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  • The Fattening and Slaughtering Examination at the Hungarian Racka Sheep

    Fattening and slaughtering characteristics of both types (black and white) of the Hungarian racka sheep were investigated at the site of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control in Atkár. The Hungarian merino, the dairy cigaja and the British milksheep were applied as control groups. 10 animals were examined from both sexes in each genotype. The examination was carried out according to the principles set in the Codex for sheep breeding. During the test acute diarrhoea occurred in each control group. However, only few lambs were excluded from the test from the British milksheep and the Hungarian merino groups because of significant changes in their condition. Consequently, the results obtained were not significantly influenced. No symptoms of any illness could be recognised in the Hungarian racka sheep, though. The significance of the difference between the average of the examined groups were checked by T-tests.
    Daily gain was significantly less compared to the control groups, except for the white racka males. The lambs starving for 24 hours before slaughtering weighed 25.3-30.0 kgs on average. The black and white racka females weighed the least while the Hungarian merino females weighed the most. The quantity of abdominal and kidney fat was significant in the case of our native females. The quantity of abdominal fat was significantly bigger compared to each control group. On comparing the investigated groups it turned out that the white racka males had the biggest skin weight while the white Hungarian racka females had the smallest, that is the two extremes were recognised in the same colour (white) of one bred. On qualifying the slaughtered animals females had better results than males in each bred; the racka sheep were better than the dairy cigaja but were worse than the Hungarian merino and British sheep groups.
    The huge differences in the carcasses of the groups were seen clearly when chopping. Examining the leg, it was noticed that the native groups proved to be smaller than the control groups, except for the black racka males. As for the short loin, the Hungarian racka and the Hungarian merino sheep proved to be the best, whereas the dairy cigaja and the British milk males had much smaller ones. The results gained when investigating the rack were similar to those of the short loin. As far as the rib and shoulder are concerned, the black racka females and the dairy cigaja females had the worst results. After chopping, the right side was also boned in every group. The small proportion of bone in the case of racka sheep was easily noticeable that resulted in the fact that the white racka females had the highest quantity of short loin compared to the other groups. When examining the back quarter, the bone proportions of the 4 racka groups proved to be significantly less than those of the control groups but it was not true for the meat proportions. As for the front quarter meat, the racka males were prominent in the great shoulder meat and in the small proportion of bone. The quantity of the first quarter bone was the least in the case of racka sheep and was the biggest for dairy cigajas. This difference proved to be significant in most cases.
    In short, the Hungarian racka groups had the best results in meat quantity, which was especially significant compared to the dairy cigaja sheep. However, the quantity of external fat increased.

  • The effect of crop protection and agrotechnical factors on sunflower in the Hajdúság region

    Extreme weather conditions are becoming more and more frequent in the crop years, thus increase the risk of sunflower production.
    The objective of researches into plant production is to minimize these effects as much as possible. In this sense, the optimization of
    agrotechnological factors is of high importance. Within these factors, the appropriate crop technology (sowing time, crop density)
    and optimized, rational crop protection technologies are important, especially in the highly sensitive sunflower cultures. The effect of
    sowing time, crop density, and fungicide treatments on the yield of sunflower hybrids was analysed in different crop years in 2008
    and 2009. In each case, the infection was highest with the early sowing time and at the highest crop density level (65000 ha-1). When
    one fungicide treatment was applied, the rate of infection decreased compared to the control treatment. The further decrease of the
    infection rate was less after the second fungicide treatment.
    In the humid year of 2008 the crop yield was the highest at 45000 ha-1 crop density level in the control treatment and at 55000 crop
    ha-1 crop density level when fungicides were applied. In the draughty year of 2009 the maximum yield was gained at 55000 ha-1 crop
    density level in the control treatment and at 65000 crop ha-1 when fungicides were applied. In 2008 and 2009 as regards the crop
    yield, the difference between the optimal and minimal crop density levels was higher in the fungicide treatments than in the control
    treatment (in 2008: control: 517 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 865 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 842 kg ha-1), (in
    2009: control: 577 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 761 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 905 kg ha-1).
    In each and every case, the first treatment with fungicides was more effective than the second. In 2008, the highest yield was
    obtained with the third, late sowing time in each fungicide treatment. The differences between the crop yields with different sowing
    times was less than in 2009, when the results of the second treatment exceeded those of the first and third treatment in each case.

  • Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth), a recently occured invasive weed in Trans-Tisza Region and a trial for control in maize

    To the effective control of invasive weeds are essential to prevent establish, if has already happened obstacle to massive accumulation, and promoting the efficient and rapid eradication, if it is possible. The Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) belongs to weeds which “hard to control” especially in corn. One of the difficulties of effective control is the prolonged emergence causing avoidance of several individuals the contact with pre-emergent herbicides. Another problem arises due to the intensive use of post-emergence herbicide products with short duration of action. To optimalize of timing of treatment is essential for successful control of later emerging weeds. The recently established Woolly cupgrass in Hungary shows resistance or reduced susceptibility to substantial portion of herbicides used in corn. The data collected from small-plot trials demonstrates that application of sulfonylurea or selective monoctyledonous herbicides can be effective against the Woolly cupgrass.

  • Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils

    Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
    The main soil functions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
    Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
    Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
    – soil degradation processes;
    – extreme moisture regime;
    – nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
    – environmental pollution.
    Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
    The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
    The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
    • registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
    • evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
    • assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
    • elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
    Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
    Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
    The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

  • Effect of different n-6/n-3 fatty acid proportion oil sources on reproduction performance and fatty acid profile of milk in modern genotype sows - Pleminary results: Preliminary results

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on sow’s milk fatty acid composition during the lactation period and on reproductive efficiency of sows in the subsequent gestation period. Data were collected on a total of 213 DanBred sows (108 control and 105 experimental) representing parity of 2–7, respectively. Control and experimental sows were placed in the same housing conditions during lactation and gestation period. Control group received 6.3 g of sunflower oil (SO) per kg feed as n-6 fatty acid supplementation, whilst experimental animals received the same amount of fish oil (FO) as n-3 fatty acid source. Diets were corn meal-extracted soybean meal based. The experiment was conducted in one replication as being a part of a longer and more comprehensive trial. It was found that the consumed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) appeared in the sow’s milk and changed its fatty acid profile. With this alteration, the n-6/n-3 ratio of experimental (FO) sows’ milk were narrower than in SO group (SO: 13.82 vs. FO: 5.89). The benefits of n-3 fatty acids supplementation were evident for the subsequent reproduction cycle, when experimental sows heated more reliable and earlier than control (weaning to oestrus interval: SO: 5.86 vs. FO: 4.48 days). Only 2.33% of experimental sows (FO) did not heat within 7 days after weaning, but this was 12.36% in the control group (SO). The present study requires further research to evaluate the effect of n-3 fatty acids on maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size.

  • The Effect of Grazing on the Production of Sows and Pasture Vegetation

    In our experiment sows were grased during four grazing seasons, from April 28, 2000 to 23, August, 2001. The same number of indoor sows served as control animals.
    The results of the blood test show that, as a result of grazing, the beta carotene level of the blood serum has increased threefold. This difference disappeard after the farrow 30 days.
    On spring pasture, the grasingsows gained 50 kg in weight as opposed to 30 kg in the control animals. On the poor autumn pasture, the weight gained was only 30 kg, which was only 2 kg more in comparison with the performance of the control group. In the third grasing season the experiment sows weight gained was 13.7 kg and control group 37 kg. In the fourth season the control group weight gained was 4.4 kg more in comparison with the performance of the experiment sows.
    Grazing not very influence weight of gthe sows during the preast – feeding.

