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  • Preparatory studies for modelling production on protected grasslands
    64-69
    Views:
    145

    There is a mutual dependence between nature conservation activity and agriculture in Hungary, as the management of the protected areas cannot be achieved without ecological farming methods. Moreover, viable economic activity can be only imagined through the harmonization of agricultural and nature conservation interests. From a nature conservation point of view, grass management systems play the greatest role in domestic agricultural systems. Yet, due to the prohibition of certain management methods and the spatial and temporal restraints on grazing, nature conservation activities have priority on protected grasslands. While nature conservation activity is still of prominent importance, it is not equally suitable for the economical management of protected grasslands per se. With our examinations, we would like to emphasize the common interests of these mutually dependent activities and to promote bilateral cooperation. Our aim is to model the production of grass on the great pastureland of Hajdúbagos. Potential grass production levels are easily calculable with a computer model based on data collected through a series of test harvests, as well as by factoring in changing climatic factors and by simulating the effects of grazing animal species and stocks. This model is not only useful for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and grazing method, and therefore the most suitable management strategy, but it also supports local farmers to be able to plan their activities. In this way, both nature conservation and economic aims can be easily harmonized, which would be an important factor for the sustainable development of rural areas.

  • Effect of different weaning time on the growth and survival ofCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae
    55-59
    Views:
    276

    Within our experiment, we studied the combined effect of live food application and feed training on the production parameters of carp larvae. In addition, we examined whether there is a difference in the growth rate and survival rate of the specimens of Szeged mirror landrace reared in similar stocking density but with different treatments.

    Specimens of Szeged mirror landrace from induced propagation were placed into 12 pieces of 40-liter aquaria. For the 4 different treatments, (K, A3, A6, A9), live food (Artemia salina) was fed, as well as feed training was applied.

    We also sought to find an answer as to how our feeding and rearing conditions can affect the production parameters of common carp fries and what impact these conditions may have on their survival rates. At the end of the 2-week experiment we determined the individual weight gain of the carp fries, their survival rate and the biomass growth. The purpose of the study is to examine the optimum timing of shifting from live food to feed for carp larvae.

  • Recovery and confirmation of Haemonchus contortus from abomasal contents of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Eastern-Hungary (Biharugra): A diagnostic case study
    59-62
    Views:
    105

    Gastrointestinal parasites are ubiquitous. They occur both in wild and domesticated animals. Among such parasites of veterinary importance is the trichostrongyle worms, out of which the Haemonchus contortus species is regarded as the most pathogenic one in the small ruminant industry. The occurrence of this parasite in the sheep flock is now very well documented and an established fact in Europe, although the parasite was original of the warmer climatic region. Studies on the cross-transmission of H. contortus between the wild and domesticated animals are also on the rise although the question of the direction of transmission is still debated. This is an important area that needs to be addressed as it could potentially contribute indirectly to mitigating anthelmintic resistance. Hungary also has reported its share of the occurrence of the parasite, mainly in the sheep flock and a certain population of roe deer. The study presented here is the preliminary results of a diagnostic case study that confirms the presence of H. contortus in wild ruminant deer species that are close to the domesticated sheep population.

  • Influence of 17-alpha methyl testosterone on the production parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fry
    37-43
    Views:
    221

    During our research we aimed at finding an answer as to what extent the different concentrations of 17-alpha methyl testosterone incorporated in the diet of common carp fries can influence the production parameters of the species, as well as how efficient their sexreversal can be with the use of this method. To this end, an aquarium experiment was conducted in the course of which four different hormone treatments were set and monitored. The fish feed was enriched with 17-alpha methyl testosterone in 50 ppm, 75 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm dosages.

    The obtained figures revealed that the hormone treatments had no influence on the production parameters and conservation of the common carp fries. Further on, our team is to determine the sex of the fish through the examination of gonads during autopsy when they reach the 500 g average weight.

