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Growth and clorophyll content dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different cropyear
Published May 6, 2013
101-105

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment in the season of 2011 and 2012 in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at three fertilisation levels (control, N50+P35K40, N150+P105K120). Two different cropyears were compared (2011 and 2012).

The research focused on the effects of forecrop and fertilisation on the Leaf Area Index, SPAD values and the amount of yield in two different cropyears. We wanted to find out how the examined parameters were affected by the cropyear and what the relationship was between these two parameters and the changes of the amount of yield.

Examining the effects of growing doses of fertilizers applied, results showed that yields increased significantly in both rotations until the N150+PK level in 2011 and 2012. By comparing the two years, results show that in 2011 there was a greater difference in yields between the rotations (7742 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the biculture and 9830 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the triculture). Though wheat yields following peas were greater in 2012, results equalized later on at N150+PK levels (8109–8203 kg ha-1).

Due to the favorable agrotechnical factors, the leaf and the effects of the treatments grown to a great extent in 2011, while in 2012 the differences between treatments were moderate. Until the N150+PK level, nitrogen fertilisation had a notable effect on the maximum amount of SPAD values (59.1 in the case of the biculture and 54.0 in the triculture). The highest SPAD values were measured at the end of May (during the time of flowering and grain filling) in the biculture. In the triculture, showed high SPAD values from the beginning. The same tendency could be observed in the 2012 cropyear, although increasing doses of fertilizers resulted in higher SPAD values until N150+PK level only from the second measurement. Maximum SPAD values were reached at the end of May in both crop rotation system

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The imact of crop rotation and fertilisation on the SPAD values of winter wheat on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment
Published March 11, 2014
123-126

We have carried out our outdoor field experiments at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the CAS of the University of Debrecen in the cropyear of 2012/2013 on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment. We have studied the effects of two different preceding crops (sweet corn, sunflower) on the development of the SPAD values of wheat varieties of ...different genotypes in the cases of control, N60+PK and N120+PK fertilizer treatments. According to our research results, we have concluded that the preceding crop, the fertilizer application and the variety selection influenced the SPAD values. According to our data, we have measured higher SPAD values after sweet corn preceding crop, the standard deviations were in a smaller range in the case of the studied varieties. After sunflower preceding crop, smaller averages were experienced with wider standard deviation range. In the case of favourable preceding crop, the differences between the varieties are more pronounced than in the case of unfavourable preceding crop. The maximal SPAD values were measured in milky ripening in the case of N120+PK fertilizer treatment.

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The impact of climatic factors on the relative chlorophyll content and yield of a maize hybrid in a long-term experiment
Published May 23, 2019
71-77

The impact of the climatic factors of crop year on the relative chlorophyll content of maize was examined for three years. The examinations were carried out on the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot, non-irrigated long-term field experiment with strip plot design. In addition to... a non-fertilised (control) treatment, nitrogen (N) fertiliser doses were applied as base and top dressing. The 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 base dressing doses were followed by two top dressing doses at the V6 and V12 phenophases.

Averaged over the different fertiliser treatments, SPAD readings increased in all three years as the growing season progressed. The highes SPAD value increase was observed in the average crop year (2017) at the V12 phenophase (11.8), which further increased at the R1 phenophas, by 3,7. No significant Spad value difference was observed between the average (2017) and the dry year (2018) at the V6 growth phase. However, in the wet crop year (2016), the V690 treatment provided the statistically highest relative chlorophyll content (46.8). At the V12 phenophase, the base dressing dose of 120 kg N ha-1+30 kg N ha-1 (V6150) showed to be successful in two years (2016 and 2018), while in 2017, the base dressing dose of A60 was successful. The impact of crop year on relative chlorophyll content can be clearly shown at the R1 growth stage. In all three years, the significantly highest relative chlorophyll content could be achieved at different nutrient levels: A60 in 2016, V6150 in 2017 and V690.

In a wet year (2016), higher yield could be achieved as a result of the 60 kg N ha-1 base dressing and 30 kg N ha-1 at the V6 growth stage (V690) as top dressing in comparison with 2017 and 2018, when higher fertiliser dose (120 kg N ha-1 base dressing and 30 kg N ha-1top dressing at the V6 growth stage) was needed to achieve a significant yield surplus.