  • Comparative analysis of maize weed control system and the competitive effect of sorghum

    In our investigation we used different weed control technologies in the different phenology states of the maize. The experiment have been
    carried out in Hódmezővásárhely, in the Experiment garden of the Pilot farm of University of Szeged Faculty of Agriculture, on meadow
    chernozem soil, on 24 m2 plots, in 3 replications, randomized blotch design. The experiment can be regarded as 15 weed-control strategies
    where, in addition to the untreated control, six chemicals or chemical-combinations are applied (Spectrum 720 EC, Motivell Turbo D,
    Stellar + Dash HC, Clio + Akris SE + Dash HC, Clio + Dash HC) in five different times (pre, early post, post and two late post) and eight
    mechanical weed-control technologies were used. Hoeing took place connected to the herbicide treatments in different times: until 2-3-leave
    age weedless, in 3-4-leave age hoed once, from 3-4-leave age weedless, in 6-7-leave age hoed once, from 6-7-leave age weedless, in 8-leave
    age hoed once, from 8-leave age weedless.
    Our results were assessed by chemical efficiency examination, maize length measurement, corncob-length and fertility examination,
    Sorghum plant-number determination and yield weighing carried out in four periods. The data were evaluated by a one-factor analysis of
    variance and a two-factor linear regression analysis.

  • Changes in the Macro-, Mezo-, and Microelement Contents of Maize Hybrids in Relation to the Level of Nutrient Supply

    n my research, I measured the effect of NPK fertilisation on the macro- meso- and microelements content of maize hybrids in 2001. The experiment was set in the demonstration garden of the Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology in the Agricultural Centre, at the University in Debrecen. The soil of the experiment is calcerous chernozem soil. Five fertilisation steps were applied. Besides the control the smallest rate was 40 kg N; 25 kg P2O5; 30 kg K2O of active ingredients. The largest rate was five times more than the smallest one: 200 kg N; 125 kg P2O5; 150 kg K2O, which is equal to 475 kg mixed active ingredients. The NPK treatment significantly influenced the macrolement content in several cases. The N content was the lowest in the control treatment. Compared to this the fertiliser treatments significantly increased the N content of hybrids. However the highest amounts of potassium and phosphorus could be measured in the control and the lowest amounts could be measured at the N 200+PK kg/ha treatment.
    The Ca content of hybrids was the highest in the N 120+PK kg/ha treatment, while their Mg and Zn content was the highest in the control treatment. The lowest amounts were weighed in the N 200+PK kg/ha treatments, that in several cases resulted in statistically proved decreasement compared to the control or the lower fertilizer doses. Considering the two mesoelements and Zn the most favourable results were obtained in the case of the Norma SC and DK 366 SC hybrids.
    Summing up what has been said moderate amounts of fertiliser doses (N 40-120+PK kg/ha) had a favourable influence on the micro- and macroelement content of hybrids.

  • Characterization of two rust fungi related to biological control concept in Hungary

    Weeds cause serious problems in agriculture on a global scale. These plants reduce yield and the quality of crops by competing for water, nutrients and sunlight. The improper or excessive usage of herbicides have led to development of resistance in some weed species while contaminating the environment; therefore, biological control has an increasing role as an alternative method for controlling special weed species.

    The aim of this study is to make a brief review of biological control of weeds by pathogens and to characterize two rust fungi (Puccinia lagenophorae and Puccinia xanthii) which are broadly examined recently in a biological control concept and have been found on their hosts, such as common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), two common and difficult to manage weeds both in horticultural and agricultural lands also in Hungary.

  • Results of weed surveys in greening plants

    Greening crops play an essential role in Hungary's agriculture. Weeds can also cause many problems during the development of greening plants. Our research aimed to evaluate the weed control properties of greening crops sown with different germination rates. Analysis of the effect of crop rotations on weed density. Comparison of weed growth in control, fertilised and greened areas. In October of 2021, a weed survey was carried out in lupin (Lupinus albus L.), common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), oil radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum eculentum Moench). During the weed survey, we determined the different weed species and their abundance. In terms of seed rates, the higher seed rates for lupin, oil radish, and buckwheat may be worth choosing for weed suppression. Plots in rotation III had the lowest weed incidence of all greening crops. The probable reason for this finding is that there was no prior greening in rotation III. For greening, the choice of buckwheat and oil radish will result in higher weed pressure. The most important weeds were the cereals sown before the greening crop. Fertilised plots had minimally fewer weeds than control plots. Research results show the difficulties of weed control in herbicide-free greening crops.