    Furthermore, a male specific test method which was supposed to be of great help in our attempt to select the sex-reversed specimens in the subsequent processes was also put to the trial. During the experiment the DNA-isolation of different sample types (muscle tissue, fin, mucus) of common carp with identified sex was successfully carried out. The extracted PCR product was examined with agarose gel. Our results indicated that the ccmf2 marker was applicable, however, the obtained figures were not reliable.

  • Comparison of the technological background of aquaponic systems
    47-52
    Views:
    257

    Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.

    The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yield and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NON were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).

  • The effect of dissolved oxygen on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the aquaponics system
    89-96
    Views:
    267

    Aquaponics is an integrated system that combines fish farming (aquaculture) and hydroponic plant production. The objective of this study was to examine how the level of dissolved oxygen with or without an air pump affects water quality, fish output and plant growth parameters for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Ebb – and flood aquaponics systems (with automatic syphon) was used. Two treatments were set in this experiment, one of which was the aquaponics system without air pump (unit I), where water of the plant bed was pumped two directions, one falling back to the fish tank oxygenating the water the other was pumped to the hydroponics unit. The other system (unit II) was designed with an air pump.

    In the course of the study, water quality parameters, such as oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and nitrite were significantly different (p<0.05). Total basil biomass was higher in unit II. (5367.41 g). The final biomass of common carp were
    2829.45 g ± 79.24 and 2980.6 g ± 64.13 g in unit I and unit II respectively. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the treatments. 

  • Reference genes for livestock gene expression profiling – Literature review
    81-89
    Views:
    144

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an essential tool for understanding animal cell’s response to developmental progression or to different experimental conditions at gene expression level. However the reliability of this method heavily lies on proper normalization (measuring a target and a reference gene’s expression from the same sample to correct for technical related variations).
    Our literature review aimed to summarize the articles addressing the most important livestock species in regards of reference gene stability used as normalizers for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments. Stably expressing reference genes were categorized into 14 distinct groups according to gene function. The number of reference genes tested and the publication numbers according to years and the ranking algorithms were also noted.
    Counting showed that genes encoding ribosomal protein components are ranked as most stable in majority of cases and therefore should be taking into account for qPCR stable normalizer gene finding experiments.

  • Genetic diversity of the Hungarian draft horse assessed by mitochondrial DNA
    29-32
    Views:
    201

    Hungarian draft is a horse breed with a recent mixed ancestry. It was developed in the 1920s by crossing local mares with draught horses imported from France and Belgium. To genetically characterize the breed and to set up the basis for a conservation programme, we have employed a molecular marker: a 256-bp D-loop mitochondrial DNA fragment. We analyzed 124 horses representing Hungarian draft horses to assess the maternal phylogeography of the breed. Sequence analysis of a 256-bp segment revealed a total of 34 haplotypes with thirty-four polymorphic sites. High haplotype and nucleotide diversity values (Hd=0.953±0.001; π=0.024±0.001) were detected. The average number of pairwise differences were k=5.998. This breed counts 800 mares today, and only survive due to breeding programmes, this way each haplotype frequency depends on the extent to which mares are involved into the breeding. The reduced number of surviving maternal lineages emphasizes the importance of establishing a conservation plan for this endangered breed. Due to the revealed 34 polymorphic sites we could presuppose twelve maternal linages, which could be a first step for making a breeding programme.

  • Seasonal variations in somereproductive parameters of Dorper Rams in Hungary
    17-20
    Views:
    235

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that season has an affect on semen quality and scrotal circumference of Dorper rams. The experiment was carried out with six Dorper rams aged between 15 and 18 month. Semen samples were collected with artificial vagina and volume, concentration (x 109/ml), total sperm number/ejaculate (x 109), mass motility (0–5), progressive motility (%), scrotal circumference (cm) was observed. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in concentration, total sperm number/ejaculate, scrotal circumference in different seasons. Volume was the highest in autumn (1.4±0.5 ml) and the lowest in the spring (1.3±0.4 ml). Concentration of semen was lower in spring (2.6±1.5 x 109) and summer (3.3±1.5 x 109) as compared to fall (4.1±1.1 x 109) (P<0.05). Regarding total sperm number/ejaculate (x 109), scrotal circumference (cm) all the seasons differed significantly (P<0.05), although the season had no effect on mass motility and progressive individual motility (P<0.05). In conclusion the present study showed that semen quality parameters and scrotal circumference of Dorper rams were better in autumn than in the other sea- sons.

