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The effect of breed and stage of lactation on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published May 23, 2019
37-45

The microbiological quality of the milk is important not only for food safety, but it can also influence the quality of dairy products. The microbiological status of raw cow milk can be influenced by many factors. Our aim was to determine whether there was a difference between the microbiological quality of milk of two different cow breeds (Hol...stein Friesian and Jersey) kept and milked in the same conditions, and how the microbiological quality of the raw cow milk changed during lactation (beginning, mid, and end). Samples were taken and analysed in July, August and September in 2018 from two dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar county. During the conducted studies, the total plate count (TPC), the coliform count, the Staphylococcus aureus count and the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) count of raw milk samples were determined.

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the milk of the Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds in the case of TPC. However, the mean coliform count of milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows was significantly lower (P<0.05) than the mean coliform count of milk samples taken from Jersey cows. S. aureus was detected in one of the twelve milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows, and in two of the eleven milk samples taken from Jersey cows. CNS was found in larger amount in milk samples taken from Holstein Friesian cows, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Both TPC and CNS count were significantly higher (P<0.05) in individual milk samples taken at the end stage of lactation, than in samples taken in the earlier stages of lactation from Farm “A”. However, in the case of Farm “B”, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in colony counts at different stages of lactation. S. aureus was only present in milk samples that collected from cows, which were at the beginning and middle stages of lactation. Testimg the hemolysin production ability of S. aureus strains isolated from the raw milk samples, only weak hemolysis was observed on blood agar. In case of antibiotic resistance testing, it was found that all strains were susceptible to cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin G, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole.

Based on the results of our studies, staphylococci were detected in a higher amount in the milk of Holstein Friesian cows, and coliform bacteria were detected in a higher number in the milk of Jersey cows. Summing up the results of the milk samples taken from the different stages of lactation in one of the farms, it can be concluded that higher TPC and CNS count could be detected at the end stage of lactation than in the samples taken from the earlier stages of lactation. The fact that at the end of lactation the microorganisms could be detected in a higher colony count may be related to the fact that teats could be damaged during lactation by the milking machine, which increased the chance of imvading the microorganisms into the udder.

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Data supporting the quality of sheep milk for processing
Published September 7, 2001
67-73

Although the volume of ingredients in ewe’s milk is substantially higher than in cow’s milk, its hygienic quality is lower. The weak quality of raw ewe’s milk limits the possibilities of processing and results in bad quality products. In our investigation we analysed the state of ewe’s milk processing at a typical medium size dairy firm.... We investigated the collection, the amount and the quality of milk and the level of ingredients in milk throughout the purchasing period (lactation period).
The purchasing of ewe’s milk was limited to 5 months (from April to September). Although meat (lamb) provides the major source of income to sheep breeders the extension of the period of ewe’s milk production can be beneficial to shepherds and dairy firms. The amount of ewe’s milk ingredients found corresponded to published findings. However, the hygienic quality of ewe’s milk was varied greatly in the different milk samples and these deviations meant bad quality on average. Physiological factors, the circumstances of sheep breeding and milking, the slow cooling of the milk, the little amount of daily milk and the long storage before transportation to the dairy firm together cause poor hygienic quality. The main problem is the long storage time of milk, but our results raise the question of reconsidering the quality classes. Investigating the effect of the hygienic quality of raw milk on product quality, we can get correct data that can be really authoritative.

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Comparative analysis of Staphylococcus aureus strains by molecular microbiology methods
Published July 16, 2007
34-39