  • Comparision of growth of mature all-female and mixed-sex Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) stocks in RAS

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most important fish species in Hungary, it is more than 70% of the total Hungarian fish production. The common carp production is important not only just in Hungary but in Middle-East Europe, as well as Southeast Asia. Majority of the production comes from fishpond culture. If the production sector wants to meet the increasing customer demands, there is need to intensify research on the intensive fish production opportunities for example all-female common carp technologies. The all-female technology is one of a genom-manipulation technology. Its production showed better growth rate than mixed-sex population in pond culture. Our experiment combined the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and the all-female common carp stocks intensification technologies. The reason for the experiment, is that there are no result about the growth of all-female common carp growth in RAS.

    The experiment used the „Tatai grey scale type” common carp stocks. We propagated two all-female stocks (T2 and T3) and a control group (TK). Due to technological characteristics of RAS, the water quality parameters were the same for all treatments and corresponded to the technological tolerance of common carp.

    The experimental period was from July 10, 2019 – November 20, 2019. Result of growth performance showed that the growth of mixed-sex stock was significantly higher than all-female stocks; (Control=3692.0±590.5g, T2=3438.8±415.4g, T3=3294.1±659.1g). Feed conversation ratio (Control=1.3±0.1 T2=1.5±0.2 T3=1.6±0.5) and SGR% (Control=0.8±0.0 T2=0.7±0.1 T3=0.7±0.1) were similar.

    By the results it can be said the all-female common carp technology has neither advantages nor disadvantages compared to the mixed-sex stock. The all-female technology can be beneficial if the consumers need female common carps. It is worth continuing the experiment and examine how the stocks will perform above 3kg body weight.

  • Examination of Hybrid-specific nutrient supply at corn on chernozem soli

    The effect of increasing fertilizer dosages on the yield of eight different maize hybrids (SY Ondina, NK Kansas, NK Lucius, NK Octet, NK Thermo, SY Flovita, SY Brillio, NX 47279) has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011. According to our results it can be stated that contrarily to the control treatment the application of different nutrient-levels has resulted a significant yield increment (2 000–5 800 kg ha-1).
    Based upon the results of this experiment we have drawn the conclusion that the nutrient level of 120 kg N+PK was the optimal for the investigated hybrids. The highest yield (14 475 kg ha-1–15 963 kg ha-1) of the hybrids with different genotypes has been produced in case of this fertilizer treatment. With the comparison of the control and the optimum-fertilizer treatments the yield-increasing effect of mineral fertilization and the different reaction of hybrids towards increasing fertilizer dosages have been proven. In case of the control treatments the best-yielding hybrids were NK Thermo (11 917 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (11 617 kg ha-1). Contrarily on the optimal nutrient supply level the hybrids SY Brillio (15 876 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (15 963 kg ha-1) have produced the highest yields. Summarizing, we can state that the hybrid NX 47279 has resulted stable and high yields in the fertilized treatments. Analysing the yield-increasing effect of 1 kg fertilizer active substance it was proven, that the hybrids SY Flovita (45.43 kg ha-1), SY Brillio (44.47 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (42.33 kg ha-1) had a good reaction towards even lower nutrient supply levels as well. In case of the control treatment the average water utilization coefficient of the hybrids was significantly lower (35.2 kg mm-1), than in case of the optimal nutrient supply level (N120+PK) treatments (48.9 kg mm-1).
    Therefore the hybrid specific difference between the water utilization of genotypes could be revealed.

  • Effect of Moringa leaf extract and set size on the bulb weight, diameter and yield of onions (Allium cepa L.)