  • Effects of bioactive plant extracts on immune-related gene expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
    49-56
    Views:
    244

     In recent years, intensive fish farming has led to an outbreak of several diseases, and the health status of fish can affect the economy of aquaculture. Since fish health and intestinal health are in correlation, it may also have an impact on immunity. Accordingly, many natural feed additives are being used to improve immune functions. In our study, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins were applied at 1 m/m% in feed to investigate their effects on cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in spleen and mid-intestine of 6 months old carp. Gene expression analysis was carried out to examine IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and IRF-1 mRNA levels in fish spleen and mid-intestine. The gene expression level of pro-inflammatory IL-1β decreased in the mid-intestine of carotenoid-fed carp compared to anthocyanin supplemented group, but the effects of the bioactive plant extracts were not observed on the examined cytokines compared to control fish.

  • Supplementary botanical examinations for modelling the grass production of the great pasture of Hajdúbagos
    17-21
    Views:
    59

    Our botanical survey at the great pasture of Hajdúbagos is a part of a broad research that aims to predict the production of the grass at the given area. As the mentioned pasture is a nature conservation area, the usage of artificial fertilizers or other classic grassland management methods in its handling are prohibited. Thus grazing is an important tool for the management of this area, however the not suitably regulated grazing order and the poorly calculated carrying capacity cause serious problems at some parts of the pasture. The prediction of the grass yield is essential to
    avoid both over- and both under-grazing and for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and the grazing method, thus the most suitable management strategy.
    The potential grass yield is easily calculable with a computer model that will be established as a basis for determining the grass production. For the sake of getting an accurate view of the plant associations of the pasture, we created examination quadrates and determined all plant species found in the quadrates. After plant determination, we compiled a coenological table in which we marked besides the scientific name and families, the life forms of each species that refer to the structure, morphology and thus the adaptability of plants to their environment. We determined the
    TWR, so the thermoclimate, water and soil reaction values, the nature conservation values, as well as the covering values of each plant species (DB), and the total coverage of the examination quadrates (B%).
    According to the covering values, grasses proved to be characteristic plants at the examined pasture, thus we need to consider them influential in calculating the animal carrying capacity and with the rest of the information, we need to supply the model.
    The life forms and TWR indicators, all together with the nature conservation values provide further important data to the development of the management suggestion of the protected pasture. By examining these values to different parts of the area, we could get an exact view on the measure of the degradation effects. This promotes the determination of grazing methods and the forming of the boundaries of certain pasture sections, to avoid  those harmful anthropogenic effects that seriously endanger this extensive sandy pasture. 

  • The effect of immigration on some population genetic parameters of the Hungarian Hucul population
    91-96
    Views:
    125

    Population genetic indicators of the Hungarian Hucul population were calculated taking also into account the effect of imported horses.The birth year of the examined 3002 individuals ranged between 1871–2015. The last year involved in the examination was 2015, when the research was conducted on the stock under stud book control. The calculations on the population were made using the statistic indicators in the Endog programme, with and without the imported Polish horses. Figures were depicted using R software. Number of offspring of the Polish individuals was presented in tables; the distribution of the offspring per stud and per mare family, as well as the Nei’s genetic distance,were presented graphically.

