No 31 (2008)

Published November 24, 2008

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Articles

Examination of resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection on genetically different common carp variants (preliminary results)
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Septicemia disease caused by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is a major problem for fish farmers around the world. In our experiment resistance to the disease was investigated on carp variants with diferent genetical backgrounds. 96 different genetic variants(„families”) were created by crossing various individuals of 4 carp strains (2 w...ild and 2 cultured ones). Families were reared until reaching the size of 10 gramms and 100 fish of each families were marked with an individual electronic identifier. Marked fish were divided into 5 groups. Fish from one group were infected with A. hydrophila and mortality were registered during 2 weeks. Based on mortality data, the most resistant and most susceptible families will be selected using population genetics methods.

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Investigation of the milk composition of three Tsigai sheep varieties, and the detection of cazein fractions of sheep milk by Reversed-Phase HPLC
13-22

The measurements started in 2005, the author used the milk of 3 types of Tsigai Sheep that are suitable for milking, they examined the milk composition, the possible differences between the milk types, the coagulation characteristics, cheese processing, yielding characteristics and the transfer of solid content into cheese. From the large numbe...r of measurements, the results of milk composition examinations are described.
During the research the author examined the milk coagulation property of three types of Tsigai Sheep QTS 25 is a substance investigating instrument, and its primary mission is the analysis of the substance profile. The advantage of this instrument is the representation of the survey graphs from which the part of the substance characteristics could be directly read off. By the help of the applied mathematical and statistical operations we tried to establish connection between the congealment-hardness and the specialty of the different types of Tsigai Sheep.
In 2006 the author began the identification and qualification of the major sheep milk proteins by RP- HPLC method. She used a scientific article written by Bordin et al. The method is able to separate and quantify the seven major proteins. However Bordin’s procedure was developed using bovine milk, the author adapted it to sheep milk.

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The examination of roe deer feeding on agricultural and woody habitats in winter
23-26

sorting because the micro organisms, which help the digestion of high fibre plants, are missing in his stomack, that is why they are mostly called „concentrate selectors” (Hoffmann, 1985, 1988, 1989).
These animals should mostly eat easily digestable plants with high nutrition level (pulses, buds, sprouts and flowers), and they are able ...to do this sorting because of their mouth size. In winter there is a lack of these plants, so the high selectivity occurs only when the feed is in abbundance.
Examining the amount and quality of vegetation available on the habitat of roe deer we can identify the species which can satisfy their feed demand. It is known, that roe deer as other large ruminants, from the plant abundance prefer certain plants and plant parts while there are others which are avoided. The identification of the eaten species and the rate of their occurrence in the feed is the first step to become acquainted with the interaction between animal and the surroundings.
On the examined territories there was significant difference between the disembowelled body masses. The does which come from the hunt Nagyszénás weighed 4-5 kilos more than the does from the Csongrád territory. The main feed components were present in different rate in the samples of the territories, in the Nagyszénás samples grain, dicotyledonous herbacous plants were dominant, and were eaten more. The high level of grain in the feed result in better condition and larger body mass.

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The possibility of increasing at the conjugated linoleic acid content in pork
27-32

The composition of fatty acids in food products is a significant factor in human health. Feeding can significantly influence the composition of fatty acids in the animal fat. We analysed the effect of feeding high CLA-content (conjugated linoleic acid) feed on the composition of fatty acids in pork. The animals were grouped according to the fol...lowing: Group 1) feeding experimental, ghee-mixed feed for 76 days, Group 2) feeding the same feed, but only for 33 days, Group 3) feeding sunflower-oil-mixed feed for 76 days. Ghee contains CLA in high amount. The aim of our experiment is to analyse how the high CLA content influences the fatty acid content of pork. In the end of the fattening experiment the animals were slaughtered, then samples were taken from the loin, ham, abdomen and backfat from 10 animals from each group and analysed the fatty acid content. We found significant differences between the average fatty acid content of the samples. As an effect of feeding ghee-enriched feed, the CLA content significantly increased, compared to the control group. However, the linoleic acid and the arachidonic acid content were lower, and the proportion of fatty acids was also lower when feeding control feed.

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Economic aspects of innovation in sheep breeding
33-36

Innovation, as a factor influencing the success of farming, is of outstanding importance also in agriculture. Only those businesses (enterprises, companies) can be successful in the longrun which are able to adapt the new technological elements and to make their own developments occasionally and make them suitable for practical utilization.
...The innovation activities performed by the enterprises, business organizations can be evaluated at firm (microeconomic) and national economy (macroeconomic) levels. In the case of sheep breeding also, a complex evaluation system should be applied, since this is a sector, which has significant rural development and social impacts. The innovation processes are analysed from the identification of the problem inducing research and development until the return of the invested resources.

