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Concentration and Horizontal Integration in Milk Production
Published September 22, 2004
60-66

Agriculture in Hungary was characterised by the duality of large-scale farms (co-ops and state farms) and small-scale private enterprises until the beginning of the 1990s. Due to the privatisation and transformation of co-ops farm structure has significantly changed. The transformation of the structure is not considered to be a completed proces...s. Level of concentration and integration on private farms are rising, new co-operation forms are appearing and new types of enterprises and producers’ groups are being formed.
Concentration and integration have great importance in the dairy sector among agricultural enterprises. In recent years, milk production in the European Union has been characterised by concentration, leading to greater competitiveness. Today, most dairy producers belong to different kinds of producers’ organisations as concentrated demand may only be competitive by meeting concentrated supply. In Hungary, the problems of production have been the fragmentation and decrease of the average farm size while, at the same time, concentration has occurred in the processing sector. Establishing producers’ groups may be one of the solutions for improving competitiveness production.

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The characteristics of the resource needs of innovative businesses
Published March 23, 2016
123-127

Every university was funded in different historical periods with particular feature, particular political system, particular proprietory structure and particular economic background, which characterised the particular era. The historical antecedents considerably influenced the situation and role of the institutions as well as the course of thei...r development. Although they had common features but their spatial projections are very dissimilar. In the 19th and 20th century Hungarian history – in the periods of economic integration with the modification of political system and transformation of the social background – the economic and social functions of tertiary education underwent considerable changes, which started to accomplish by the second half of the 20th century and the early 21st century. To moderate regional disparities, European and Hungarian regional development policy considers particular importance to the economic structure of the regions and their potential to be reformed, which is one of the corner stones of compatibility. Considering the more and more diversifying functions of universities, the question is, which factor is more significant; tertiary education or the relation between the sectors of national economy. The possible correlations we presented through the economic structure and the transformation of tertiary education functions of the integration periods.

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Examination of the connection between the theoretical framework and practice of workplace integration in the case of American concerns
Published April 8, 2014
119-123

The first part of this essay presents the definition of workplace socialization, workplace orientation, workplace integration and onboarding on the basis of English literature. It also illustrates the human resources and management tasks and responsibilities in the process of onboarding.

Considering the literature I set up questions for... a half-structured interview completed with American HR managers by the help of skype program. The results pointed out that the professionals refer only a few elements of definitions, and the onboarding term is used for other HR practices (recruiting, selection), too. Furthermore on the basis of the results the onboarding process in well-organized and managed, and also the related human resources and management tasks and responsibilities are correctly appointed within the examined companies.

Additionally this examination verified our previous results which showed that there is a strong documentation and controlling in the process of onboarding within American enterprises.

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External (border) peripheries in Hungary
Published November 13, 2012
105-108

This study examines the development of external (cross-border) peripheries, as well as the opportunities of catching up in view of the European integration, most specifically the unfolding of the Schengen processes. A conclusion is drawn that the paradigm shift that is to be expected in cross-border relations and the modern, mainly local, small... region-based and inter-settlement forms of interregional cooperations could contribute to diminishing the highly unfavourable circumstances from the aspect of rural development and the fostering of the socio-economic cohesion of the Carpathian basin. The new institutionalised legal frameworks of cross-border relations, the EGTCs can successfully promote in the future the acquisition and more efficient use of different development resources, parallel to this the socio-economic catching up of adjacent peripheries, lagging regions on the two sides of the same borders. Above all, they can be important for the utilisation of the direct relations and local resources
in the Hungarian–Slovak, Hungarian–Ukrainian and Hungarian– Romanian borders along the northeast part of Hungary and for the
Hungarian–Croatian and Hungarian–Slovene border areas along South Transdanubia.

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The Role of Schengen in the Development of Peripheral Borderland Regions
Published November 20, 2011
155-158

This study aims to uncover the role of the Schengen borders of the European Union in rural and settlement development. Schengen integration applies certain restrictions at the external border-crossings, so the filtering role is to be taken into consideration. In addition to the disappearance of borders in the globalising economic area, the stri...ct Schengen rules further burden the development of cross-border interactions, bringing about less frequent border crossings. Moreover, the economic integration of the affected borderlands would remain sluggish. The author points to the fact that the dynamics of a border interaction system should include a Schengen border degree between the interdependent and integrated borderland levels. Consequently, the Schengen borderlands should be in the focus of further border studies.

