal plant number is 60-63 thousand/ha and for the normal sweet that is 65 thousand/ha.
Our examinations show that soil pest (defence with soil sterilisation in sowing time), Diabrotica virgifera, Helivoverpa armigera, Ostrinia nubialis are the greatest danger for the sweet corn quantity and quality.
The use of herbicides is the most efficient in the postemergens in main sowing and preemergens in second crop.
Our examination shows that the efficient sweet corn growing cannot be imagined without irrigation. The most efficient irrigation is in main sowing in the critical fenophase of crop time. In double growing the initial irrigation, and the crop irrigation are the most efficient. Based on the production data verifiable that beside the application of the discribed growing technology in the 2005-2007 years the average yield was 20,9t/ha of main sowing, and 17,8t/ha of second crop on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. 

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Contributions to the 2014 and 2015 flight pattern and damages of Carpomyia schineri Loew.
Published June 2, 2015
96-99

The fly Carpomyia schineri Loew is a pest of the berries of the feral Rosa canina group but is can also be found in the berries of grown rose cultivars. The larva damages the flesh of the berry, several larvae can develop inside a single berry. It can decrease the quantity and ascorbic acid content of the tea and jam, which are important human ...ascorbic acid sources during winter. At the same time in trapping experiments the adult can be confounded with adults of the walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa Cresson). In collections of berries at several sites in Hungary damage levels ranged from 0.88% to 65.08 %. Based on these damage levels we had the impression that the yellow sticky traps CSALOMON® PALz or PALs baited with the synthetic Rhagoletis lure caught moderate numbers of adults and were not satisfactory for detection, consequently improving trapping methods is necessary in the future.

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Comparison of different pheromone traps for monitoring of click beetle Agriotes ustulatus (Coleoptera Elateridae)
Published May 16, 2017
155-159

The effectiveness of two trap types (YATLORf and VARb3 with CSALOMON® sex pheromone bait) for monitoring click beetle Agriotes ustu latus was compared near Karcag (East Hungary) in 2016. Additionally effectiveness of YATLORf traps placed on ground and placed on a 25 cm high mound was also compared. Contrary to our expectations traps caught ver...y few individuals thus our study could provide only preliminary results. Between traps and methods there were not significant differences but YATLORf traps placed on mounds caught more individuals than others. The swarming imagos of A. ustulatus were also detected two weeks earlier in 2016 than as usual. To prove the effect of the way of usage on the effectiveness of YATLORf traps new studies should be made.

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What has Harmonia axyridis to do with Dante's Divine Comedy
Published November 10, 2010
82-88

The multicoloured Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773)), a former successful biological control agent in the USA and Western Europe became an invasive alien species threatening the diversity of native aphidophagous insects through competition and praying, a horticultural pest consuming various fruits and adversely affecting t...he wine quality and a human nuisance when occurring at high densities in buildings. Due to this dubious fame, attention has been paid to it also at national level which made inevitable to find for it a fitting name in different languages. In some cases and countries a version of the English name has been chosen however, regarding the meaning of this translated term in Hungarian, the try cannot be called fortunate. The objective of this contribution is to stress the function of common animal names in the Hungarian Sprachraum and to find a right and proper alternative with the help of etymology, mythology, classical literature, art (painting) and the experiences of Hungarian fruit and grape growers.

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Adequate responses to plant protection policy
Published October 30, 2011
33-35

The head of crop protection in the Central Agricultural Office offers a survey of the lately reconstructured official structure, outlines the sections of Central Directorate, sketches the roles of County Government Bureaues. To keep the standard of knowledge changes are necessary to make in the higher education of plant protection specialists. ...The prersentation will concern the contacts between researches made on universities and agricultural official directorates. It is analized the regulation of present and future pesticide usage, the possible alternatives of reduced quantity pesticide usage including the application of Integrated Plant Management (IPM) as well. The tasks of national activity according to the EU direcives about sustainable pesticide usage touch the problems of plant protection machinery and environment safety. It is summarized the tasks of official directorate, chamber of crop protection specialists, moreover practice of plant protection for the nearest future.

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Occurence and spreading of box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis Walker 1859) on the North-East region of Great Hungarian Plain
Published June 14, 2017
45-50

Box tree moth shows (Cydalima perspectalis) rapid spread in Europe. In Hungary it appeared first near to the western border of the country in 2011. In the eastern part of Hungary the first specimen was caught in 2015 with blacklight trap. Here we summarize its distribution in northern part of the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) on the basis of ...blacklight, pheromone and feeding attractant traps. We publish five new distribution data from northern part (4 from Hungary, 1 from Transcarpathia) and two from southern part of the Alföld. Beyond that the flight of three generations was observed both in the year 2015 and 2016.

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Distribution of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus ball 1932) in west Romania
Published December 15, 2019
127-130

The vector of Grapevine Flavescens Dorée phytoplasma, the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) has been in Europe since 1924. In Romania, the first populations were detected in 2009 in the central, eastern and southern part of the country. Later, the leafhopper was found also in West Romania in 2014. In 2015 and 2017, altogether..., 14 sampling sites were studied in two vine regions of this area. The Scaphoideus titanus could be detected in 10 of them with relatively small abundances. During the studies, the yellow sticky traps proved more effective methods than sweep netting. To prevent vineyards from disease, we should do everything against the vector from prevention to chemical protection.

 

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Distribution of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball 1932) in surroundings of Nagyvárad (Oradea, West Romania) and Debrecen (East Hungary)
Published June 14, 2017
39-44

The first European appearance of american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus), which is the vector of Grapevine Flavescence Dorée phytoplasma (‘Ca. Phytoplasma vitis’), were detected in France in 1924. The leafhopper has been distributed since 2006 in Hungary and now it occurs in the whole country, while the first record of the phyt...oplasma was published in 2013.
We studied the distribution of the leafhopper in surroundings of Nagyvárad (Oradea, West Romania) in 2015 and surroundings of Debrecen (East Hungary) in 2016. During the studies 17 sites were sampled. The leafhoppers were found in six Romanian places with relatively low abundances while it occurs in all studied Hungarian sites and two of them showed extremely high frequenncy.

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The occurrence and phenology of moth pests in different granary of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
Published November 10, 2010
70-75

The aims of my studies were the followings: primarily to find correlation between the conditions of granary and the occurrence of moth pests. Secondly I studied the effect of disinfection on individual numbers in the population of moths. My studies were started in May 2009 in six different places of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. Indianmeal mot...h (Plodia interpunctella) and Mediterranean Flour Moth (Ephestia kuehniella) traps with pheromone were installed in four repetitions as well as Angoumois Grain Moth (Sitotroga cerealella) traps in also four repetitions. Control traps without attractant were also placed at every place.
From my researches, it became clear that the disinfection alone is not enough to protect cereals from moths. As in the case of crop protection, we need to apply integrated pest management.
We have to make differences between preventive protections from moth pests and the elimination of them by chemicals.
Up to my opinion, the regular checking and cleaning of the granary are important as well as the prognosis of the possible occurrence of moths. The prognosis is considered important because the studied moths do not feed at the adult stage or only at a low level. However, the caterpillars coming from the eggs placed by females can cause a significant damage in the stored cereals.
The studied sex pheromone traps are proved to be useful for the reduction of number of moths since the traps caught lots of them. These traps are relatively cheap because only the temporarily changes of pheromones increase the cost.

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