No 25 (2007): Pisces Hungarici I. (Supplement Issue)
Over the period 2003-2005 we made ichthyologic research in the basin of the Lapus river. During the sampling we noticed that in some area the water was polluted. In those areas fishweretotallyorpartiallymissing.
The main pollution sources are those related to nonferrous metal extraction and processing, but there is also pollution from organi
Confronting the spots of the pollution sources with the results of the ichthyologic research.we noticed a significantcorrespondencebetween the qualitative and quantitative component of the ichthyofauna and the presence of these sources.
We could, therefore prove the effect of the process of self-purificationofthewater,aswellastheexistenceofsomespeciesoffishshowing a great degree of tolerance towards pollution.
The timely and effective establishment of Natura 2000 network is one of the greatest environmental challenges for the new Member States of the European Union. Slovak Republic is facing this challenge now. By the June 2005, the Government in our country must prepare a list of sites to be included in the Natura network, according to the criteria...set up in the Habitat Directive. Natura 2000 sites, according to the specificEUDirectivesconsistofSpecialAreasofConservation(SACs),andSpecialProtectionAreas(SPAs).TheSPAsandtheSACs, the latter selected as Sites of Community Importance (SCIs), will be incorporated into the Natura 2000 network. The problems of proclaiming the system of protected areas of European importance for the Natura 2000 have been one of the major topics of the ichthyological activities in our country in recent years.
For 3 lampreys and 20 fishspeciestheterritoryofpotentialsiteofcommunityinterest(pSCI)hasbeenlimitedandproposed.Theselection of localities and examinations of population state in individual species of fishespresentedintheAnnex(II.,IVandV.)totheCouncilDirective No. 92/43/EEC were carried out in 2003/2004. In total 179 pSCI localities for fishandlampreysinthealpinebiogeographicregion (83) and in the pannonian biogeographic region (96) pSCI in the Slovak republic were selected and limited. The number of pSCI localities selected for individual species is different regards to their distribution within the river net of Slovakia. For example, for species of general distribution, 30 localities pSCI (Misgurnus fossilis, Rhodeus sericeus, Gobio albipinnatus, Barbus barbus) or 35 localities pSCI (Cobitis elongatoides, Barbus peloponnesius), have been proposed, on the contrary, in several species of exclusive distribution as Lampetra planeri - 8, Gobio uranoscopus - 9 and Zingel zingel -12 localities.
The pSCI territory for individual species of the ichthyofauna presented here represents the firststageintheprocessofcreatingtheprotected territory system of European interest Natura 2000 in the territory of the Slovakia for this group of aquatic vertebrates. The list of proposal sites will have to be submitted to the European Commission by the date of Accession.
The Crişul Repede River is belonging at Cris (Körös) Rivers system which is a tributary on the left shore of Tisa River. In the last decades the fishfaunaofthenaturalwatershasundergoingadeclineinthespeciesnumber.Theothersuccessiveprocessisthefishspeciesreplacement due by the immigration of some exotically fishesandtheretirementofsomeofthenat...ivespecies.
The Crişul Repede fishfaunahasregisteredadeclinecausedmainlybytheriverdamming,waterpollutionandeutrophisation.Ondespite of that negative factors the fishesfromtheupperriverwasmaintainlessaffectedunliketotheotherrivers.Thereaftertheeconomical transition and the industries reorganization process were redounded to diminishing the impact of these harmful factors. The former studies about the Cris fishfaunacitedanumberof48nativespeciesand12exoticones.Duringtheresearchtripscarriedoutsince10yearsago (beginning in 1995) was identifiedanumberof40fishspeciesandthepresenceoftheother8 speciesarestilluncertain.Thesturgeonspecies Acipenser ruthenus and the migratory fishAnguillaanguillahaveascarcepresenceandtheycannotbefoundinthelastdecade.A number of 5 exotically fishesarebehavedasremarkableintrudersinnaturalwaters:Pseudorasboraparva,Carassiusauratusgibelio,Ictalurus nebulosus, Ictalurus melas, and Lepomis gibbosus. Some of the exotically fishesalreadyrecordedintheHungarianstretchesofthe Crisuri (Körös) was not recorded in the Romanian section of the river (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Ictiobus bubalus, Ictalurus punctatus, Clarias gariepinus, Micropterus salmoides, Oreochromis niloticus, Perccottus glenii). The pervading of these species is expecting also in the Romanian section of the rivers.