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The study of attitudes, prejudices and stereotypes towards the blind and people of visually impaired
Published August 12, 2013
61-66

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Living with visual impairment is not only a state but it is also a social connection. This relationship has two directions: on one hand it means belonging to the community of the blind and visually impaired, and on the other hand it means the lack of belonging to the healthy population. To study their situation and to tackle the issue of their social and work-related integration is an essential goal for this particular disadvantaged group as well as for the society. In my research I have examined how intensive and of what scale the emloyers’ attitude, stereotypes and prejudices towards the blind and visually impaired are. The research was centred around the measure of attitude, which was carried out with the help of an Osgood semnatic difference scale.

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Integration of Transformation Technology and Conventional Plant Breeding of Cereal Plants
Published December 10, 2002
75-80

The integration of plant breeding and plant transformation is needed because we have to create a homozygous genotype of great agronomic value by conventional breeding before the application of genetic technology with which we modify it by using a gene or genome sequence. The aim of integrated plant breeding is to trigger such advantegous change...s by genetic technology which can not be achieved via conventional breeding or just with considerably weaker efficacy. By transformation, the plant’s agronomic performance, the efficiency and security of its production will improve and it will enable more versatile uses of the plant. Genetic technology is one sequence of a new plant variety’ breeding. To create a transgenic variety, the isolation of a gene or a sequence of a gene from the donor genome for tranformation, a homozygous plant or target genome that is suitable for transformation and is created via conventional breeding methods, an effective transformation technique and the establishment of the new variety from the transformed, fertile plant are needed. The transgenic plant should be made suitable for establishing a variety by conventional breeding so that it could be produced securely, its growing could contribute to the development of modern, sustainable agriculture, its seed could be produced profitably, it could meet the reqiurements of DUS and that the changes indicated by the transgene could provide such economic advantages compared to the original variety, which have real commercial value.

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The Dg RES generation, storage, utilization and integration program ’1 village – 1 MW’ of the Bükk-Miskolc Region, Phase 1–3.
Published November 13, 2012
233-235

The usage of renewable energy sources (RES) and the increase of energy efficiency could be the solution for the difficulties of the rural impoverished inhabitants. A rural development company with the support of the communities designs the development resources from the EU and the Hungarian State for RES generation and organizes the ’1 villag...e – 1 MW’ RES generation, storage, distribution and usage integration.

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Virtual Soil Information Systems in the Bihar Subregion and at Tedej Corp
Published May 4, 2004
186-189

After evaluating the sample sites’ soils and environmental status, we built up 2 different soil information systems. The first relies on analog data (soil maps), and is based on a regional model; its sample site is the Bihar sub-region. The second is a complex, field scale virtual 3D system, based on several types of data sources. (Aerial pho...tos, GPS, field samples, hyper and multispectral images, soil maps). In this paper, we analyze and evaluate these systems. The greatest advantage of the models is that, with their usage, we can reveal connections which cannot be made by analyzing the individual elements of our data sources. We discovered that with the help of our systems, the monitoring and evaluating of the processes taking place in the soil is more fast and simple.

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Application of advanced environmental assessment methods in orchard management
Published November 13, 2012
221-225

Our reseaches were carried out in apple and pear orchards at Farm and Regional Research Institute in Pallag of the University of Debrecen and Pear Gene Reservoir in Újfehértó. Aim of this study is to interpret and analyse field studies with the aim of a GIS based database. Furthermore, beside field measurements, airborne and field hyperspect...raldatacollection and analysis were also made to facilitate special watermanagement and irrigation related surveys. The integration of unified, geoinformatics systems with high spatial resolution and calibrated airborne hyperspectral data are appropriate tool for decision support systems, which support the continuous update and actualization of the changing cropping data, the analysis of cropping results in a unified complex data system, the acquiring of agro environmental subsidies, the establishment of monitoring system, and the optimization of irrigated fruit production.

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Increase of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Resistance to Leaf Rust (Puccinia tritici) via Gene Transformation
Published December 15, 2010
127-129

Leaf rust is one of the most significant fungal disease of wheat not only in Hungary but also in other parts of the world. For improving leaf rust resistance of winter wheat variety (Hajdúság, 2003) produced by conventional breeding methods, verified by results of variety tests, showing outstanding results in the aspect of the most important ...economic values, integration of tissue culture technics, genetic engineering and traditional
methods may provide facilities. Building the gene(s) responsible for resistance into the determined genome can improve the resistance in a way that changes other features of the plant slightly or not at all. In the course of genetical transformation of the variety Hajdúság we applied one of the wheat’s own effecient green-tissue specific insurer genetical regulator, the promoter of ribulose carboxylase 1-5 bisphosphate (RuBisCo) ‘s small
subunit to control the expression of the gene cmg1.