  • The effect of β-glucan, carotenoids, oligosaccharides and anthocyanins on bacteria groups of excreta in broiler chickens
    15-20
    Views:
    174

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of natural compounds, such as β-glucan, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins in the diet on bacteria gropus of excreta in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Chickens were fed 5 diets: control (basal) diet, a diet supplemented by β-glucan at 0.05%, and diets supplemented by carotenoids, oligosaccharides, or anthocyanins at 0.5% of each compound. On experimental day 19, excreta were collected to determine the proportion of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Campylobacter, Clostridium, and Escherichia coli. Samples were collected aseptically and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Bacterial DNA was isolated from samples, then polymerase chain reaction using primer pairs designed to the 16S rDNA of bacterial groups were applied to define the proportion of the mentioned bacteria. Another universal primer pair was used to amplify a region of 16S rDNA of all the examined bacteria. Proportion of each bacterial groups was determined relatively to the intensity of universal PCR product band by gel documenting system and ImageLab software. Based on the results, carotenoids and anthocyanins increased the proportion of Bifidobacterium, which might imply the beneficial effects of the mentioned compounds on the bacteria composition of excreta.

  • Some population genetics parameters of the present Hungarian Hucul Horse population
    15-22
    Views:
    150

    We examined the Hungarian population of the Hucul horse breed, under genetic protection, based on population genetic indicators until the year 2014 included. The evaluation was performed using the Endog programme based on the following indicators: inbreeding coefficient, average relatedness, the maximum number of generations, the number of full generations traced and offspring number. Our findings were as follows: the average inbreeding coefficient of the total population was 5.99%, average relatedness was 11.82%, the maximum number of generations was, on the average, 16.04%, and the number of full generations traced with reference to the whole population was 4.15% on the average. 40% of the whole population (723 individuals) did not have any offspring; 42% (759 individuals) attained an offspring of 1 or 2, while 3.4% (88 individuals) had a surviving offspring of 3. The highest offspring number according to the national database (92) was attained by one stallion.

  • Ragweed components in honey
    65-68
    Views:
    154

    The aim of this research was to prove that the syrup containing ragweed used for feeding the bees was transferred to the honey. To reach this goal we developed a method to analyse the volatile components of the samples. We applied two sample preparation methods. The first one was SPME (Solid Phase Micro Extraction) preparation from the headspace of all of the samples. In the second case only the raw leaves of the ragweed were extracted with n-hexane and dichloromethane to complete the SPME results. The measurements were performed on GC-MS equipment. Chromatograms and data evolution showed that the components of the ragweed were also present in honey so they were transferred by bees.

  • Harmonic development and biodiesel
    91-95
    Views:
    76

    An increased expansion of renewable resources and biodiesel is observed and prognosed, since fossile energy resources are about to run out. Hungary achieved outstanding sunflower years in the recent years in worldwide comparison. In the future, the feedstock of biodiesel production can also be rape besides sunflower.
    According to the concept of harmonious development, the balance between nature, society, economy and human environments is represented by their mutual presumptive character. Research and development need to be aligned into this system. Our aim was to examine the advantages and
    disadvantages of biodiesel production in different environments, using a model to do so. In order to maintain the harmony, the existing resources have to be managed properly, taking the correlations of the system into consideration. Targeted technological developments are necessary, similarly to the improvement of energy safety and efficiency.

  • Routine microscopy examination of faecal samples as a tool for detection of common gastrointestinal parasites: a preliminary report from two Hungarian farms
    63-66
    Views:
    77

    Gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminant animals is a cause of major economic loss incurred by the livestock industry. Regardless of the frequency of the adopted therapeutic and prophylactic deworming strategies, the parasitic burden in a farm should be assessed regularly. One of the most widely used techniques to do so is the microscopic faecal egg examination and faecal egg counting method. Despite the technique being almost a century old from its first adoption, the principle behind the newer techniques of faecal egg examination is the same. This technique is still being used in routine farm screening and monitoring gastrointestinal parasitic load and faecal egg count reduction testing to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of the drugs used. Thus, the tool remains a choice for preliminary screening for important parasites and the subsequent deworming strategy. Our study here was part of a larger survey on the treatment efficiency as well as a broad epidemiological study of the trichostrongyle parasites in Hungary. We present a preliminary report on the detection of common gastrointestinal parasites from two farms in Hungary, including a species-specific confirmatory microscopy for Haemonchus contortus eggs.