The present major threatening factors concerning the fishfaunaarerepresentedbythehabitatchanges.Theriverdammingandtheriverside levees have a negative influenceonthefishfauna.Theformerphenomenonofwaterpollutionitseemsthatisreplacedbythehabitat changes. The dam lakes caused unregulated fluctuationsonthewaterlevelandtemperaturedownstreamofit.Theembankmentforpreventing the floodingwasperformedthroughshorteningtherivermeander.Thelostmeandersoftheriversarerepresentinganoptimalhabitat for fishspawning.
Althogether 37 fish species were subject to research in the three sections of River Rába between 2004 and 2005, of which 13 are protected. 15 fish species are reophil occuring on the upper-section. In this period 6 adventiv fish species were collected.
The fisheries management on inland waters is very complicated. Often the unclear propriety rights make the normal management difficult, and other times the stocking of the waters is problematic. In the last hundred years a lot of new fish species have been introduced to Hungary. Lot of them have found their place in the Hungarian fishfauna, til...l others have caused big problems for the fish farmers, and the anglers too. The biggest problem was caused by the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Schlegel, 1842) brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus LeSueur, 1819) and the silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, 1782). In this article I show what kind of problems were caused by the silver crucian carp, because it seems that this fish is the most harmful.The damage caused by silver crucian carpposesa complex question. To get into the ponds and rivers, the crucian carps occupy the territory form the native fishspeciesandthesilvercrucian carp competes with these fishes for food, too.The silver crucian carphasa special reproduction method and because of this the speciesis expand rapidly. The silver crucian carp is able to reproduce with other cyprinids, and because the female silver crucian carps are triploids every fingerlings will be silver crucian carp.This fish is a vectorfora lot of diseases, which can easily spread over for other species.
The Bódva is one of our rivers that flow outside the Hungarian borders and arrive to the country across the frontier.The Bódva is approximately 110 kilometres long, its upper course is mountaneous- like in its springfield in Slovakia and it reaches the Sajó by flowing among the lower hilly region. The river wall is ravine-like in more places..., the river itself is devious, and the water basin is rather variable as in the underlay muddy segments and heavily shingly beds can also be found.
By its fish fauna and physico-chemical characteristics, the Bódva is such aliving water that-after Borne and others (Nowicki, Thienemann) river zone system- can be regarded as an almost uniform typical Barbel zone.
According to our research program (2001-2005) and literature resources we estimated the fish fauna of the Bódva on both the Slovakian and Hungarian course. From some four decades to the wide ecofaunistic examinations of the near past we surveyed the quondam and present fish species of the Bódva River. According to our survey some 40 species compose the recent fish fauna of this river.
In the fish fauna of the Bódva those fish species that presently own a tight ecospectrum, sensitive to the changes of the environment thus so called indicator species, can also be found just like the less sensitive, invasive, aggressively reproducing species. By examining the changes in the fishfauna, the complex of those biogen and abiogen processes that affect the river can be indicated well. It can be stated that the fishfauna of the Bódva is rather rich with a countrywide measure also, and maintain a lot of rare, regressive protected and worth while protection species.
In the last period of the construction, the racial and quantitive composition of the fishfauna of the upper course of the Bódva has changed significantly. Certain species (in the Hungarian course) has vanished almost totally or at least their number declined not ably. Among the vanishing species there are not only a few substantial, protected species of the fauna (e.g. Barbus pelononnesius petényi, Leucaspius delineatus, Zingel sterber, Barbatula barbatula), but the number of the once mass species also decreased appreciably (e.g. Rhodeus sericeus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Cobitis elongatoides). With the above mentioned changes the number of other animals also decreased in the course that we examined (e.g. mussels, crabs). We examine the cause of these changes in the pollution of the river and according to that in the decrease of the food source and the negative changes of the physico-chemical parameters of the water.
