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The effects of curing technology on the rheological and organoleptic features of meat products
Published May 20, 2020
139-142

Meat products are important staple foodstuffs owing to their high protein, vitamin and mineral content. Meat plants do not only use traditional production technologies but also develop methods that preserve the nutritional value of meat or improve the texture and organoleptic features of meat products. These features play an important role ...in the consumer society. Consumers first meet the external features of meat and this experience influences their decisions. Our analyses compared a traditional and a new curing procedure. Besides organoleptic inspections, we analysed texture with a CT3 type Texture Analyser to obtain quantified information on the condition of meat samples in the various curing phases. We used our results to compare traditional and new curing procedures.

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Effect of raised level α-linolenic fatty acid diet on broiler meat quality
Published July 16, 2007
29-33

The aim of our investigation was to determine the effects of increased α-linolenic content in food on the colour, total pigment content, organoleptic characteristics and oxidative stability of poultry meat. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 cock chicklings. Birds were fed three-phase diets, contained four different fat sources:... lard, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil and soybean oil. According to the experiment, the different oil sources had no effect on growth performance, but the fatty acid composition of diets was reflected in the meat fatty acid profile. We could detect just slight change in colour in the treated meat, which was not caused by the decreased pigment content. The detected change in colour during the storage was not in relation to initial PUFA content. TBA level did not prove the accelerated lipid peroxidation which was expected in case of higher α-linolenic containing the meat. The data obtained in meat storage trial, could not prove clearly the negative effect of the higher α-linolenic content of the meat.

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Some Variable Traits of Broiler Genotypes
Published September 8, 2020
25-30

One the most effective ways to satisfy the requirements of mankind for food of animal origin is the fattening of chicken. Healthy and cheap meat with low fat and high protein content can be produced rapidly and in large quantities by broilers with low feed consumption. This paper presents the production results and carcass traits of three genot...ypes (Ross 308, Cobb 500, Ross broiler parent) females and males at the age of 42 days.
In both sexes, we found that the average body weight of the Ross parents genotype was higher (females: 2643 g; males: 3089 g) than the
average body weight of the other two hybrids – significant difference was found only between pullets. However, the smallest difference in the
average body weight between the two sexes (446 g) was found in this genotype. In both sexes, the lowest average weight was detectable in
the case of the Cobb 500 hybrids (females: 2443 g; males: 3052 g).The feed consumption ability of the females were worse – in all but one
case (Ross pullet) – than that of the males. For one kg of weight gain - in the order of genotypes – 1.79kg, 2.08kg and 2.08 kg of feed was
used. The same values for the males were as follows: 1.81kg, 1.80kg and 1.89 kg, respectively.
Carcass traits were examined and it was found that the average grillfertig weight, the weight of whole thigh meat and thigh meat of the
Ross parents’ genotype was higher than the average weight of the other two hybrids. Significant difference was found only in grillfertig- and
whole thigh meat weight. Pullets of the Ross parents’ paternal line had worse results in the average weight of breast meat with bone and
breast meat fillet than the other two genotypes. In the case of cocks was detectable the inverse of this: the average weight of breast meat with
bone was the highest in the cocks of the Ross parents’ maternal line.

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Examination of Fattening and Slaughtering Performance of Hungarian Merino, Ile de France F1 and Suffolk F1 Lambs
Published March 4, 2005
16-23

In our examination, we evaluated Hungarian Merino (ram n=30, ewe n=30), Ile de France F1 (ram n=10, ewe n=10) and Suffolk F1 (ram n=10, ewe n=10) lambs. The best fattening performance was shown by the Ile de France F1 lambs (361 g/day). After the fattening period, Hungarian Merino, Ile de France F1 and Suffolk F...1 genotypes lambs were slaughtered with a live weight of 30-34 kg. Carcasses were evaluated for dressing percentage, weight of valuable carcass cuts, percentage of valuable meat, bone to meat ratio, as well as meat conformation and fat cover (S/EUROP grading).
The slaughter performance proved to be the best for the Suffolk F1 concerned dressing percentage (51,7%), percentage valuable carcass cuts (81,9%). The best percentage valuable meat presented (79,4%) the Ile de France F1 lambs. The best meat conformation and fat covered were in the Suffolk F1 lambs; Hungarian Merinos showed less favourable results.
Presently, the results derived from Hungarian practice that Hungarian Merino lambs are not eligible for fattening to great live body weight (30 kg). Therefore, it is necessary to revise the Hungarian Merino lambs with meat sheep breeds.