Staphylococcus aureus is a very important pathogen for dairy farms and milk processing plants. Subclinical mastitis is often caused by this species, and it can contaminate bulk tank milk when milking cows are suffering from mastitis. Additionally, thermostable enterotoxins (SE) produced by some types of this bacterium can cause food poisoning.<...br>The aim of our research was to examine the number of S. aureus in bulk tank milk in two dairy farms and the enterotoxin-producing ability, genetic relation (pulsotype) and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains from different sources (bulk tank milk, udder quarter milk and environment).
The results show that the mean number of S. aureus of bulk tank milk of two farms significantly differed (P<0.05). Fourteen isolates were selected for further molecular genetic studies (five isolates were from bulk tank milk and nine isolates were from udder quarter milk). S. aureus was not recovered from the environmental samples. Three of the fourteen isolates (21.4%) tested by multiplex PCR were positive for SE genes. Two isolates carried one gene (seb) and one isolate carried two genes (seg and sei). The fourteen strains were classified into three pulsotypes and two subtypes at 86% similarity level. Isolates from bulk tank milk (n=5), were divided into 2 pulsotypes (A, C) and one subtype (C1). The isolates from udder quarter milk (n=9) belonged to three different pulsotypes (A, B, C) and two subtypes (A1, C1). The distribution of pulsotypes in the present study revealed genetic relationship between S. aureus isolated from udder quarter milk and bulk tank milk. This could be explained by the fact that in farms with a high number of infected cows, these cows could represent the main source of contamination. The results of the antibiotic resistance investigations show, that all strains were susceptible to methicillin, cefoxitin, lincomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Thirteen out of fourteen strains were resistant to penicillin (A and C pulsotypes, A1 and C1 subtypes) and just one isolate was susceptible (B pulsotype) to all antibiotics tested.

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Bacteria in the milk of sheep with or without mastitis- mini Review
Published May 23, 2019
47-52

From a nutritional point of view, sheep milk is more valuable than cow and goat milk and the interest for sheep milk is increasing in many countries. However, sheep milk is easily contaminated during milking, handling, and transport and it is an ideal medium for bacterial propagation. Consequently, sheep milk spoils quite quickly. The proper, c...lean handling of milk is not only of sanitarian interest, but it also serves the farmers’ interests, because contaminated milk may not be distributed, and is unsuitable for producing good quality products. Following this technological trend, this review addresses the bacterial composition of sheep milk with and without mastitis. Even though sheep milk contains a lot of bacteria, this review article highlighted total plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Salmonella spp. and Streptococcus spp. Mastitis in sheep is a vital cause of mortality, reduction in milk production and early culling. The reported risk factors for mastitis in sheep were age, a case of mastitis, breed, husbandry systems, and location. The main priority should be implementation of programs to minimize human pathogenic bacteria and mastitis in raw ewe milk.

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Microbiological status of bulk tank milk and different flavored gomolya cheeses produced by a milk producing and processing plant
Published December 28, 2018
73-78

The microbiological quality of milk is important not only for food safety, but it can also influence the quality of dairy products. In this study, our aim was to assess the microbiological status of the bulk milk of a milk-producing farm, and some natural and flavored (garlic, dill, onion) gomolya cheeses made from pasteurized milk produced by ...their own processing plant. We determined the number of coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and molds of three milk and eight cheese samples. The tests were conducted between July and September, 2017.

In bulk milk, the mean coliform count was 3.83±0.17 log10 CFU/ml; the mean E. coli count was 1.38±0.14 log10 CFU/ml; the mean mold count was 3.74±1.30 log10 CFU/ml; and the S. aureus count was <1.00 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. The mean coliform count in gomolya cheeses was 3.69±1.00 log10 CFU/g; the mean E. coli count was 2.63±0.58 log10 CFU/g; the mean S. aureus count was 3.69±1.35 log10 CFU/g and the mean mold count was 1.74±0.37 log10 CFU/g. The amount of coliforms detected in different flavored gomolya cheeses were significantly different (P<0.05). More than 10 CFU/g of E. coli was found only in the dill flavored cheeses, and S. aureus was found only in dill (3.66±1.86 log10 CFU/g) and onion (3.71±0.52 log10 CFU/g) flavored gomolya cheeses. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the amount of coliform bacteria and E. coli in bulk milk exceeded the limit set in regulation of the Hungarian Ministry of Health (MoH) 4/1998 (XI. 11.) and the amount of S. aureus was below the limit. For gomolya cheeses, the S. aureus count exceeded the limit. The amount of coliform bacteria remained above the limit in cheeses, except for the garlic flavored gomolya cheese. In cheeses, a larger E. coli count was detected than in the bulk milk, but there is no specific limit for cheeses in the regulation. The mold count exceeded the limit specified in the regulation in cheeses, but a lower value was detected relative to milk.