Between 2003 and 2005 faunistic survey was completed in the sections of the low- and highland watercourses of the water-regime of the Zagyva and Tarna rivers. On the basis of bed-slope, dominance and frequency of the fish species the following sections can be divided in the examined streams:
1./ Upper-chub-zone: the bed-slope is above 15 m/k
2./ Middle-chub-zone: the bed-slope is between 5-15 m/km. The typical fishspecies–besides the Barbatula barbatula and Leuciscus cephalus – is the Gobio gobio.
3./ Down-chub-zone: in the case of larger watercourses (Zagyva and Tarna rivers) the bed-slope is 1,2-5 m/km, at smaller streamlets it is 1,7-5m/km. The typical fishspecies–besides the 3 above mentioned species–are the Cobitis elongatoides, the Alburnus alburnus and in the watersystem of Tarna the Alburnoides bipunctatus.
4./ Top-perch-zone: the bed-slope is 0,3-1,2 m/km, or at smaller streamlets it is 0,3-1,7 m/km. The typical fishspecies–besidestheCobitis elongatoides, the Alburnus alburnus and the Alburnoides bipunctatus - are the Rutilus rutilus, the Gobio albipinnatus ant the Rhodeus sericeus.
Fishbiological research was held on 10 small watercourses, especially on the streams of woldy region of the southern foot of the Bükk-mountains and on the creeks of the lowland Borsodi-Mezőség in 2004. 7475 specimens of 34 species were caught as the result of our surveys on 28 sampling sites. Significant differences were found between fish s...tocks living in wold and lowland situated sampling sites.Nevertheless on the border of the hilly and lowland regions continous transition observed in the composition of fishstocks. Using Ind Val 2.0 statistical software indicator species appointed of the stocks of wold situated samling sites in “natural” and in “disturbed” states, and of the lowland situated sampling sites.
According to the data indicating the decline and restructuring during the past decade, as well as the trend in the European Union member states, it can be expected that the role of traditional agriculture and fish production in direct rural employment decrease further. This also values those strategic directions for restructuring that will lead... fishculture from quantity driven to quality production along with sustainable development (i.e. environmental conscious production) and multifunctional farming. This way the economic and social tensions caused by the concentration of the production and labour output can be mitigated.
It is laid in the 1257/1999 Act on rural Development that farmers that enrol the agri-environmental scheme should follow the “Good Agricultural Practice” on the whole managed area. In case of agri-environmental schemes this is a precondition for which no grants are given.
The adaptation of “Good Agricultural Practice” in fishproduction,where it is called: “Good Pond Culture Practice” is considered important on the basis of the above mentioned. This programme is undertaken in co-operation with the Research Institute for Aquaculture, Fisheries and Irrigation, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development and the Association of Hungarian Fish Farmers and Product Council.
The European Commission proposed the formulation of the European Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (EFAF) for the period 2007-20013, which will replace the Financial Instruments for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG), but it also consists of several new elements and will be working differently, too. According to the proposal the budget for the Fund will be nearly 5 billion EUR (4963 million EUR). The development level of aquaculture and fisheries and the social and economic significance in the given member state will be considered when distributing the Fund between the Member States.
According to the plan the Fund is organised along five priority axes, of which the most important for the Hungarian fisheries sector is No. II: Aquaculture and the processing and marketing of aquaculture and fisheries products. The main measure areas are the followings:
1. investment support for aquaculture;
2. support for aquatic-environmental schemes;
3. environmental- and animal health issues;
4. investments in processing and marketing
In case of accessing support under measure area No. 2 farms are obliged to meet the requirements of the scheme beyond the “good management practice” for 5 years, which is to be supervised by the approved body of the Member State. For this reason our work is considered to be substantial.