     Studying the use of natural extracts or biostimulants in improving vegetable plants is the current needs as an alternative way to the use of chemical products. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) as a natural growth regulator on bulb diameter, weight and yield of onions ‘Texas Early White’ cultivar. Therefore, three concentrations (control, 2%, 4% and 6%) of MLE and three different onion set sizes [small (3±1 g/set), medium (6±1 g/set), and large (10±1 g/set)] were prepared in a randomized complete block design with three replications and plant spacing 20×15 cm. MLE was applied as a foliar spray directly onto the plants with the amount of 25 ml/plant every two weeks from sprouting to maturity. The achieved results indicate that the interaction of foliar spray with moringa leaf extract 4% and large set size of 10±1 g/set gave the highest value of the total yield 4802.7 g m-2, while the lowest yield 1531 g m-2 was recorded in the interaction of control and the smallest set size of 3±1 g/set. Also, a significant difference was recorded in bulb diameter separately. Thus, the largest bulb diameter 68.90 mm was obtained from the planting of the largest set size 10±1 g/set with 4% of MLE while the smallest bulb diameter 38.40 mm was recorded from the smallest set size 3 ±1 g/set with control treatment. Similarly, a significant effect was recorded in both set size and MLE separately. The highest bulb diameter 58.71 mm was achieved in the planting of the largest sets 10±1 g/set, while the lowest diameter was 42.12 mm in the planting of the smallest set size 3 ±1 g/set. Similar results were recorded for the bulb weight and total yield. The concentration of 4% MLE produced the highest bulb weight 99.74 g/bulb and yield 3324.5 g m-2, while the lowest bulb weight and yield was obtained in the control treatment 55.61 g/bulb, and 1869.3 g m-2. Consequently, the results indicate the positive effect of Moringa leaf extract which can be applied as a natural substance in the form of foliar spray at critical growth stages to improve the growth and yield of dry onions.

  • Studies of the influences of different N fertilizers and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer on the nutrient content of soil

    A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizers in combination with bacterial fertilizer on
    nutrient uptake of horseradish and plant available nutrients of the soil. Three different N fertilizers, ammonium-nitrate, urea and calciumnitrate
    (116 kg ha-1 N) in combination with Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer (2 kg ha-1) were applied as treatments in a randomized
    complete block design in three replications. In this paper we presented the results of soil measurements. The soil of the experimental area
    was chernozem with medium sufficiency level of N and P and poor level of K.
    Our main results:
    The amount of 0.01M CaCl2 soluble inorganic nitrogen fractions, NO3
    --N and NH4
    +-N and also the quantity of soluble organic-N were
    almost the same in the soil. N fertilizers significantly increased all the soluble N fractions. The amount of NO3
    --N increased to the greatest
    extent and the increase of organic N was the slightest. We measured the largest CaCl2 soluble NO3
    - -N and total-N contents in the plots
    treated with ammonium-nitrate, the largest NH4
    +-N in the plots treated with calcium-nitrate and the largest organic-N fraction in plots
    treated with urea.
    Bacterial inoculation also increased both soluble inorganic nitrogen forms and also total-N content of soil compared to the control. In
    the case of combined (artificial and bacterial fertilizer) treatments we measured lower NO3
    --N, organic-N and total-N compared to the
    values of plots having only nitrogen fertilizer treatments. On the contrary in the plots with combined treatments the CaCl2 soluble NH4
    content of soil in more cases were higher than that of values with artificial fertilizer treatment.
    As a function of calcium-nitrate application increased AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values were measured compared to control. Microbion
    UNC supplement of calcium nitrate yielded also increase in AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values, till then supplement of ammonium-nitrate fertilizer
    yielded a decrease in these values compared to the control.
    All nitrogen fertilizers resulted in a significant decrease in AL-Mg content of soil compared to the control. Nevertheless bacterial
    fertilizer increased AL-Mg values in any cases.