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Effect of sex on some composition traits of wild boar (wild pig) meat
Published December 21, 2009
25-29

The authors examined the nutrition value of the meat of shot wild boars (wild pigs) (n=66) from three wild boar enclosures with different feeding intensity and also the technological properties of the meat. Samples were taken immediately after the evisceration. Considering the storing and processing properties of game meat the samples were take...n from m. serratus anterior. As for dry matter examination results, the highest values were measured in case of semi-intensively fed wild boars, then followed the data from the samples of intensively and extensively fed wild boars. The fat content from the meat samples of intensively and extensively fed wild boars proved to be lower while in case of the semi-ntensively fed wild boars it was higher. In females the dry matter content, while in males the fat content was higher. As for the protein content there were no differences in either the feeding groups or in the genders. It was only the water holding capacity of the samples from the meat of the females from semi-intensive feeding intensity wild boar enclosure that fell in between normal values.

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Global and national economic importance of pig meat production
Published August 29, 2017
13-20

The pork production has changed significant in recent decades. Pig production fell significantly due to the need to adapt to new animal welfare rules in the sector. Furthermore, change in the meat consumption habit had also a negative effect on pig meat production. Hungarian pig sector and meat industry are in a difficult situation. Due to the ...high feed prices, the average production cost of pig farming has often exceeded the  producer prices in recent years, therefore an increase of pig population could not be realised yet. Pig market is characterised by cyclical fluctuations of supply and prices, furthermore the decreasing producer price occurred parallel with increasing feed prices.
Technology is also a critical fact in the Hungarian pig sector because there is a huge gap in the level of technology compared to that of competitive member states. With the development of production methods the efficiency of pork meat production can be improved in an environmentally friendly way.

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102
195
Studies on Ostrich (Struthio Camelus) - Review
Published May 20, 2020
15-22

Ostrich has been reared in Hungary for decades, but we have limited information on this species. The aim of this review was to provide a concise description of the ostrich (Struthio camelus) based on international studies. We were to investigate some of the most relevant parameters, such as egg, meat and skin production. In this critical re...view we managed to sum up the most significant features and productivity parameters of ostrich and effecting factors. So as to make an accurate description of the species we have to know its morphological, behavioural and physiological characteristics. Ostrich is a very special bird with special nutritional and environmental requirements. Ostrich products, regarding egg, meat and skin are considered luxury products not only in Hungary but also abroad. Though egg has a significant nutritional value, it is mainly used for hatching chicks. In Europe we can expect roughly 40–50 eggs from a hen yearly. Ostrich has a lean meat with high protein and low fat and sodium content, moreover it is rich in minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Having these advantageous qualities, ostrich meat should be part of our healthy diet. Skin production is not important in our country, but there is a special demand for high quality ostrich leather globally. In the future our aim is to conduct a research on some of the parameters. As low production rate and embryo mortality is a great deal of problem in ostrich industry, we need to investigate the incubation environment. There is an apparent disagreement among researchers on optimal slaughter age. This is also an area for further investigation. The value of skin and effecting factors on our climate as well as adaptability of the species are also worth for further investigation together with the nutrition what differs from other ostrich breeding countries. Nowadays, there is a great emphasis placed on animal welfare too.