  • Chromatometric comparison of Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and Feral Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) feathers
    19-22
    Views:
    176

    Chromatometric examination of the plumage of birds is a poorly researched topic. We have approached this issue in primarily aspect of differences in plumage of species. Moulted feathers sample collection method has been increasingly used. Reliable identification of feathers becomes an increasingly important issue, hence need for an exact measurement-based methodology. Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and Feral Pigeon (Columba livia domestica) primary, secondary and tail feathers were studied. Chromatometric parameters of feathers were measured in CIELAB color system and then statistical analysis (Independent samples t-test, Descriptive Statistics, Discriminant Analysis) was performed to compare the two species. Instrumental measurements has been confirmed the high similarity between colors of the two species, however species specific differences were also found. Lightless (L*) value were significantly characteristic of particular species, while the red/green (a*) and yellow/blue (b*) value had lower Predictive Power. We identified feathers and the variables which useable to separate the two species and determined the associated Confidence Intervals of these values. Our results may draw attention to a new potential direction for exact identification of the moulted feathers during sample collection.

  • Nest-site preference of Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix L.) in Debrecen, Hungary
    13-17
    Views:
    117

    In the past decade, the population of the Hooded Crow has shown significant growth in Debrecen, Hungary. The aim of this study was to become acquainted with the nest-site selection behavior of Hooded Crows in urban spaces. While our research revealed that the Hooded Crow is not particular when it comes to selecting among tree species for nesting, we did notice differences regarding nesting height. Hooded Crows living in the city build their nests higher up than those living outside Debrecen’s city limits. We also discovered a slight, insignificant difference between nesting heights and tree species, which is probably due to the different characteristics of the given tree species. As for nesting heights, we found that in typical urban habitats there were no relevant differences. However, when we compared these habitats in pairs, it came to light that nesting heights -when comparing solitary trees - wood segments and tree rows - wooded segments- did show significant differences, which can be explained by the various conditions provided by the habitats mentioned.
    In summary, the following results emerged from our research:
    1. The Hooded Crow prefers approximately the same nesting heights in all kinds of habitats, urban environment and tree species.
    2. The nesting height does not significantly depend on the habitat itself or on the tree species.

  • Plant protection praxis on Hévíz Nature Conservation Area (Lake Balaton District, Hungary)
    81-83
    Views:
    141

    The nature conservation park, which belongs to the Spa and St. Andrew Hospital for Rheumatics of Hévíz, is 60 ha in size. The famous Lake of Hévíz, the two overfalls and the main buildings of the hospital are located in the middle of the park. They are surrounded by protective forests, parks and gravel esplanades. During the past few decades, the population of neophyton plants and invasive insects have increased considerably. These mean serious challanges to develop efficient control methods. Special care must be taken of environmental and plant protection regulations. Keeping plant protective regulations are especially strict around natural and spa waters.

  • The significance of local meteorological stations in research planning
    87-91
    Views:
    185

    The goal of research planning is to optimize human and material resources while maximizing efficiency. If there are databases that can be used as a substitute for own data collection, effective research can be facilitated by reallocating resources. In the case of environmental studies, the knowledge of the climatic conditions of the study period is known to be a key factor in research planning process.

     In the present study, the data of our meteorological station in our research area (known as “Szamárháti Tanya”, Kesznyéten, Hungary) was compared with the measurements of meteorological stations operated by the competent water authority. Stations were taken into the study within a 10 and 20 km radius over a period of 21 months, to determine which provided more relevant data from the area.

    During the evaluation of results, the relationship between the local and regional weather stations were determined, and deductions were made from the obtained results to support the decision which of the targeted investigations could be of greater benefit. 