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Realitys and misbeliefs about microhabitat preferences of the weather loach (Misgurnus fossilis) (Preliminary results)
37-41

I studied in this research, the weather loach (Misgurnus fossilis). This fish was in Europe common, but in our days desolated from several area. In Europe this fish was protected by law, and it got into the II. appendix of Habitat Directive. Although is it protected, the reserarchers don’t know too much about it’s optimal habitat needs. My ...aim was, to specify some habitat parameters of the weather loach. That’s why I analyzed the impression of some parameters, whichs I measured in an optimal habitat for weather loach.

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Examination of repeatability of ultrasound scanning technique in young bulls
43-48

The author’s goal with the methodology examination was to determine repeatability of taking and evaluating ultrasound images. In the trial an operator person took two images about the ribeye area and rump fat thickness (P8) of every young bull, which were measured by the same person in four repetitions. Also, we had altogether eight images ab...out the same part of the body. Images were collected using Falco 100 (Pie Medical) real-time ultrasonic scanner equipped with an ASP 3,5 MHz, 18 cm linear array transducer.

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The milk production and prolification of Saanen goats of various body condition and ages
49-52

In our experiments we tried to find correlation between the age and the body condition of milking goats. We found that these factors significantly incluence the economic parameters of the goats; they have effect on their milk production and reproduction as well. Body condition is the lowest in case of the 3-5-year-old goats, whereas it is the h...ighest in case of the 1-2-year-old. The highest number of kids (2.5) are produced by the 3-5-year-old, while the 1-2-year-old have the fewest kids. Lactation milk production is the highest in case of the 4-5-year-old animals, the lowest in the 1-2-year-old. The lactation period is the longest in case of the 3-4-year old animals in contrast to the younger. The difference is significant in each experiment.

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Estimating Genetic Parameters using a Random Regression Model
53-55

One of the most important part of the genetic evaluation using a random regression model is the estimation of variance components. This is the topic of many papers because the large computational costs. We can use restricted maximum likelihood (REML), Gibbs sampling and ℜ method for the estimation of genetic parameters. The variance component...s are necessary to calculate the heritabilities and repeatabilities.
The aim of our paper is to estimate the variance components using a random regression repeatability model from test day data set of Hungarian Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and to analyse the change of additive genetic and permanent environmental variance, heritability and repeatability over lactation.

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The evaluation of body condition scoring of Holstein-Friesian cows
57-61

We carried out the examinations on a farm of 500 cows where We examined the body condition of the stock every month. We recorded the body condition data together with the milk production and calving data. We analysed the daily milk production as well as the body condition. During the examinations we sought an answer how the body condition and t...he production level change during the lactation period.

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Tenability of ram semen
63-66

It could be stated that the diluted semen of Awassi rams taken in the breeding season preserved its fertilizing abilityat different temperatures for different periods of time. The motility of spermatozoa kept at 23 vs. 8oC was checked daily. The largest spread of data was observed 24 hours after taking the semen, then the motility ra...te of cells showed a linear decrease. Motility results of fresh and frozen-thawed samples were compared also after heat resistance test and significant differences were found between these groups. Significant individual differences were observedin the sperm motility after heat resistance test.

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The effect of keeping technology on the microbiological status of raw milk
67-75