 

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Changes in fatty acid composition of pork rich in conjugated linoleic acid frying in different kind of fats
Published December 21, 2009
31-35

In 1990ys antiatherogen, antioxidant and anticarcinogen effect of conjugated linolacids (CLA) was detected. From this reasons, our aims in this study were producing pork rich in CLA and studying the change of fatty acid composition of the produced pork cooked different kind of fats. For frying palm and sunflower oil and swine fat were used. Thi...gh was cutted for 100 g pieces. Meat pieces were fried at 160 °C for 1 and 8 minutes. Estimation of frying data it was determined that higher (0.13%) CLA content of pork was spoiled (60-70%) except in case of swine fat cooking,
because it is extremly sensitive for oxidation and heating. Swine fat has higher (0.09%) CLA content than plant oil, protecting the meat’s original CLA content. Cooking in swine fat did not have significant effect on fatty acid composition of meat. Low level of palmitic acid contect of sunflower oil (6.40%) decreased for half part of palmitic acid content of pork (24.13%) and it produced cooked meat with decreased oil acid content. Contrary of above, linoleic acid content of fried meat was increased in different folds as compared to crude pork. If it was fried in sunflower oil with high level linoleic acid increased (51.52%) the linoleic acid content in fried pork. The linoleic acid content of the high level CLA pork increased four times (48.59%) to the crude meat (16.59% and 12.32%). The high palmitic acid content of palm fat (41.54%) increased by 60% the palmitic acid content in fried pork, low stearic acid (4.44%) and linoleic acid content (10.56%) decreased the stearic and linoleic acid content of crude meat.

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Organoleptical and instrumental examination of broilers’ valuable meat-parts
Published July 31, 2012
37-41

The aim of our study was to compare some meat quality parameters (color,- evenness of colour- and tone of meat) of Ross 308, Cobb 500 and 
Ross parents hibrids. These qualities are of preliminary importance for consumers and are related to several evaluating features influencing the preparation. The colour of the breast and thigh muscle...s was measured by Minolta CR-300 type colour measuring equipment. The evenness of color- and tone of the breast and thigh muscles were measured in the laboratory of Campden BRI Magyarország Nonprofit Kft.
We found that in the females the color of Ross 308 pullets’ breast meat was significantly darker. In the males the darkest breast meat was detectable in the case of the Ross parents hybrids. In neither sexes wast found significant difference – in all but one – in quality parameters of thigh meat.

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Evaluation of the blood product characteristics of meat meal and hemoglobin with non-invasive methods in the VISNIR wavelength
Published March 23, 2016
49-56

 

The separate collection of poultry slaughterhouse trimmings and blood is partially solved in Hungary. Only properly prepared animal by-products, protein meals can be utilized as animal feed additive. Howev...er, different protein meals are appropriate for feeding different animal species. That is the reason why it is important to avoid accidental cross contamination of the products. Meat and blood meal produced on the same technological line, therefore mixing of the products can happen in various proportions during the shift of production.

 

Thus the aim of this study is to develop a spectral method which will allow to estimate the ratio of meat and blood protein meal in the final product. During the test the products were mixed in different proportions and were examined by the spectral method. Measurements were conducted with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer in visible (VIS) and in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (400–1000 nm) to define the spectral differentiation of the different meal products. Significant difference can be detected in spectral reflectance between the meat and blood product in the VIS-NIR range. The blood product has a characteristic spectral property: in the range of 600 and 735 nm reflectance values are increasing following a sigmoid curve. This property is not observed in the case of meat meal: close to linear rising is detected. Effective protein rate and purity detection could be made by Blood Product Sensitive Mixing Index (BPSMI – R930/R600), and by the calculation of inflection point in 600–735 nm.

 

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Andrological examination of Hungarian Large White and Landrace boars
Published December 28, 2018
5-10

The Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace pig breeds have outstanding lifetime performance, production parameters and crossbreeding ability. Nevertheless, during the recent decades, these breeds could not compete with the West European hybrid pigs concerning on production results. In this study, we made a complex andrological evaluation ...of boars in different Hungarian nucleus breeding stocks. After taking blood and semen samples, performing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, ultrasonic and thermographic examinations were done. Laboratory tests were accomplished in reproduction labs of NARIC ABNMS. Our goal was to determine the reproductive performances of boars and collect samples for future genetic examinations, respectively.