Approval of the application of “Good Pond Culture Practice” is based on two elements: first the prevailing environmental and nature conservation regulations, as well as the list of controllable conditions in the new agri-environmental agreements are to be met. “Good Pond Culture Practice” are to be conducted on the whole farm area. Its main elements are:
- nutrition management,
- pond maintenance,
- animal welfare (storage and over-wintering).
In the domestic fish production, natural waters have yielded for several years about 7-8 thousand tons. This, from the point of view of outputs, considering the almost 130 thousand hectares of natural water, is rather low, it means approximately 55-60 kg/ha mixed fish.Although the various natural waters can differ significantly on the basis of...yields, yet on the majority of the territories, the results were low. In the case of our extensive still waters and rivers, the reason can undoubtedly be found in the combined effect of the lack of the possibility of reproduction of the fish stock and the over-fishing. Fishery built on planning supposes the best possible knowledge in the given circum stances of the parameters of the water area and its fishstock. Lacking this knowledge, it is not possible to establish the optimal use fulness of the resources, what is more, the management can make faulty decisions – as a result of a lack of information -, which can risk the success of later activities.
It is known that many factors have an impact on the success of the fishery, as well as some information in connection with the water area and the fish stock are necessary, the knowledge of which make it possible to manage the fishery in a planned way. One part of the information is available, while the other part is incomplete or not deep enough. The necessary data are dissimilar depending on their nature, can be obtained from different places, by different methods.
As the first step for executing the field surveys and processing data, I developed a complex model, which contains in a unified system the steps of estimating the fishstock. I made the sampling on the basis of this. Part of the model is a fish faunistic survey, as well as a morphological survey of the water area. The information gained from these are important for making more accurate the system of devices of the samplings for stock estimation (duration, number of net-rows) and for assigning its place (places representing the best way the physical characteristics of the given water area). The major stages of stock-survey: A) faunistic survey, B) physical survey of the bed, and C) sampling with the help of gill-nets. This is followed by the evaluation by the computer module.
The results of the research create a methodological and technical background for the fish faunistic and population biologic surveys still performed in different ways in our country, and by applying these methods together, all basic information about natural waters which help decision-making concerning fisheries can be obtaine deffectively.
After the regulation of the Tisza River the chance of successful fish propagation lessened. Natural spooning places in the river almost completely disappeared. The fish have to find an adequate place for their propagation in the flood plain. The period of spooning usually coincides with flooding of the river. At this time fish try to find the f...looded shallow places for spooning. These parts mostly include the clay-pits beside dams, which were accidentally established during construction of the dams. At this place the fry can find the necessary food. After decreasing the flood the fingerlings and a part of the spooners are trapped inclay-pits as these latter ones are not connected with the river bed. The clay-pits usually desiccate during the summer. The trapped fish population is eaten by water birds or harvested by the local man population. This means a great loss for reproduction of some fishspecies.
Within the framework of the Regional Rehabilitation Program at Nagykörű, supported by the “WWF Hungary” and a “SAPARD project,” these clay-pits became connected with each other in a stretch of 5 km, and they were jointed to the Tisza by a collecting channel. The water level has been regulated by a flood gate so that the water enters the holes during the flood and is released later on in to the water bed.
Data on fish were collected from the Nagykörű Whole System, from the Anyita pond and some isolated wholes in Szandaszöllős in 2004 and 2005. First of all fish fry and fingerling were collected and the success of spooning at these places was examined. Fry was harvested by a 60 x 80 cm sized lifting net of 2x3 mm mesh size. In other cases nets used by anglers for catching prey fishes was also used. Data were also collected from local fishermen who participated in saving the fry and fishing of Anyita pond.