Altogether, averaged over the different treatments, the highest yield (12.48 t ha-1) was observed in the wet year, when the relative chlorophyll content was also the highest (50.6).

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Results of the sensory analysis of precision maize production
Published May 23, 2019
59-62

This research was carried out in 2018, at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in a moderately warm and dry production area, on deep humus layered medium-hard calcareous chernozem soil. In the scope of the research, the chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined under field circumstances by means of loc...al sensory measurements and we were looking for correlation between the obtained values and the amount of yield. Our measurements were carried out with Minolta SPAD-502 and GreenSeeker devices at 3 measurement times (4 leaf stage, 10 leaf stage and silking). It was found that phenological phases had an effect on the obtained SPAD and NDVI values and were in a slightly significant correlation with the yield. The most significant correlation was found between the results obtained during silking and the amount of yield. This may be because the least time has passed between the measurement time and harvest. Results obtained during the 10-leaf stage show excessive values in each case, which can be due to a measurement error. It was found that the phenological phase had an effect on the correlation of SPAD and NDVI values and the amount of yield. As the phenological phase progressed, the correlation between the measured results and yield has increased.

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Study of plant physiological parameters in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. napus f. biennis L.) production on chernozem soil
Published February 18, 2016
111-115

We made plant physiology examinations in Arkaso winter oilseed rape hybrid substance: relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. The experiment was set in University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Center at Látóképi Experimental Station in four replications, in two different sowing times (I. sowing date on... 08/22/2014 and II. sowing date on 09/09/2014 sowing againhappened because of the incomplete germination in the second subtance 01/10/2014) Three different plant density 200, 350 and 500 thousand ha-1, under the same nutrient supply, 45 cm row spacing. The experiment was green crop of winter wheat. The relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements were made in seven different times. We measured the maximum value of chlorophyll content in the first sowing time at 500, and the second sowing time at 350 thousand ha-1 plant density. The measurement results proved that there was a linear relationship between the number of plants and the LAI. The maximum leaf area index values we measured in both the sowing time at 500 thousand ha-1 reached.

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Evaluation of the correlation between SPAD readings and absolute chlorophyll content of maize under different nitrogen supply conditions
Published December 15, 2019
121-126

Currently, one of the most important objectives of agriculture is to maintain the principles of the sustainability. The use of precision technologies in agriculture belongs to this topic. The use of precision technologies is increasingly widespread in the cultivation of various agricultural crops, including maize. Sensing is an important part o...f these techniques. In our experiment we compared two methods: measuring relative chlorophyll content and the method of determine the extractable chlorophylls. The experimental plant was maize (Zea mays L.) and the measurements were performed at an early development stage (V8) of three genotypes. Three levels of nitrogen (0; 80; 160 kg ha-1) were applied during the experiment. The relative chlorophyll content was measured by SPAD-502 (Minolta, Japan) and a handheld GreenSeeker (Trimble, USA) device. The extractable total chlorophyll content decreased in parallel with the increased nitrogen level. The obtained SPAD values were diversified furthermore the NDVI values have not been changed for the effect of different nitrogen fertilization. In the early stages of development of maize, these parameters need to be complemented with other measurements to provide reliable information about the crops nitrogen status.

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The effects of water supply on the physiological traits and yield of tomato
Published December 15, 2019
25-30

The SPAD value, the chlorophyll fluorescence and the canopy temperature of the leaves and fruits of tomato hybrid “H1015” were investigated under non-irrigated (I0), deficit irrigated (I50) and well-irrigated (I100) conditions. The aim of the experiments was to show which treatment effect on the examined traits affected photosynthesis, leaf... temperature and yield quantity, as well as quality under water scarcity. In the control treatment (I0), the canopy temperature increased, but the SPAD decreased compared to the other two treatments (I50 and I100). Chlorophyll fluorescence produced a fluctuating result. In the end, the number of the fruits was high, but the number of the sick and green berries was increased.

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Comparative analysis on the fertiliser responses of Martonvásár maize hybrids in long-term experiments
Published December 21, 2008
111-117

The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated re...ached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.