  • The effect of diet composition, a probiotic and a symbiotic treatment on the ileal microbiota composition of one-week-old broiler chickens

    A healthy microbiota present in the small intestine contributes significantly to small intestinal function, including digestion, nutrient absorption and health. The current study investigated the effects of a prebiotic, a probiotic and a symbiotic supplementation on ileal microbiota composition of broilers at 7 days of age. In a total of 574 male Ross 308 day-old chickens were divided into four groups using six replicate pens and 24 chickens per pen. A maise-soybean based control diet (C), a control diet supplemented with probiotics (Broilact; Br), a control diet supplemented with symbiotic (inulin, yeast, Bacillus subtilis; Sy) and a wheat based diet supplemented with wheat bran (W) were formulated. On day 7 of life, two chickens per pen were slaughtered and ileal chymus samples were collected. For microbiota analysis 16S rRNA (V3-V4 region) gene targeted Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used. Feeding all diets supplemented increased the diversity to varying degrees compared to the control (C) diet (p=0.006). As a conclusion, all supplementation substantially influenced ileal microbiota of broiler chickens at an early age. All these results could offer some information for the future study on the relationship between early intestinal microbiota and the compounds of the feed.

  • Sour cherry anthracnose and possibilities of the control with special regard to resident Glomerella population in sour cherry plantations of East Hungary

    Anthracnose is considered one of the most destructive diseases for sour cherry production due to the rapid development of the disease on fruits. Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. & H. Schrenk (anam.: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz.) has been the fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose in last decades. Yield losses greater than 90% may occur under epidemic conditions. C. acutatum (J.H. Simmonds, 1968) strains were isolated of sourcherry plantations in East Hungary and this pathogen, new for Hungarian microbiont became recently dominant. Contrarily to the former species it is certainly transmitted with ants during fruit ripening. About third of strains proved to be cutinase producers that enable them to actively penetrate via cuticule, and these strains infect directly berries of blackberry, grape and tomato as well as plum and apple. Most of cutinase negative strains could also infect these fruits after mechanic injury. All strains of both species produce amylase, cellulase, lecithinase, lipase, polyfenoloxydase and protease in vitro, although the activity of these enzymes highly varied in the medium. The only C. acutatum strains produced noticeable amount of chitinase. Strains, tolerant to recently applied fungicides to control the anthracnose, could be isolated of sour cherry plantations that might be the cause of ineffectiveness of control measures in 2010. The mycofungicide containing mixture of three Trichoderma species in oil carrier could efficiently depress the development of anthracnose in ripening sour cherry.

  • The Effect of Soil Coverings on Cellulose Decomposition Activity of Sandy Soil

    The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matter (agroszövet and black polyethylene) on actual (under field circumstances) and potential (under laboratory circumstances) cellulose decomposition activity. In our field research, the Unger-test was used, and in laboratory research, the Petkov-Markova method was applied. In the first year of the experiment (2000) actual cellulose decomposition activity was significantly higher in covered than in the uncovered soil both in spring and autumn. The difference between the two treatments was significant only in spring. In the spring of 2001 black polyethylene showed significantly the lowest, activity, while in autumn the agroszövet (a porous black polyethylene) showed significantly the highest activity. In the autumn of 2001 the soil covered by black polyethylene gave non-significant,and the soil covered by agroszövet gave a significant higher activity value than the control. Averaging the two experimental years (2000-2001), the actual cellulose decomposition activity was significantly higher in covered soils both in spring (with 30-39%) and in autumn (with 34-69%). Moreover, in autumn a significantly higher value was detected under agroszövet than in any other treatment. The difference between the effect of treatments was not significant. In 2000, the potential cellulose decomposition activity was the highest in soil covered by agroszövet in spring, but in autumn higher activity value was detected in every covered soil than in the control. In the spring of 2001, every covered soil showed a lower, but in autumn a higher, potential cellulose decomposition rate than the control. The activity decreased significantly 27 (agroszövet) and 45 (black polyethylene) percent in spring, and increased no- significantly 8 (agroszövet) and 4 (black polyethylene) percent in autumn. During the two experimental years, we observed on average lower potential cellulose decomposition activity (15-60%) in spring and a higher one (14-43%) in autumn. Neither was significant. The dynamic of potential cellulose decomposition activity averaging 2000 and 2001 showed a slight, the actual cellulose decomposition activity an explicit non-significant upward tendency. There was a strong (r=0,189) correlation obtained between the actual and potential cellulose decomposition activity of soil, and a medium-strong (r=0,673) relationship between the soil moisture content and actual cellulose decomposition activity.