The results show that, in the case of bulk milk and gomolya cheeses, certain detected quantities exceeded the limit values set forth in regulation of MoH 4/1998 (XI. 11.). The results indicate an inadequate microbiological state of the raw material and the finished products. The reasons for these are due to reduced technological hygiene or the inappropriate handling of raw material and finished products. In this study, we have summarized the results of our preliminary studies, which can provide a basis for further hygiene studies.

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Identification of cow’s and buffalo’s milk and dairy product using a DNA-based method
Published November 13, 2012
279-282

Aim of our study was the optimization of a DNA method, that is appropriate for reliable, low cost identification of animal species in milk and dairy product (cheese) and to determine the ratio of species. Mitochondrial DNA was used in our work to analyse buffalo/cow milk mixtures contained different ratio of bovine milk such as 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, ...1.5%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% (v/v%). Buffalo cheese were produced using buffalo and cows milk (0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% – v/v% cows milk in buffalo milk). In case of milk mixtures, using species specific primers, the PCR assay showed a 0.5 v/v% detection limit. Cattle, in the buffalo/cows milk 99.9/0.1 v/v% mixture, was not detectable. The identification of buffalo and cows DNA in cheese was successful. The intensity of eletroforetic PCR fragment indicated the increase of cow milk ratio in milk and cheese samples as well.

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Microbiological quality of bulk tank raw milk from two dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, Hungary
Published December 28, 2018
105-112

Two main channels have been identified to be responsible for microbiological contamination of raw milk and milk products. Firstly, contamination has occurred due to udder infection from the cow or the blood which harbours most bacteria that come in contact with the raw milk. Secondly, via external factors (may include faeces, skin, contaminated... water, environment etc.) which are associated with the operation of milking. There is direct contact with the milk and/or surfaces before, during or after the milking, posing public health risk and economic decline. The aim of this study was to examine the bacteriological quality of bulk tank raw milk samples collected from two different size dairy farms (Farm 1 and Farm 2) of different housing forms (cubicle loose and deep litter) in Hajdú-Bihar County, Hungary in July, 2017. Three samples were taken from each farm, and the total plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli count, Staphylococcus aureus count, and yeast and mould count were determined in them.

The results clearly showed low level of all measured bacteria group load in Farm 1 samples in comparison to Farm 2 with the exception of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) which represented high level in general, indicating significant difference (P<0.05). The mean value of total plate count in Farm 2 samples was higher (1.0 × 105 CFU/mL) than Farm 1 samples (2.8 × 104 CFU/mL). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in mean count of coliforms in raw milk samples between Farm 1 and Farm 2. Similarly, results of E. coli were significantly different (P<0.05) with mean count of 1.44 × 102 CFU/mL and 2.02 × 103 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively.

Results of Staphylococcus aureus also showed significant difference (P<0.05) with mean count of 9.7 × 101 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and 6.28 × 102 CFU/mL for Farm 2. The mean of mould count recorded was 1.07 × 102 CFU/mL and 4.93 × 102 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively. The recorded mean of yeast count was 1.68 × 103 CFU/mL and 3.41 × 103 CFU/mL for Farm 1 and Farm 2 respectively; however, both farms showed no significant difference (P>0.05) in terms of mean of mould and yeast count. Although Farm 2 produced six times lower milk quantity than Farm 1, the measured microbial parameters were high. Both farms’ microbiological numbers were higher above the permitted limit values as stated by Regulation (EC) No 853/2004, Hungarian Ministry of Health (MoH) 4/1998 (XI. 11.).

This could be an indication of non-conformance to effective GMP, ineffective pre–milking disinfection or udder preparation, poor handling and storage practice, time and temperature abuse and inadequate Food Safety Management System Implementation. Therefore, our recommendation is as follows; establish control measures for pre- and postharvest activities involved in the milking process which would be an effective approach to reduce contamination of the raw milk by pathogenic microorganisms from these farms, strict sanitation regime and hygiene protocol be employed and applied to cows, all equipment, contact surfaces and minimize handling of the milk prior, during and after milking. This will also serve as scientific information to the producers for continual improvement in their operations.