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The possibilities and framework of conditions of organisational development at a particular administrative body
Published April 8, 2014
63-70

The demand for the recognition, identification and introduction of measures aimed at improving organizational culture and the efficiency of management and leadership plays a crucial role in the life of every organization, including the law enforcement bodies as well. The tasks and responsibilities of the Hungarian Police Force have changed cons...iderably both in terms of quantity and quality since Hungary’s accession into the European Union first, and since the country’s joining the Schengen Zone. We are now facing problems formerly unheard of (e. g. the integration of the police force and the border guard, joining the Schengen Zone, the emergence of new forms of crime). As border control within the Union stopped, organized crime has become more powerful. The changes are by no means over: in order to improve the subjective sense of security of the population and to advance organizational efficiency, a number of changes are being implemented at present. For the internal security of the member states of the Union and for the improvement of the efficiency of police work in the member states, the use of consciously coordinated management methods is indispensable. These efforts are the subject of this essay.

A police force is an partially open system, the work of which is influenced by a number of external processes and factors. The organizational culture of a police force is determined by its traditions on the one hand, and by the demands to develop its functions as an authority and a service provider on the other. It is undeniable that any conscious effort in shaping and developing the organizational culture of the police requires special competences and commitment from the leaders of the organization. Furthermore, it is also necessary to modernize the management tasks. It applies to all the levels of leadership, from the head of a patrol to the supreme commander of the police force.

The organizational scheme of the police force is that of a functional, linear system. Such an organization is characterized by a relatively high degree of inflexibility, a slow and cumbersome reaction to external changes. All these may adversely influence organizational efficiency. It therefore appears to be necessary to examine the present structure of police, and survey the possibilities of modernization. Modernization does not necessarily mean a change in the structure; it may be restricted to changes in organizational culture, the creation of an atmosphere favourable for reforms, and the coordination of diversified structures. In this paper I wish to demonstrate some of the possibilities of improving organizational culture and organization development, based upon the findings of a specific survey.

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Accuracy of Location Identification by GPS and Possibilities for its Application in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
157-160

A description of the design and operating principle of the GPS system and the explanation of key terms of telemetric and chronometric measurements is followed by several examples characteristic of the results of factors which may influence accuracy of the identification of geographic location by satellites. In addition, results of accuracy test...ing of absolute GPS measurements and improvements of accuracy experienced and attributable to the alteration of the periods used for establishing average values are highlighted. Furthermore, we examined certain practical possibilities for the use of GPS systems in agriculture, emphasizing the advantages hidden in the use of GIS-GPS integration, crop mapping, soil maps and gross produce maps, in the application of the VRT (Variable Rate Technology) and in combinations of the same.

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Developing vegetable and fruit marketability potentials in Hajdu-Bihar county in terms of Hungary’s EU accession
Published May 27, 2001
60-69

prearrangement, Hungary will be ready to join the EU by the 1st of January 2003. In the course of negotiations, the Government places special emphasis on agriculture, because Hungary is an agrarian country. Agricultural production is an important economic factor in Hungary: larger a factor in its economic structure than in those of the present ...EU member-states. In order to preserve competitiveness, Hungarian farmers and its
processing industry require information on the EU's CAP and other market influences.
In Hajdú-Bihar county the quality of agricultural products fall behind the standards of the European Union. There is no real solidarity among farmers, so they are left alone and are unable to meet higher, those standards, which were introduced by the structural changes of the market. Unfortunately, there is only one fruit and vegetable marketing organization (PO) in the county, although its necessity and effectiveness has been proved several times.
Within the framework of Rural Development, agricultural marketing is vital, because together with the local FVM institutes, it can help the farmers by providing consultation, information, and by marketing their products. Since fruit and vegetable growing has a considerable history in Hajdú-Bihar county, marketing activities can be effective in assisting both the farmers and the processing industry in preparation for EU integration.

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The managerial aspect of the police’s organizational development
Published April 8, 2014
57-62

During my research, I have studied the relationships of the organizational development and the managerial functions at a specific governmental agency, the police. The police carry out official activities, but also provide a service which essentially assumes two types of contact systems and modes of management. To meet the demands of the citizen...s and to ensure the effectiveness of the organization, it is necessary to develop the managerial methods applied at the police, on the one hand, and to use certain parts of the organizational development, on the other hand.

The police organization has changed significantly after the integration of the Police and Border Guards. The complexity of the structure and the anomalies in the work load, as well as several researches conducted by myself directed my attention to elaborate an organizational development method that can be applied to the current organization, while it improves the operation of the organization.