  • Preliminary estimation of the efficacy of Fusarium sporotrichioides Sherb. as biological control agent against common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.)

    A study of fungi responsible for severe leaf spots of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in the Hajdúság region (East Hungary), Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata were isolated from infested leaf tissues. F. sporotrichioides was the most virulent fungus in pathogenicity tests conducted on healthy leaves of common milkweed plants. Inoculation of common milkweed (A. syriaca) in different growth stages with F. sporotrichioides yielded similar symptoms as the original ones. Spray mixtures containing 1.0×106 conidia/ml gave effective control when common milkweed plants were sprayed until runoff occurred. Laboratory (wet chamber) and field experiments showed that asexual spores of the fungal pathogen, F. sporotrichioides, exhibited bioherbicidal activity against common milkweed (A. syriaca).

    More efficient control efficacy was observable on elder plants (at flowering stage) than younger ones. These results initiate that this fungus may be a biocontrol agent for controlling this invasive weed but should clarify its hosts because it could infect cultivated plants as well.

  • On-line and off-line solutions in the precision weed control

    There are two directions of the development of the methods in precision weed controll. One is the on-line, either is the off-line solutions. The advantige off the on-line method is that it covers all the territory of the field, therefore there are no problems in sampilng methodology. At the same time picture processing is slow and the performance of the machines is low. We have choosen the off-line precision weed controll in Hungary to start with and we have solved the precision wedd controll of wheat, maize and sunflower successfully. We have also conducted on-line developments with the application of Weed Seeker sensor.

  • Effect of net shading technology on the yield quality and quantity of chilli pepper under greenhouse cultivation

    This study was undertaken to identify the effect of net shading technology on the total capsaicinoids, vitamin C and relative chlorophyll content expressed as SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) values and total marketable fruit yield of ‘Star Flame’ chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) for two harvesting times cultivated under modified atmosphere. ‘Star Flame’ pepper was grown under three (3) different net shading colours (white, red and green). Samples without net shading were used as control. Samples were subjected to chromatographic analyses using HPLC for the determination of total capsaicinoids and vitamin C. Interaction in shading technology and harvest times (p=0.010) had significant effect on total capsaicinoids as a result of green and white shading technologies showing higher differences when compared to control samples. Vitamin C content was observed to have increased in white and red shadings (p=0.001) after the first harvest and gradually decreased after the second harvesting time (p=0.002). Relative leaf chlorophyll content was significantly higher in white shading in the first and second harvest. Samples used as control had significantly higher marketable values when compared to white and green shadings with red recording low marketability of ‘Star Flame’ chilli peppers.

  • A morphological survey of Ustilago trichophora, a smut fungi and evaluation as bioherbicidal agent for barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)

    Ustilago trichophora (Link) Kunze is a widespread smut fungus in all over the world. This fungus is pathogenic on species of Echinochloa genus. The subject of present research was that smut fungi occurrence on barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Numerous barnyard grass plants with symptoms of smut galls caused by Ustilago trichophora on stems were collected from two counties, víz. Hajdú-Bihar (East-Hungary) and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (Middle-Hungary). The infested plants were examined in laboratory, which included the observation of the symptoms and the morphological properties of the spores and the colonies developed from sporidia. The results suggested that this fungus could be effective against barnyard grass weed so the biological control of this weed plant (Echinochloa cruss-galli) can be managed by using Ustilago trichophora biopreparates. As Ustilago trichophora can produce abundant sporidia in liquid culture, a high effectiveness control should be apply by Ustilago trichophora smut fungus as a mycoherbicide in Echinochloa weed control.