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The Fattening and Slaughtering Examination at the Hungarian Racka Sheep
Published May 4, 2004
37-42

Fattening and slaughtering characteristics of both types (black and white) of the Hungarian racka sheep were investigated at the site of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control in Atkár. The Hungarian merino, the dairy cigaja and the British milksheep were applied as control groups. 10 animals were examined from both sexes in e...ach genotype. The examination was carried out according to the principles set in the Codex for sheep breeding. During the test acute diarrhoea occurred in each control group. However, only few lambs were excluded from the test from the British milksheep and the Hungarian merino groups because of significant changes in their condition. Consequently, the results obtained were not significantly influenced. No symptoms of any illness could be recognised in the Hungarian racka sheep, though. The significance of the difference between the average of the examined groups were checked by T-tests.
Daily gain was significantly less compared to the control groups, except for the white racka males. The lambs starving for 24 hours before slaughtering weighed 25.3-30.0 kgs on average. The black and white racka females weighed the least while the Hungarian merino females weighed the most. The quantity of abdominal and kidney fat was significant in the case of our native females. The quantity of abdominal fat was significantly bigger compared to each control group. On comparing the investigated groups it turned out that the white racka males had the biggest skin weight while the white Hungarian racka females had the smallest, that is the two extremes were recognised in the same colour (white) of one bred. On qualifying the slaughtered animals females had better results than males in each bred; the racka sheep were better than the dairy cigaja but were worse than the Hungarian merino and British sheep groups.
The huge differences in the carcasses of the groups were seen clearly when chopping. Examining the leg, it was noticed that the native groups proved to be smaller than the control groups, except for the black racka males. As for the short loin, the Hungarian racka and the Hungarian merino sheep proved to be the best, whereas the dairy cigaja and the British milk males had much smaller ones. The results gained when investigating the rack were similar to those of the short loin. As far as the rib and shoulder are concerned, the black racka females and the dairy cigaja females had the worst results. After chopping, the right side was also boned in every group. The small proportion of bone in the case of racka sheep was easily noticeable that resulted in the fact that the white racka females had the highest quantity of short loin compared to the other groups. When examining the back quarter, the bone proportions of the 4 racka groups proved to be significantly less than those of the control groups but it was not true for the meat proportions. As for the front quarter meat, the racka males were prominent in the great shoulder meat and in the small proportion of bone. The quantity of the first quarter bone was the least in the case of racka sheep and was the biggest for dairy cigajas. This difference proved to be significant in most cases.
In short, the Hungarian racka groups had the best results in meat quantity, which was especially significant compared to the dairy cigaja sheep. However, the quantity of external fat increased.

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Impact of chronic heat stress on digestibility of nutrients and performance of meat type ducks
Published August 29, 2017
51-55

The aim of the study is to determine the effect of vitamin and mineral supplement under permanently high environmental temperature (30±1 °C) on the digestibility of nutrients, performance and furthermore the composition of duck meat in the growing period. A total of four hundred mixed sex 14 days old Cherry Valley type hybrid ducks were used ...for the study. Two experimental diets were formulated in the study (control and vitamin E, C and zinc supplemented diet). Based on the results the following conclusions were drown: the antioxidant defence system plays an important role in the reduction of heat stress generated lipid peroxidation process. Feed additives which have direct or indirect antioxidant effects can reduce the negative effects of heat stress on the ducks performance and meat composition. Digestibility of nutrients (Dry Matter, Crude Protein, Crude Fat) was not affected by antioxidant supplementation under chronic heat stress (30±1 °C). The performance was affected significantly by Vitamin C and E and zinc supplementation under heat stress (P<0.05). In the treated group the daily weight gain (dWG) increased and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved significantly (P<0.05). The energy and protein conversion was decreased also significantly (P<0.05).

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Effect of feeds with different crude fiber content on the performance of meat goose
Published December 15, 2019
5-8

In the last 50 years, poultry meat production has increased dynamically. The role of crude fiber content in feed is unclear based on a small amount of literature about goose feeding.