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Investigation of the milk composition of three Tsigai sheep varieties, and the detection of cazein fractions of sheep milk by Reversed-Phase HPLC
Published November 24, 2008
13-22

The measurements started in 2005, the author used the milk of 3 types of Tsigai Sheep that are suitable for milking, they examined the milk composition, the possible differences between the milk types, the coagulation characteristics, cheese processing, yielding characteristics and the transfer of solid content into cheese. From the large numbe...r of measurements, the results of milk composition examinations are described.
During the research the author examined the milk coagulation property of three types of Tsigai Sheep QTS 25 is a substance investigating instrument, and its primary mission is the analysis of the substance profile. The advantage of this instrument is the representation of the survey graphs from which the part of the substance characteristics could be directly read off. By the help of the applied mathematical and statistical operations we tried to establish connection between the congealment-hardness and the specialty of the different types of Tsigai Sheep.
In 2006 the author began the identification and qualification of the major sheep milk proteins by RP- HPLC method. She used a scientific article written by Bordin et al. The method is able to separate and quantify the seven major proteins. However Bordin’s procedure was developed using bovine milk, the author adapted it to sheep milk.

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The effect of keeping technology on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published November 24, 2008
67-75

The importance of the quality of raw milk increased after Hungary had joined to the EU. On delivery of raw milk, the microbiological quality, especially total plate count of the milk is very important. Twenty-two farms (7 large, 4 medium-sized, and 11 small farms) were included in the study. We considered the different farm size, keeping- and m...ilking circumstances during the selection of farms. The examined large farms use loose housing system (cubicle, deep litter) and milking parlour. Most of them use preand post-milking disinfection. In the medium-sized farms, loose,
deep litter and tie-stall housing system, as well as milking parlour, pipeline milking and bucket milking occurred. All of them use preand post-milking disinfection. Small farms use tie-stall housing system, bucket milking and udder preparation by water. Unfortunately, they do not use pre- or post-milking disinfection. In the large and medium-sized farms mainly Holstein Friesian, in the small farms Hungarian Simmental breeds can be found.
The aim of our research was to examine the microbiological status of the raw milk produced in dairy farms (total plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli count, Staphylococcus aureus count, psychrotroph bacteria count, furthermore yeast and mold count); sources of the contamination; connection between the microbiological quality of produced milk and housing-, milking technologies of farms; furthermore the hygienic circumstances of milking and milk handling of the farms, by the examination of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli contamination.
During the examination of the connection between the different farm sizes, various housing- and milking forms and the microbiological characteristics we observed similar tendencies in the case of total plate count, coliform count, yeast and molds count, furthermore psychrotroph bacteria count. The value of  these parameters was significantly higher in small farms, and infarms which use tie-stall housing forms, bucket milking, udder preparation with water, and which do not use pre- and post-milking disinfection.
The results showed that besides cooling, the milking procedure and the type of udder preparation had the largest effect on the total plate count. Statistical analysis shows that in medium and small farms the combination of pipeline milking – tie stall housing system – disinfectant preparation of the udder; in large farms the combination of milking parlour – loose cubicle housing system – dry preparation of the udder are the most appropriate in the aspect of the total plate count. We experienced that in farms where the hygienic instructions are not followed – and therefore
equipment used during the milking and handling of milk is very contaminated – or rather the separation of mastitic cows’ milk is not appropriate, different microorganisms may contaminate the produced milk. 

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Effect of supplemental pig milk replacer on piglet weight gain and sow backfat thickness
Published March 24, 2015
43-47

Sow milk production is the major factor limiting pig growth to weaning. Although the milk production of the sows incremental many environmental factors affect the actual performances. The supplemental milk replacer can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and try to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to ...their appetite, to enlarge the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of liquid milk supplement on weight development and litter performance of the piglets during the suckling period. Data were collected from 60 farrowings, the weight of 649 piglets in a total were measured at birth, 14 days old and at weaning (28 days), respectively. In the control group (n=319) the piglets were suckled and got prestarter feed from day 10. In the experimental group (n= 330) the piglets had got liquid milk replacer in 10.71% solution, from day 10 after birth together with suckling and prestarter feed, as well. Based on the Duncan's multiple range tests, there were no significant differences in birth weight between the control and experimental group but we found significant differences between the 14 days weight and the weaning weight, subsequently. Based on the CV% of weight the experimental group became more homogenous, in contrary to the weight of the control group at the end of suckling period. The milk supplementation can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to their appetite, to enlarge and uniform the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately.