The police’s operation and its organizational structure are determined by the laws, thus changing the structure of the organization is placed within relatively narrow limits. The police managers have the soft parts such as human resource development, skills, and management style at their disposal to develop the organization, but their use is isolated and they are not for a long term. The present article aims to present the set-up model related to the organizational development of the police, elaborated by myself, in terms of the leadership and the management styles, whose long-term use may contribute to the efficiency of the operation.

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Experience at Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy on introduction and integration of precision agriculture technology
Published November 13, 2012
73-76

Traditional and precision agriculture technologies are compared on the basis of the field experiment. Problems of soil and crop survey and mapping are discussed.

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Study on Human Resource Management in Agriculture
Published December 10, 2002
171-181

The human factor has been reassessed with regard to strategic initiatives towards obtaining and preserving competitive advantage. Knowledge, experience and special skills are a specific form of capital, forming part of the organisations’ assets and serving as an organisational strategic resource. Their development and use require major invest...ments, both on the part of the individual and the organisation. In a Europe undergoing integration, the quality of human resources enjoy priority among our really important values and specific features. The opportunities of the near future can be utilised, and agricultural economic organizations can survive and increase their organizational effectiveness, if they possess a basis of human capital which is able to make a shift in perspective and behaviour which is of primary importance from the point of view of incorporating market mechanisms and implementing them in practice. My investigations were focused on the current position of human resource management in a comprehensive manner; further, on the approach of top managers regarding the future. Analysing the business and other indicators of the companies studied, I have set the objective to describe the differences and special features of the human resource management practice of companies, which are different in size, operational form, and from the perspective of success or failure.
Human resource management is directed to attracting, retaining, motivating and utilising labour. A given work process can be successful or unsuccessful – given the same conditions – depending on who performs it. Therefore, human resource management related tasks require special attention when enterprises are planned, established and operated. On analysing the responsibilities of human resource management, I have found that the functions and responsibilities of human resource have low or medium importance in the operation of economic organisations today. Regarding the future, top managers have expressed higher expectations of human resource management responsibilities in all areas and they consider individual functions to be more important. The establishment and operation of a human resource information system has been presented as the most important need for change. Correlation analyses have proved that the higher the sales revenues of a company, the higher the development of human resources is regarded by its manager, and the same holds for training, career support and a proper establishment and continuous evaluation of job profiles.

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Formation of Food Clusters in Europe
Published November 20, 2011
55-59

In the dictionary of foreign words and phrases we can find the word “cluster” with the following sense: aggregation, group and in a wider meaning: association, integration.
By explaining the geographical concentration of economical and innovation processes in the food processing sector, clusters, and especially
business clusters, play... an important role. This essay deals exclusively with business clusters, so the term cluster is used also for business cluster.
I tried to collect the most relevant indicators determining the formation of clusters in the Food Processing Sectors and to analyze whether a
correlation can be found among the analyzed indicators.

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Using integrated remote sensing methods in the Nagyerdő Natura 2000 area
Published February 25, 2014
19-24

The more widely use of GIS, remote sensing technology provides appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build several national and international biodiversity monitoring system of environmental protection and natur conservation. The ChangeHabitats 2 is a similar international project, which uses airborne hyperspectral and airbor...ne laser scanning (airborne LiDAR) sources beyond traditional data collection methods to build a monitoring system of Natura 2000 habitats. The goal of our research, on one hand, was to separate the most typical species of trees which can be found in the largest coverage in the research plots of Debreceni Nagyerdő Nature Reserve from field and airborne remote sensing data, use image classification that based on spectral and geometry (height) characteristics of the trees. On the other hand our goal was to evaluate the efficient use of the integration of mobilGIS, airborne hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR data collecting methods to complement or substitut of the traditional, field data collecting methods. We used ArcGIS 10.2 and Exelis 5.0 GIS software for data evaluation, in which the mosaicing, the selection of plots and the spectral image processing were carried out.

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Connections between land usage, property structure and agricultural enterprises in Hungary
Published May 23, 2006
31-34

The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general, ...it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.