The aim of theis experiment was to determine how various crude fiber content (55; 60; 65g crude fiber/kg feed) influences the performance of meat geese in ...the second phase of the rearing period. 150 goslings (3 treatments, 5 cages/treatment, 10 birds/cage) were included in the test. The experiment started and finished at the age of 21st and 63rd  day, respectively.

The obtained results suggest that various crude fiber content did not influence the performance of meat geese significantly; however, a feed of 55g crude fiber/kg resulted in better fattening results (final body weight, body weight gain, specific feed protein and energy conversion rate). In addition, compound feed of 65g crude fiber/kg proved more favourable with respect to cost-efficiency. Based on the obtained results so far, further models and farm experiments are required.

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The role of animal breeding with special regard to native pigs of food supply and rural development in Laos
Published May 20, 2020
149-154

The present paper explored the influence of breeding native pigs on livelihood conditions and the contribution of native pigs to the rural development and rural poverty reduction in the rural areas of Lao PDR. Pig production plays an important role in meat supply for both urban and rural areas of Laos. It is clear that most of the pig produ...cts in the country come from smallholder pig farms, and more than 90 percent of those products are the native pigs mostly raised by farmers in remote areas. In general, livestock production distributed between 15–18 percent to GDP, while most of animal production still remains as the traditional methods. Rural development is always the first priority of the Laos government since its independence in 1975, however, the poverty rate in rural areas remained high at 23% in 2018. It might block the development goal of the government which will lead the country out of the least development status by 2020. The food security and malnutrition in the rural or mountainous areas are considered as the majority issue that both government and several international organizations have been thriving hard to overcome, which researchers showed that more than 45% of children under 5 years of age were stunted, and 28% of them were underweight. Inspired of more than 50 % of the households in the rural areas of Laos reported they consumed chicken and pork at least one day a week. While native pigs play an important role on meat supply, it also constituted around 9–14 % of annual income of the households in rural areas. Therefore, the increase the production of pigs and poultry is one option to promote the meat supply to households in the rural areas of Laos. This paper will be a pathway to guide and identify for the final decision to what experiment will be implemented on Lao native pig in Laos (2021–2023) to complete the comparative study on reproductive physiology and reproductive management methods of Hungarian and Lao Indigenous pig breed. Which found it still needs further afford to research and improve more about native pig performance for all areas of productive and quality management.

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Effect of dietary fatty acids on the oxidative stability and the colour of broiler meat
Published May 23, 2006
25-30

The aim of our investigation was to determine the effects of increased PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) content on the colour, total pigment content, organoleptic characteristics and oxidative stability of poultry meat. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 cock chicklings. Animals were fed with a 3 phase diet, and in each phase, ...additional fat was added to the feed. The isocaloric and isonitrogenic feed was produced as the breeder organization suggested; only the fat content differed (4 treatments: pig fat (lard), sunflower oil, soy oil, flax-seed oil).
The different fat complements did not influence broiler production. However, the fatty acid composition of meat was similar to the fatty acid composition of feed (additional fats). The analyses of meat samples, after a storage period, did not significantly prove the possible negative effects of higher PUFA content.

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Presentation of sales price reserves for live lamb
Published September 2, 2009
37-45

Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The secto...r is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms  “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income. 

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Meat meal and industrial fat as alternative fuels in agriculture
Published November 15, 2007
220-222

I study new energy sources which can replace fossil fuels. As I deal with the burning processes, I have analyzed several kinds of wastes. I think one solution for replacing fossil fuels would be to burn regenerated energy sources in agriculture. For example, oil, industrial fat and meat meal from processing plants are treated as hazardous waste...s. There exist non-hazardous wastes for energy recovery, as by-products e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, vegetable oils, stems of plants or poultry manure.
We should produce energy from the outsides of vegetables and juices, and should produce bioethanol by fermenting vegetable wastes. We could treat the used vegetable oil to make bio-diesel fuel. Meat meal and fat are good alternative energy forms, if burnt in incineration plants. These materials are new renewable sources of energy.
There are some problems in the use of biomass for energy sources. We have to look for the best loading device and burning processes.