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Response of maize seedlings to the latent zinc deficiency under different Fe/Zn rati
Published November 20, 2011
125-128

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a critical nutritional problem for plants and peoples all over the world. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in Zn, leading to poor crop yield. In this study, the effect of different Fe/Zn ratio on some physiological parameters of maize seedlings were investigated on the dry matter of shoots and root...s and their ratio, SPAD index and the total length of shoots. The relative chlorophyll contents significantly decreased under increasing Fe given to the Zn deficient. The results showed that the different Fe/Zn supplies decreased the total length of shoots - ranging from 9% to 65% - by latent Zn deficiency. Corresponding to several scientific findings, it was observed that the non-optimal Fe/Zn ratio of tissues take part in the evolution of latent Zn deficiency in the case of high Fe concentration.

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Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
Published July 31, 2012
147-151

The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The whea...t variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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Seasonal changes of photosynthetical parameters as a results of forest gap model
Published February 17, 2015
133-136

Photosynthetic parameters of English oak (Quercus robur L.) as a member of Querco robori-Carpinetum were investigated in two different habitat in terms of gap forest management: in the gap and in the host forest. The artifical opening process of the forest resulted in more light for growing saplings and need for acclimatization. Photosynthesis ...is one of the most important way for plant life and plant production. In the centre of photosynthetic efficiency the quality and quantity traits of photosynthetic pigments are standing. During our work some photosynthetic parameters of plants (in the gap and in the forest as well) were measured: relative chlorophyll content as SPAD index, chlorophyll a and b content, total chlorophyll content and ratio of chlorophyll a and b. Based on our results no significant differences among our data in early spring. Although, during the summer significant differences occurred between the measured values in the gap and in the forest area. Lower total chlorophyll content was experienced in the gap, than in the forest area due to the lower chlorophyll-b content. Because of the high light intensity higher chla/chlb ratio was measured in the gap. The lower chlorophyll contents of gap habitat may have a part of the acclimatization process of photosynthetic apparatus against high light stress, which can determinate the survival chance of individual.

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Relationships between nutrientsupply, genotype and some physiological properties of winter wheat
Published July 31, 2012
141-145

The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investi...gated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.

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Effects of plant density on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of maize under irrigation condition
Published May 23, 2019
115-118

Maize plant response to plant density is an essential agrotechnical factor used for determining grain yield. Three plant densities (60,000 ha-1, 72,500 ha-1, and 85,000 ha-1) were used in this study to ascertain the effect of photosynthetic parameters and grain yield. Results show a significant difference in the... photosynthetic parameters (SPAD, NDVI, LAI) and plant height for plant density of 85,000 ha-1. Grain yield and stem diameter were not significantly affected between the different plant densities.

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Effects of combined nutrient supply treatments on some physiological parameters of autumn wheat
Published September 5, 2018
241-251

The Fleischmann Rudolf Research Institute in Kompolt is not only famous for plant breeding but the institute also surveys the effects of different nutrient supply methods since 1918. In 2017, we joined this research supported by EFOP 3.6.1 project. Our aim was to investigate photochemical processes – which is one of the most determinant in ca...se of yield – of crops by in vivo field measurements. We measured the chlorophyll content of leaves using Minolta SPAD 502. We used miniPAM fluorometer to determine actual photochemical efficiency and non-photochemical quenching of PSII during natural light conditions and also to evaluate the pigment (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and water content of leaves we applied field spectrophotometer (ASD FieldSpecPro 3). We utilized these methods by various treatments (1. treatment with soil bacteria + head and base fertilizer; 2. treated by only head fertilizer; 3. treated by only base-fertilizer) in field experiment of autumn wheat (4.1–2.43–1.19 ha) in June, 2017. The difference between treatments was clearly detectable. In the case of the first treatment, physiological processes were more intense and the ripening occurred earlier. The obtained yield was the highest in the case of the area treated by soil bacterial. Based on the results, the first treatment can be recommended in practice.

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The effect of drought and cropping system on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published December 28, 2018
51-53

Different Cropping Systems have many advantages and ensure better crop growth and yielding. Its combination with other agronomic measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximum crop growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems on monoculture and biculture rotatio...ns [maize- wheat]. The study found that crop rotation does not have a significant effect on the grain nutrition quality, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) but has a significant effect on the Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD). Yield and yield components were significantly influenced by crop rotation in this study as yield, plant height, cob weight and number of grains per row all recorded lower mean at 5% probability levels.

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