  • The impact of population management on urban and rural Hooded Crow populations
    119-123
    Views:
    66

    Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), originally native to agricultural areas, has become widespread in urban areas in recent decades. However, this process has negative consequences on urban animals and humans. Due to these problems, the control of urban crow populations is needed. Crows also cause significant damage to wildlife management, and are constantly being controlled in rural areas as well. In this study, we compare rural and urban populations to find out whether hunting activities have a population reduction effect. In the rural population, the reduction is carried out by weapons and traps, while the urban crows are controlled using traps only. In both sample areas, crow nests were surveyed during the nesting period. 29 active nests were monitored in the rural area in 2021, and 39 in 2022. In the urban area, 44 nests were recorded in 2021 and 35 nests in 2022. In 2021, 30 individuals were removed in the rural area, and 84 in 2022. In the urban area, 223 individuals were removed in 2021 and 144 in 2022. Results show that the number of crows removed follows the number of active nests, so that the reduction of a given year is likely to have an effect on the following year's nesting population. Because traps mostly capture juvenile birds, reducing the breeding population in the city can only be achieved in the long-term. Considering this, it is likely that increased attention to population control can effectively maintain crow populations and reduce the problems they cause.

  • Evaluation of population parameters and biometric data of an Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto Friv.) population in the Great Plain of Hungary
    89-92
    Views:
    312

    The Eurasian Collared Dove shows different patterns in density all over Hungary. In some cases, the population has decreased to a lower level, but there are habitats where the population remained stable. Several factors were taken into consideration during the evaluation of this phenomenon. These publications state that the increased urbanization of corvids, the lack of food sources, and the changes in nesting sites caused the decrease in numbers. During our research, we intend to contrast the differences in population structure of Collared Doves that differ from each other in the density of predators presented at nesting sites. As a first step, in this paper, numerous samples (n=118) were taken from a population that is less influenced by corvid species’ nest predation. Our prediction was that the population parameters remained at the level of 1980’s, in which the population of Eurasian Collared Dove has reached its maximum, according to further publications.

    During the evaluation process, our data were collected from hunting bags near Nyíregyháza. Results were compared with former publications. We stated that the population structure, such as age and gender distribution remained stable in the evaluated population. In addition, morphometric factors of the collected individuals were also measured, such as weight, wing length, 3rd primary feather, and tail length, which were compared with former surveys. During statistical tests no significant difference was revealed among population parameters, but there were significant differences between most of the morphometric data, (p>0.05).

  • Az elmúlt tíz év változásainak vezetői értékelése különböző szervezeti formában működő vállalatoknál
    82-86
    Views:
    98

    revolutions and changes. Effects of these changes can be sensible at all parts of agricultural production. It results in new ownership and organisation structure. Agriculture has to suit to the new circumstances of changed firm-size and structure. These kinds of changes essentially define conditions of agricultural production in the future, and they have an affect on husbandry of enterprises.
    To be succeed in managing changes, we have to know the reasons of these alterations and nature of them. It is very important to get to know the advantages and disadvantages of the typical change-management methods and its typology. These methods are more elaborated and widespread at industrial enterprises. It is necessary to get to know the nature, characteristics and reasons of changes, and we should work out ways agricultural companies, taking notice of their speciality.
    The methods and means of examinations
    We aimed to point out what kind of changing processions were typified the activity of agricultural ventures. What are the speciality, strains, the arousing and obstructive factors of nowadays changes. We made questionnaire and sent them to numerous enterprises.
    Most of the answers show that leaders are „floating with flow” and most part of their power is used to fight back actually challenges. Generally consciousness is missing, so they are not govern the events still more they are passive objects of occurrence.
    Naturally, the given answers show, that the most important changes of past are changing of markets, importance of quality production and changes in the structure of enterprises. And – especially at companies, which deal with plant growing –, modifying of structure because of compensation.

  • Possibilities of biodiversity conservation in agricultural fields
    39-45
    Views:
    122

    The biodiversity loss is one of the biggest environmental problems in the world. The objective of this paper is to present some nature conservation practices on agricultural land. Farmlands play a significant role to preserve biodiversity because some highly protected species can only find their needs on agricultural land. The Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union (2010-2020) creates new directives to reduce biodiversity loss, preserve and improve diversity, especially on agricultural land. Furthermore the importance of this subject is that the share of farmland in Hungary is much higher (57%) than in the EU-27 on average (42%). The loss of agricultural land and the increase of land abandonment cause intensification of agricultural production leading to the loss of biodiversity.