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Estimation of genetic parameters and genotype effects for crossing constructions of Hungarian Pigs
Published August 12, 2013
57-60

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Authors estimated the genetic parameters and genotype effects of average daily gain (ADG), age (AGE) and lean meat percentage (LMP) using the field test data of Pietrain (Pi), Duroc (Du), Hampshire (Ha) pigs and their crosses. Data was collected by the Agricultural Agency of Administration between 1998 and 2010 originating from 68 herds. Datasets of the different crossing combinations (Pi, Du, Pi × Du; Pi, Ha Pi × Ha) were evaluated separately using bivariate animal models. The estimated heritabilities were moderately low: 0.24–0.29, 0.22–0.26 and 0.18–0.19 for average daily gain (ADG), age (AGE) and lean meat percentage (LMP), respectively. The estimated genetic correlation coefficients were negligible: -0.07–0.01 (ADG-LMP), -0.01–0.04 (AGE-LMP). The Pi × Ha and Pi × Du crosses showed 6.76% and 4.96%; 6.74% and 4,17% and 0.08% and 0.44% heterosis for ADG, AGE and LMP, respectively. Among the environmental factors the herd effects were substantial: 41.17%, 53.67% and 14.16% for AGD, AGE and LMP, respectively. The smallest environmental influences were found for LMP.

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Genetic polymorphism of candidate genes in pig meat production
Published November 20, 2011
37-40

H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes were suggested as candidate genes for fat content in pig meat. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation in the porcine H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes by PCR-RFLP method in a group of pigs. Genotyping of pigs was done by PCRRFLP methods. We identified three genotypes in the set of pigs, HH (0.504), Hh (0.412...) and hh (0.084) for H-FABP (HinfI). Allele H showed higher frequency than allele h (0.710 vs. 0.290). Three genotypes were identified for the H-FABP (HaeIII) gene (DD - 0.194, Dd - 0.494, dd - 0.312). The allele D (0.441) showed slightly lower frequency than allele d (0.559). All three genotypes were identified for LEPR (HpaII) in the group of pigs (AA – 0.137, AB - 0.314, BB – 0.549). Higher frequency of LEPR gene was confirmed for allele B (0.706), as compared with allele A (0.294). We identified two genotypes for MC5R (BsaHI) in the group of pigs (AA - 0.348 and AG - 0.652), genotype GG was not found. As conforms with genotype structure, we recognize a higher frequency of allele A (0.674) as compared with allele G (0.326). 

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Decreasing Energy and Water Use in the Meat Industry
Published March 4, 2005
24-28

The technology supervisions are needed from time to time in order to involve the new research results, experience, new technologies and equipments organising principles into the production and to make it cheaper and with less expenditure to increase the profitability and competitiveness. In the course of our investigation we aimed the analysis ...of the traditional technologies and improving of it. In this article we detail the heat treatment curing process. We applied the principles of experimental design for the determination the main influencing parameters in the processes. Then we made simulations and modelling in seeking for the environmentally better technology programs. We developed a method for measuring the temperature development of products with small diameter using the similarity theory in unit operation. In the course of the analysis of the heat treatment processes we could state that the heat treatment time can be reduced significantly by decreasing the size of the product and choosing the right ratios among the surface heat transfer intensity, ambient temperature and involving the lethality obtained during the cooling phase. The total sparing were about 10-20%. We solved the problem associated with the sensor placement error using a plastic material (metamid). We establish a curve between the real product temperature and plastic rod temperature by which the monitoring of the process became more accurate. We determine the size modification for different product sizes. In case of curing we observed very similar phenomena. For the determination of the diffusion coefficient we adopted the Ball-method not using in this field till today. We could reduce the excess saltiness and loss of NaCl with about 5%.