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Some Aspects of the Relationship Between the Quality of Sheep Milk and Dairy Products
Published May 11, 2003
12-15

The correlation between the quality of raw milk and the quality of milk products is evident. In spite of this fact we can find only a few references contained exact data related sheep milk. In recent paper we investigated the effect of SCC of sheep milk on the cheese yield (semi hard traditional cheese) and certain texture parameters of yoghurt... from sheep milk. We wanted to know the relevant limit values of these properties for dairy applications.
In our opinion – in the case of the cheese yield – that the strong negative effect can be experienced when SCC is above 700.000-1 million/cm3.
In the case of yoghurt from sheep milk the limit values of SCC can be 1 million/cm3 for Adhesivity and Whey draining and 500.000/cm3 for Hardness. Considering these limit values in the selection of milk become materialise the highest quality of products and the economical production.

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The variation of breast milk composition during the lactation stage for mothers from the Csík region
Published December 15, 2010
93-98

The aim of our research was the examination of breast-milk composition from mothers living in the Csík region and to follow their milk composition variations during lactation. In this article we present the results obtained from three mothers, paying particular attention to essential components. The breast milk samples were collected from heal...thy mothers with similar habits and age. The milk samples were collected with a hand pump at the
same time after the feeding. The sampling period was from day 5 to the 14th weeks of lactation. The nutrition of mothers was  recorded on a questionnaire, completed by the mothers themselves. Comparing our experimental results with data in the literature it was concluded that the milk protein content was very similar to the milk of mothers from other European countries, and is decreased during lactation.
The total saturated fatty acid content was lower, but the palmitic acid content was slightly higher. Regarding the essential fatty acid composition the linoleic- and the arachidonic acid contents were appropriate from a nutritional point of view. The linolenic acid was present in lower amounts, but the docosahexanoic acid was almost undetectable.
The iron and manganese contents were in good agreemen with published results, but the zinc content of the breast milk was lower and its copper content was higher. These differences in milk composition can be explained by the different nutritional habits of our subjects. 

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The examination of presumed Escherichia coli count of raw milk samples on several milk production farms
Published May 23, 2006
31-37

For dairy farms, it is of great importance to insure the appropriate hygienic status of milk and to examine it regularly. Escherichia coli, belonging to the coliform bacteria type of, is a good indicator of contamination, and therefore suitable for characterising the hygienic condition of milk production.
The aim of our research was to exami...ne the connection between the Escherichi coli count in bulk tank milk and housing and milking technologies of different-sizes farms. We examined the relation using various statistical methods.
Analysing the connection between the E. coli count and the farm size we found no significant difference between the farms. On the basis of the mean values of the E. coli count, we can say that the hygienic conditions are appropriate for mid-sized farms, and tolerable for large farms. We found differences in the hygienic status among the small farms. Half of the eight small farms, had no adequate hygiene. The results of the analysis of the quality categories show that the probability of inadequate quality milk was the largest on small farms (37.5%).
Comparing the various housing and milking methods with each other, there were numerical differences in the E. coli count, but these differences were not significant. We got higher E. coli count values on those farms using tied stall barn and bucket milking installation. The reason for this could be that in cases of farms using bucket milking installation, it is harder to meet the requirements.
After forming groups by farm size, housing and milking methods, we found that the E. coli counts are adequate on mid-size farms using various housing and milking methods; and tolerable on those large farms using loose housing stable and a milking parlour. At the same time, we found inadequate E. coli counts on the smaller farms using tied stall barns and bucket milking installation.
The results show that if there is suitable attention, independent of farm size, housing and milking procedure, it is possible to produce milk with low E. coli counts, and to insure appropriate hygienic conditions.
Further detailed examinations are needed to decide which factors of housing and milking technologies influence the E. coli count of bulk tank milk.