The importance of the quality of raw milk increased after Hungary had joined to the EU. On delivery of raw milk, the microbiological quality, especially total plate count of the milk is very important. Twenty-two farms (7 large, 4 medium-sized, and 11 small farms) were included in the study. We considered the different farm size, keeping- and m...ilking circumstances during the selection of farms. The examined large farms use loose housing system (cubicle, deep litter) and milking parlour. Most of them use preand post-milking disinfection. In the medium-sized farms, loose,
deep litter and tie-stall housing system, as well as milking parlour, pipeline milking and bucket milking occurred. All of them use preand post-milking disinfection. Small farms use tie-stall housing system, bucket milking and udder preparation by water. Unfortunately, they do not use pre- or post-milking disinfection. In the large and medium-sized farms mainly Holstein Friesian, in the small farms Hungarian Simmental breeds can be found.
The aim of our research was to examine the microbiological status of the raw milk produced in dairy farms (total plate count, coliform count, Escherichia coli count, Staphylococcus aureus count, psychrotroph bacteria count, furthermore yeast and mold count); sources of the contamination; connection between the microbiological quality of produced milk and housing-, milking technologies of farms; furthermore the hygienic circumstances of milking and milk handling of the farms, by the examination of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli contamination.
During the examination of the connection between the different farm sizes, various housing- and milking forms and the microbiological characteristics we observed similar tendencies in the case of total plate count, coliform count, yeast and molds count, furthermore psychrotroph bacteria count. The value of  these parameters was significantly higher in small farms, and infarms which use tie-stall housing forms, bucket milking, udder preparation with water, and which do not use pre- and post-milking disinfection.
The results showed that besides cooling, the milking procedure and the type of udder preparation had the largest effect on the total plate count. Statistical analysis shows that in medium and small farms the combination of pipeline milking – tie stall housing system – disinfectant preparation of the udder; in large farms the combination of milking parlour – loose cubicle housing system – dry preparation of the udder are the most appropriate in the aspect of the total plate count. We experienced that in farms where the hygienic instructions are not followed – and therefore
equipment used during the milking and handling of milk is very contaminated – or rather the separation of mastitic cows’ milk is not appropriate, different microorganisms may contaminate the produced milk. 

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Analysis of show-jumping results with different measure variables
77-81

The aim of this paper is to estimate heritabilities and to  compare different fitted models for Hungarian Sporthorse showjumping results. Our analysis is based on the show-jumping results between 1996 and 2004. The repeatability animal model for the evaluation of the test results included the fixed effects of gender, breeder, rider, age, y...ear of competition, type of competition, height of fence and number of starters. Variance and covariance components were estimated with VCE-5 software package. Fitting of the models were evaluated with log-likelihood values and Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). Heritability was low in all cases.
The lowest goodness-of-fit model was height of fence-error score and the best-fitting genetic model based on AIC was model using cotangent transformation.

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Horn colour varieties of the Hungarian Grey cattle
83-87

The Hungarian Grey Cattle breed is a ‘success-story’ of the national genetic conservation work. Traits of the breed have been subjects of several research projects, although many relationships remained unclear. Our present research results were meant to call attention to a less emphasized trait of the breed: the different horn colour variet...ies. Research work was carried out in the Hungarian Grey stock of the Hortobágy Non-profit Company for Nature Conservation and Gene Preservation. Ratio of the three main horn colour varieties (white, ‘cardy’, green) were determined in the observed female, male and steer stocks. Our results showed no significant differences (P<0,05) in the distribution of the horn colour varieties of the female and bull stocks, and of the female and steer stocks. We found that on the basis of the ratio of white colour, four sub-categories can be distinguished within the ‘cardy’ colour variety. Results of the statistical analysis (P<0,05) confirmed that the colour of the horn and the ratio of the black part on the horn tip are two different traits. 

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Production and disposition of purebred Jersey populations
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In Hungary crossbreeding wit Jersey has been in practice since 2004. Uniquely in the Hungarian history of the Jersey breed two times fifty head pregnant heifers were imported in 2006. The aim of our study is to present through the description of the production and the type traits of the population the inherent possibilities of Jersey. The breed... is presented by the figures of the rolling lactations, 305 day milk production, correlations between the traits and by the results of the evaluation of type traits. Analyses of the data were done by using independent samples t-test.
Based on data of 87 cows the average number of days in milk  is 308 and 48 cows has finished lactation. During the rolling lactation they produced 5050 kg milk with 5.34% fat and 3.8% protein content.
The first lactation Jersey cows’ production when corrected to 305 days was 5089 kg milk with 5.35% fat and 3.81% protein. Between the herds there was significant difference in milk kg, amount of fat produced, protein content and amount of protein produced. On the two farms distribution of cows belonging to different production levels is very different. The biggest difference is when categorized by the amount of milk produced.
Correlation between the milk kg and fat kg is the greatest (r=0.950). Similar values were obtained for the correlation between fat and protein kg (r=0.919) and for the milk kg and fat kg (r=0,898). 
Disposition of the Jersey cows is very well balanced. Their stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle and pin width is favorable, the average scores are between 4.5 and 6.5. The leg of the cows is a bit sickly, and is hocking in a little with medium-low angled hoof. Average values of all traits describing the udder are between 4 and 5. Cows belonging to the two herds differ by disposition. Significant difference exists in the following traits: body depth, dairy form, pin width, rear leg - side view, rear leg, rear view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, teat length. The
Jersey population imported to Hungary has a final score of 78 points which equals with the “good” qualification. 

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