  • The influence of the fertilizing system on the petroleum residues biodegradation on a preluvosoil under control polluted

    The paper presents the partial results of researches regarding the agrochemical melioration of soils under control polluted by petroleum residues that took place at the Agricultural and Research and Development Station in Oradea, Bihor County.
    The experimental device was made out of 1 m2 microparcels, spread out in subdivided parcels, in four repetitions, having tree factors: A - the pollution by crude oil from Suplacu de Barcău, B – the mineral fertilization, and C – the organic fertilization.
    The experience was set out on a preluvosoil în the year 1993 and the soil was cultivated with millet in the first 3 years and with spring wheat in the last 7 years of research.
    The researches carried out in Oradea had the objective of establishing the effects of the fertilizing system on the petroleum residue biodegradation on a preluvosoil under control polluted with crude oil from Suplacu de Barcău, Bihor County.

  • Effect of the Grazing on the Sows’ Performance

    Intensive indoor pig ptductiv technologies have entirely prevailed over the outdoor keeping of pigs. In Western Europe, sowgreasing is managed on a farm-size scale.
    In our experiment sows were grased during two grazing seasons, from April 28 to July 07, 2000, and from 14 September to December 10, 2000. The same number of indoor sows served as control animals.
    The results of the blood test show that, as a result of grazing, the beta carotene level of the blood serum has increased threefold.
    On spring pasture, the grasingsows gained 50 kg in weight as opposed to 30 kg in control animals. On the poor autumn pasture, the weight gained was only 30 kg, which was only 2 kg more in comparison with the performance of the control group.
    In both groups, loss in weight following the farrowing interval between the two grazing cycles was almost the same, that is, 47 kg. Thus, sows in the grased group were not worn at the end of the suckling period.
    The number of stillborn piglets in the grased groups of sows was three times smaller, and the piglets were 100 g heavier. Following the second grazing cycle, the litter of the experimental sows grew by 10%, there were fewer stillborn pigs, however, the average weight of the farrow was 140 g less.

  • Susceptibility of stem infected sweet corn hybrids to common smut disease

    The common smut of maize (corn smut, Ustilago maydis /DC/ Corda) can cause large economic losses in susceptible sweet corn hybrids as well. The protection against this pathogen is fundamentally based on prevention. Many methods to control corn smut have been recommended or evaluated, including crop rotation, sanitation, seed treatments, modification of fertility, and biological control. In spite of these frequently mentioned control strategies, the host resistance seems to be the only effective method to manage common smut in those areas where Ustilago maydis is prevalent.

  • Effect of NPK fertilization on the yield and yield stability of different maize genotypes

    The yielding capacity and quality parameters of 11 maize hybrids were studied in 2011 on calcareous chernozem soil in a 25-year long-term fertilization experiment in the control (without fertilization), in the base treatment of N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 and in five treatments which were the multiplied doses of the base treatment. The N fertilizer was applied in the autumn and in the spring, while P and K fertilizers were applied in the autumn.The sowing time was 17–18 April, the time of harvest was 8 October. The 30-year average of precipitation (April–Sept) was 345.1 mm, the amount of precipitation did not differ greatly from that, however, its distribution was very unfavourable.
    It was found that the largest yield increment (as compared to the control) was in the treatment N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 in the long-term experiment. The largest yields were obtained for the hybrids P9494, PR37N01 and PR35F38 (13.64–13.71 t ha-1). Due to the dry period at the end of the summer – beginning of autumn, the grain moisture content at harvest was favourably low, 12–18% depending on the treatment and the growing season.

    The N fertilization significantly increased the protein content of the kernel, but the starch content of the kernel decreased (significantly in several cases) with increasing fertilizer doses and yields as compared with the control.
    The highest protein content was measured in hybrids GK Boglár and Szegedi 386. The oil content was above 4% for GK Boglár, but the two hybrids were not among the best yielding hybrids in spite of their good inner content. The starch content was around 75 % without fertilization, it decreased with fertilization.
    For the tested hybrids, the fertilizer dose N 120 kg ha-1, P2O5 75 kg ha-1, K2O 90 kg ha-1 can be recommended with respect to efficacy and environmental considerations.