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Production and disposition of purebred Jersey populations
Published November 24, 2008
89-96

In Hungary crossbreeding wit Jersey has been in practice since 2004. Uniquely in the Hungarian history of the Jersey breed two times fifty head pregnant heifers were imported in 2006. The aim of our study is to present through the description of the production and the type traits of the population the inherent possibilities of Jersey. The breed... is presented by the figures of the rolling lactations, 305 day milk production, correlations between the traits and by the results of the evaluation of type traits. Analyses of the data were done by using independent samples t-test.
Based on data of 87 cows the average number of days in milk  is 308 and 48 cows has finished lactation. During the rolling lactation they produced 5050 kg milk with 5.34% fat and 3.8% protein content.
The first lactation Jersey cows’ production when corrected to 305 days was 5089 kg milk with 5.35% fat and 3.81% protein. Between the herds there was significant difference in milk kg, amount of fat produced, protein content and amount of protein produced. On the two farms distribution of cows belonging to different production levels is very different. The biggest difference is when categorized by the amount of milk produced.
Correlation between the milk kg and fat kg is the greatest (r=0.950). Similar values were obtained for the correlation between fat and protein kg (r=0.919) and for the milk kg and fat kg (r=0,898). 
Disposition of the Jersey cows is very well balanced. Their stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle and pin width is favorable, the average scores are between 4.5 and 6.5. The leg of the cows is a bit sickly, and is hocking in a little with medium-low angled hoof. Average values of all traits describing the udder are between 4 and 5. Cows belonging to the two herds differ by disposition. Significant difference exists in the following traits: body depth, dairy form, pin width, rear leg - side view, rear leg, rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, teat length. The
Jersey population imported to Hungary has a final score of 78 points which equals with the “good” qualification. 

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Impact of lameness on the milk production of ewes
Published March 23, 2016
5-7

The aim of this study was assessing the impact of lameness on the milk production, somatic cells count and component of milk. We assess also impact of lameness on the order of entry into the milking parlour.

The experiment was carried at the farm, located in northern Slovakia. The farm keeps sheep Improved Valachian. Samples of milk wer...e taken during two periods: May, July. It was taken 428 samples together. We recorded three groups by lameness- strong lame, slightly lame, non-lame ewes. We recorded also the order of entry of ewes into the milking parlour in milking row. The results were mathematically processed using the Microsoft Excel program and statistically evaluated by SAS.

We found significant statistical differences between months (P<0.0001) in all the above mentioned indicators. In July we recorded 26 ewes with slightly lameness and 18 ewes with strong lameness. Other ewes were non-lame. Non-lame sheep had in July the highest milk yield (356±148 ml) and the lowest decrease in milk yield from May to July (-206±131 ml) compared with slightly (317±116 ml, -223±163) and strong (319±122 ml, -219±151 ml) lame ewes. However, these differences were not statistically significant. We have not identified statistically significant differences between groups in somatic cells count (logxSCC for non-lame: 4.83±0.608 in ml, slightly lame: 4.76±0.653 in ml, strong lame 4.71±0.787 in ml). Milk composition (fat, proteins, lactose) nor changes in the composition of milk that occurred between May and July were not affected by lameness of ewes. But lameness in July affected the change the order of entry of ewes in the milking parlour in July compared with the order of entry recorded in May.

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Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
Published November 20, 2011
43-47

Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per co...w could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

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The effect of season on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published May 20, 2020
95-99

Many factors can influence the microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk. In this study, our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the microbiological statuses of milk produced in different seasons. Samples were collected and analysed from five dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, from February to November in 2019. ...During our studies, total plate count (TPC), coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count of raw cow’s milk samples were determined.

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the mean TPC values detected in the milk collected in winter and autumn, but that values were significantly (P<0.05) lower than in the milk samples collected in spring and summer. Similarly to the TPC, in the case of coliform bacteria the lowest mean colony count was detected in the samples collected in winter. The difference was significant (P<0.05), compared to the values observed in the samples collected in summer. S. aureus was detected in bulk milk of only two farms in excess of 1.0 log10 cfu/ml. Also in case of S. aureus, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the values observed in the samples collected in winter and in summer. Samples from spring and summer contained the highest amount of S. aureus.