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The effect of feeding different glycerol sources on the performance of lactating sows
Published December 28, 2018
99-103

Glycerol is a by-product of the biodiesel industry and it might be a good alternative to moderate the energy deficiency of sows during the lactation period. Preliminary experiments were carried out to test the effect of a powder, solid based “food grade” glycerol source with 72.9% glycerol content (Trial 1) and a liquid “feed grade” gly...cerol source with 86% glycerol content (Trial 2) on the performance of lactating sows and their litters. Trial 1 was conducted with 5 Hungarian Large White×Hungarian Landrace sows/treatment (313±24.9 kg) and Trial 2 with 12–12 DanAvl (323±17.0 kg) sows and their litters/treatment. Neither the solid, powder based glycerol (Trial 1), nor the liquid glycerol source (Trial 2) had significant effect on the feed intake, reduction in live weight and back-fat thickness, and weaning-tooestrus interval (p>0.05) of lactating sows. In Trial 2, on the 14th, 21st and 27th days of lactation the milk samples were collected and it was found that 50 kg/t glycerol decreased the protein content of milk samples (p<0.05). Glycerol supplementation had no effect on dry matter, fat, lactose content of milk samples (p>0.05). In Trial 2, no significant difference was found between control and experimental sow groups in triglyceride concentration of blood samples and in the activity of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT; p>0.05), but the concentration of plasma glucose and cholesterol increased tendentiously (p<0.10).

Based on our preliminary results, it can be concluded that additional dose trials are needed to perform in order to study the effect of glycerol supplement on milk production and on metabolic processes of lactating sows.

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Some basic problems concerning world animal production at the beginning of the XXI century
Published November 13, 2012
77-80

The author summarizes the main new challenges facing animal agriculture: growing GDP in many countries increasing animal protein demand, bioenergy industry as a new player using potential food or feedstuffs, increasing demand, Growing water and land scarcity, weaking the position of plant agriculture, feed production. Forecasts are summarized r...egarding the magnitude of meat consumption increases, and the possible plant biomass quantities required additionally in the next 20 years to cover the needs of food, feed and biofuel on a global scale.
Efficiencies of various animal production sectors, poultry, pork, beef, mutton meat, milk and eggs and their environmental footprints are compared, summarizing the most important research  results concerning UK, USA, OECD evaluations. Intensive systems using highly productive plant and animal population will play an even more important role in the future especially in poultry, pig, milk and aquaculture production system being efficient users of resources (feed, water, land) and the environmental foot print is smaller per unit product.

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Carcass and the Meat Quality of Hungarian Lambs
Published May 12, 2002
65-71

The author investigated 153 lambs of nine genotypes originating from breeding flocks, and 50 lambs originating from production flocks. The investigations were performed between 1995 and 1998. The authors discuss the evaluation of comformation and fat cover according to EUROP standards. The authors also investigate the proportion of valuable mea...t by genotype, and – out of the internal value indicators – the dry-matter, protein, fat, connective-tissue and hemin contents comparing the flavour, aroma, tenderness, and oven loss of the different genotypes.

The following findings should be highlighted:
♦ The Hungarian Merino breed should be improved, as – according to EUROP standards, more than 70% of these animals were rated as quality „R”.
♦ Hungarian fattening technology has to be preserved, as the lambs reach the desired slaughter weight within a short period of time, and without over-fattening.
♦ Readiness for slaughter, typical of each genotype, has to be defined, and slaughter at proper weight be achieved.
♦ It has to be re-evaluated whether the Hungarian Merino is the only breed which can be used in Hungary, as none of the investigations really proved the special characteristics and significance of this breed.
The author summarizes the findings of the investigation in five tables.

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The Fatty Acid Composition of Different Lamb Genotypes
Published May 11, 2003
30-33

We compares the fatty acid composition of five different genotypes. The maternal line was Hungarian Comb Merino x British Milksheep and this genotype was crossed with different terminal breeds, like: British Milksheep, Suffolk, Ile de France, German Mutton Merino, German Blackheaded. We compared the intramuscular fatty acid composition of diffe...rent body parts like: leg, loin and shoulder. We can name that there are significant differences between the genotypes in the fatty acid composition. The suffolk crosses has the best UFA/SFA rate. In the meat of German Mutton Merino crosses has a high saturated fatty acid ratio, but there is a high polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio as well. There are only small differences between the meat parts in the view of fatty acid composition. Despite the small differences, the loin showed the best picture while the shoulder had the worst.

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