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Complex problem analysis of the Hungarian milk product chain
Published November 20, 2011
43-47

Hungarian dairy sector went through significant changes in past two decades. The most significant changes were caused by our accession to the European Union. In Hungary milk production remarkably declined after EU accession. The size of our dairy herd has been practically reducing since the political transformation, but increasing yields per co...w could compensate it in some way and for some time. However, in recent years, increasing yield per cow came to a stop and in parallel, the number of cows declined further and faster. Low prices, high production costs and tightening quality requirements ousted several producers from the market in past years. Feeding cost represents the highest rate in cost structure of production, but animal health expenditures and various losses are also significant. There are undeniably competitive disadvantages in the level of organisation and labour productivity; however competitiveness already depends on cost effectiveness in the medium run. In Hungary concentration of the dairies is relatively strong in spite of the relative high number of corporations. The dairies compete with each other and with the export market for the raw material and the better exploitation of their capacities. Applied technology of the Hungarian dairies lags behind the Western-European competitors’; in addition they have handicaps in efficiency and product innovation. Presence of chain of stores being dominant in sale of milk products does also not favour in all respects to the position of the dairies. The aforementioned retail chains are namely consumer-centric, engage in price follower conduct and weaken the position of the dairies with their private label products. As a result of increasing import of milk and milk products Hungary became a net importer in recent years. Today, disposable income still essentially determines the consumption habits of price-sensitive consumers. Loyalty for Hungarian products is not typical, consumers are open for import products being preferred by retail chains. In addition Hungarian milk and milk product consumption is about half of the Union average and it is far behind the level being necessary for healthy eating. In Hungary lack of competitiveness and vertical integration relationships and backwardness are revealing among the dairy farmers and the dairies, while chain of stores are in unprecedented “monopolistic situation”; the whole sector can be characterised by defencelessness. 

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Food Safety in EU Higher Education
Published November 15, 2007
188-197

Under the aegis of the Lisbon Strategy, special attention is paid to education and areas left untouched by the European integration process. Human capital and research inputs were identified as major driving forces for long-term development. The European Union is keen on meeting its target of boosting research spending to 3% of GDP by 2010. In ...order to contribute towards his goal, the European Commission has set aside an amount
which is double the budget of the 7th Framework Programme. Accordingly, preferences were given to research and development projects encouraging competitiveness in the food industry and other initiatives, such as the European Technology Platforms. Major obstacles to innovation in Hungary are: lack of funds, weakness of research network, poor structural relations. Better utilization of our comparative advantages should be targeted in order to have the Hungarian food industry become a driving force sector. This is to be promoted by the newly transformed food
engineer training (as a result of the Bologna Declaration) which can adapt better to the changing requirements of the labour market. Food science and related research could become determining factors for the food economy by setting up accredited training systems and enhancing food safety education and training in Hungary. 

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The history and present of public drinking water supply and its regionalisation in Debrecen
Published February 10, 2013
147-151

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The public water supply played a major role in the urbanization of Debrecen city, just like in the case of many other cities. We had plenty of water and so we wasted it. However nowadays we experience a considerable decrease in the level of groundwater which causes an increasing need of energy for pumping. Beside the above mentioned the ecological threat and the decreasing water quality are also major problems. This study attempts to draw attention to the possibilities and the future of the regional water supply, by showing the history of the water supply, the sanitation systems of Debrecen and their present day activities.

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Development of a New Maize (Zea mays L.) Breeding Program
Published May 12, 2002
25-30

Genetic manipulation may not replace any conventional method in crop breeding programs, but it can be an important adjunct to them. Plant regeneration via tissue culture is becoming increasingly more common in monocots such as corn (Zea mays L.). In vitro culturability and regeneration ability of corn decreased as homozigosity increased, which ...suggested that these two attributes were controlled primarily by dominant gene action. Pollen (gametophytic) selection for resistance to aflatoxin in corn can greatly facilitate recurrent selection and screening of germplasm for resistance at a much less cost and shorter time than field testing. Integration of in vivo and in vitro techniques in maize breeding program has been developed to obtain desirable agronomic attributes, speed up the breeding process and enhance the genes responsible for them. The efficiency of anther and tissue cultures in most cereals such as maize and wheat have reached the stage where it can be used in breeding programs to some extent and many new cultivars produced by genetic manipulation have now reached the market.

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Topology in the fruit plantation
Published November 13, 2012
253-257

The localization of fruit trees, the topology of the branch structure and the spatial structure of the canopy are important to plan sitespecific agro-ecological and production technology projects in an orchard. The currently used instruments and technologies – in the precision agriculture – give opportunities to obtain these informations. T...he examinations were carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer. The collected spectral data were completed with the 3D point cloud by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner. The laser impulse data and the vegetation index values were integrated in a unified 3D system. The integration of the two special data collection system provides new opportunities in the development of precision production technology system. The results could be directly used in phytotechnology, water management, plant protection and harvesting in orchards. Our elaborated method can supply digital high spatial accuracy guidance data for development of the automated machines, which could provide some new developmental way in the immediate future.

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