Based on the results of our studies, in the case of almost all farms the mean TPC, coliform and S. aureus counts were lower in the samples collected in winter, than in the samples collected in summer. The fact that the samples collected in winter contained the lowest amount of colonies could be attributed to the inhibition of growth of mesophilic microorganisms below 8 °C. Furthermore, the fact that we observed the highest colony counts in samples collected in summer, can be related to the heat stress of cows during the summer due to unfavorable weather conditions (high temperature and humidity).

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Effect of using antioxidants as feed additives in the diet of dairy cows on the vitamin E and lycopene content of milk
Published December 1, 2010
69-72

In 2007, the aim of an Ányos Jedlik program and call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants – in this case: vitamin E and lycopene ... used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an
increased level of vitamin E and lycopene content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E as feed-additive can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E in the milk. The use of lycopene as feedadditive also gave good results. At the beginning of the experiment, the lycopene content of the milk was below the detection limit, while in the post-feeding milk samples the lycopene became detectable. Based on our results, we are of the opinion that further experiments and analyses are needed regarding the quality of food of animal origin and animal health.

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The analysis of the milk production and the body condition on two Saanen goat-farms
Published December 21, 2009
53-59

The authors carried out an examination on two Saanen goat farms during four months from May to August 2008. The body condition score and milk production of the goats were measured. In data processing analysis of variance was used to compare the data of the studied farms. They tried to find the answer for the question how the body condition scor...es and milk production change in each month. The changes observed in each farm were examined separately then they compared the values of the two farms.. On one of the farms the nutrition was proper therefore with an ideal, intermediate body condition (average 2.73) the goats produced a good amount of milk (2.5 milk-kg/mother/day). On the other farm the nutrition was not proper, therefore the body condition of the goats was weak (average 1.88). Their milk production decreased significantly from month to month (average 2.35 milk-kg/mother/day). The authors could conclude considering both farms that the more milk the goats produced, the lower their body condition score became. The two parameters showed negative correlation.

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Changes in the Composition of the Milk of Racka Sheep During Lactation
Published December 6, 2005
24-28

We examined the changes in the composition of the milk of 36 Racka sheep during lactation. As milking of Racka sheep is not performed anywhere in the country, the test was restricted to the examination of milk components. However, quantity could not be measured. We analysed the fat, protein, lactose, carbamide and somatic cell count content of ...the milk from sampling. By means of correlation analysis, milk components were compared to the age of ewes, then the number of lactation days. With the advancing of the lactation and by analysing the milk components, we found differences between the two colour-variants of Racka sheep. Additional trials are required to decide whether the differences between the two colour-variants may be considered as constants, or can be attributable to the relatively small number of samples.

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The possibilities of the development of functional dairy products
Published December 1, 2010
33-36

Because of our new aged world’s emerging stress, over exhausting and move less lifestyle the pollution, the not appropriate food consuming and the low calories in the consumed food there are more and more the called „civilian” disorders.
Many people have diabetes and osteoporosis others fight with lung, cardiovascular system, problems ...and find cancers of many kinds without age exemptions. 
There could be a solution in changing lifestyle. In the developed side of the world there are presence of food lines with higher content in nutritious and/or vitamins and fibers such as: kalium, calcium, selen, magnesium, plus it contains less saturated fat. Because of that there is a new word in dietetics as functional foods.
Food having more inner content and/or biological values, so healthier, are called functional foods. Those foods components picked carefully for healthiness by modern knowledge of dietetics.
One of the best raw materials for functional food is the milk. It is already healthy by itself. The Körös-Maros Biofarm Ltd. has a goal of developing and marketing, health protecting organic functional foods in hungaricum products from cured milk. The Jedlik Ányos project helps the Ltd. to achieve this goal. We just finished an antioxidant test and we check if the antioxidant in present in the milk than we check the final product of the presence of the original antioxidant and the form and amount of it.
It had been feeding, for two weeks for three herd of cows selected for age, milk output and consanguinity. All of the three herd had been feeding with basic forage. One of the herds had been getting vitamin-E in the amount of 250 mg/bwkg the other group got licopin in the amount of 200 mg/bwkg once a day each by each orally, the third herd was the control group. 
After two weeks we toke a sample of every herd were processed the samples into yogurt and cheese. Than we checked the raw milk, the cheese and the yogurt for antioxidant content with HPLC method. The test ended with good results by finding a great amount of antioxidant, in not only the raw milk but also in the final product. 