Of the several thousand caught fish specimens 28 species were identified, and among them 5 protected and 5 economically important species was found. Protected fishes were as follow: gudgeon (Gobio gobio), bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus amarus), weather fish (Misgurnus fossilis), spined loach (Cobitis elongatoides) and tubenosed goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus). Among economically important fishessamples of asp (Aspius aspius), carp (Cyprinus carpio), wels (Silurus glanis), pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) were
The increase of species richness in communities of natural biogeographic regions in an anthropogenic way can be expressed as biogeographic pollution. Where there is contaminated fauna, one must investigate how this occured. I studied how the members of Hungarian fishfauna could be present resident and have managed to workout a so-called system...of fauna component conception which is suitable for this requirement.
The expression of ’faunacomponent’ includes other expressions. That kind of species belong to a certain faunacomponent that reached the studied area in the same way. Species reached the studied area without an anthropogenious contribution are qualified as native fauna components. These kind of species are endemic species, occasional species and settlers. In contrast to native faunacomponents, some kind of human influence is always detectable in connection with the way reached the studied area by non-native species. Accordingly, group of non-native species includes directly or indirectly facilitated settlers, species that are introduced accidentally and those introduced intentionally. It is obvious that classifying a given species could be construed solely in connection with a certain area.
Applying Shannon diversity index I have initiated the assemblage natural index (ANI) in order to show a way how to use the system of faunacomponent conception in practice. ANI refers to the degree of naturalness of faunistical samples. If ANI > 1 it means there are not any non-native species and ANI < 1 it means there are some non-native species in the sample respectively. In the latter case ANI decreases proportionally with the number of non-native species and specimens. In that special case when only one specimen of only one non-native species can be found in the faunistical sample ANI = 1.
Young of the year (YOY) tenches (Tinca tinca L.) were caught in relatively great number in Tisza-Lake at the Tiszafüred section on last days of October in 2004. The standard length of these fishes varied between 20 and 46 mm. It seemed that the collected sample could provide appropriate data to examine the size-structure of YOY tenches, so we...measured their standard body-lengths in mm and -weights in hundred parts of gramm unit. After the statistical analysis were found the follows:
1. The curve of length frequency corresponds with normal distribution, i.e. there was not found multimodal curve as could be expected in the case of a periodic spawning species.
2. The average standard length of the examined individuals – although the environmental conditions of the population is good – was only 31 mm. It is far below the 37 mm average of the lowest growth of tench population was found in the scientificpapers.
3. More than 20% of measured sample belonged to the range of 20-26 mm. The estimated ages of these fish specimens are about 70 days, according the scientificpapers.
By right of above mentioned can be concluded that the sample represents only one age-group from a late spawning, and not the whole range of YOY tenches, so these data can give information about the size structure only of this group. The 31 mm average standard length of individuals, origin from spawning in late July or beginning of August is accordance with age and environmental conditions as well.
In the spring and summer of 2005 I made ichtiologic research on the Barcau river in the area of Nusfalau – Saniob, as well as on its affluents.
The results obtained were compared to those of the previous research performed on the Barcau river and partially on its affluents. Wenoticed a decrease of the fish lot both from the qualitative and
Given the fact that upstream Suplacu-de-Barcau there are construction works for a dam and an artificiallakewhichwillinfluencetheriver fauna, the current research shall allow the repeat of the research and the comparison between the results, the identification of the effects of these works on the fish population from this area.
Literature sources mention 18 fish species from the Hejő watershed. In order to learn more about the fauna, we studied the brook and its tributaries between 2003–2005. We detected a total of 32 fishspecies, 17 of which are new for the watershed. Most of these are native species (Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Leuciscus idus, Aspius as...pius, Leucaspius delineatus, Gobio albipinnatus, Abramis bjoerkna, Abramis ballerus, Lota lota, Gymnocephalus cernuus, Sander lucioperca), but there are some adventive ones (Pseudorasbora parva, Carassius gibelio, Ameiurus melas, Lepomis gibbosus, Perccottus glenii) and a spontaneously immigrated species as well (Proterorhinus marmoratus).
Specific natural values of the watershed are the isolated population of minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) in Kulcsárvölgyi Brook and the frequently occurring mudminnow (Umbra krameri) in the lower reach of Hejő Brook.