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Analyzing the Efficiency of Dairy Farms by Using the Method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
Published December 1, 2010
17-21

In Hungary the dairy sector is in a long-term critical period, the stock has been in constant decline. The consumption of milk and dairy products in Hungary is slightly rising compared to the world tendency, and it is fallen behind the level in 1990. The milk consumption per capita in 2006 was with 75 liters less than the EU-15 average. Dairy e...nterprise is a very risky activity: the profitability of the enterprise is affected by the fluctuation of feed and animal health products prices from the side of inputs, and by the fluctuation of end-product prices. Under these circumstances it is vital for the
cattle breeders, in order to survive, to harness the reserves in the breeding as effectively as possible. In our research we made a multi-faceted efficiency analysis of an agricultural holding’s three dairy farms. The chosen method for the analysis was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The
selection of the method is justified by the fact that there is not such a reliable database by which we could define production functions, and that DEA makes possible to manage several inputs and outputs, i.e. multiple decision problems, simultaneously. By using DEA the sources that causes shortfalls can be identified, analyzed and quantified on farms that does not operate efficiently, thus it can help the corporate decision support successfully. In the model inputs are the cost data per one liter milk – feed, medicinal product use, logistic costs -, and the main parameters
concerning the keeping and rearing. Outputs are indicators concerning milk production, milk quality and others. We prepared the model in MS Excel, the linear programming model series were programmed by Visual Basic. After solving the model, in light of the shadow prices we can determine why either of the farms is not efficient.

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The trend of cowmilk yield, its compostion and the body condition during the lactation
Published December 21, 2009
69-73

The authors examined the data of 2767 trial milkings andthe months Body Condition Scores of 479 Holstein dairy cows. The condition loss was significant between the 30-60th days. The improvement of BCS begins only after the 120th day. The change in the milk protein and milk fat content were close after the condition changing. In each period of t...he lactation the closeness of the relationship among the condition, the milk quantity and the milk composition were different. In the aspect of the milk quantity the most significant difference was between the 2.5 and 4 BCS cows (6.68 kg) in the last period of the lactation.

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Effect of feeding linseed on the fatty acid composition of milk
Published February 10, 2013
45-50
...400; word-spacing: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In the last decades many researches were made to change the animal product food’s composition. The production of better fat-compound milk and dairy products became a goal in the name of health conscious nutrition. These researches were motivated by the non adequate milk fat’s fatty acid composition. There have been made researches in order to modify the milk’s fatty acids’ composition to reach the expectations of functional foods. With the optimal supplement of the feed can be increased the proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and can decreased the saturated fatty acids. Row fat content of milk was not decreasing in the course of examination neither of the cold extruded linseed nor the whole linseed supplement as opposed to observations experienced by other authors. In case of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids when supplementing with cold extruded linseed the most significant change was observable in the concentration of the elaidic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alfa-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid. In case of saturated fatty acids the quantity of palmitic acid and myristic acid lowered considerably. When observating the feeding with whole linseed the concentration of many fatty acids from the milkfat of saturated fatty acids lowered (caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid). The quantity of some unsaturated fatty acids was showing a distinct rise after feeding with linseed, this way the oleic acid, alfa-linolenic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, eicosadienoic acid. The aim of the study was to produce food which meets the changed demands of customers as well. The producing of milk with favourable fatty acid content from human health point of view can give scope propagate the products of animal origin.

 

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Effect of vitamin e and selenium supplementation on the antioxidant content of milk and dairy products in dairy cows
Published November 20, 2011
9-12

In 2007, the aim of the Ányos Jedlik program and the call for tenders was to support application-oriented, strategic research and development projects, which can increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian economy. In the framework of our project, we intended to examine whether non-protected antioxidants - in this case: vitamin E and seleniu...m – used as feed-additives can increase the antioxidant content of milk. The milk with an increased level of vitamin E and selenium content can be used for producing functional foods which will represent competitive products on the current market of milk products. Our results show that the use of vitamin E and selenium as feedadditives can significantly increase the amount of vitamin E and selenium in the milk and also in the diary products.

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