No 58 (2014)

Published April 8, 2014

##issue.tableOfContents##


Articles

Need for measurement of the innovation at Hungarian SMEs
5-13

Competitiveness studies have shown that innovation could be breakout point for some economies, regions and enterprises. Knowledge acquisition, creation and exploitation of the knowledge base have been an essential element for economic growth. These knowledge-based economic processes come together with the innovation. Measurement of innovation b...y indicators has been playing a really emphatic role in making strategy whether it is national or EU planning.

Enterprises have always tried to measure and quantify their innovation activities mostly through the results of their economic process. Companies have generally considered their products as part of the innovation. That was the reason that in most cases they only and exclusively focused on the finished product. Some of them was able to realize that details of the production process must be taken into account in order to the whole innovation activity could be measured.

That is why I find it important to examine of what the innovativity of enterprises is made of, and in which way they can be measured.
In addition I was looking for the answer to the questions that how much the measuring method allows you to compare enterprises for further examination.

The development of measurement methods is an essential moment of the article. As it is compiled for me the most important aspect of innovation, according to the statistical document, the Oslo manual guides you through the measurement methods and operational processes They play a very important role in proving my hypothesis. Overall, our country’s innovation results show those areas where we have high endowments, and also those where are the weaknesses.

Of course, systems and tools defined by the governing authorities of national economies will have the main role but the activity of the European Union will be the frame in the end, because without subsidies from the EU budget, national budget wouldn’t be enough to implement these aims.

Show full abstract
75
63
Reduction possibilities of the production costs of green electricity by using waste heat
15-20

In my study, I examine the possibility of the reduction of green electric power’s gross production cost. My research topic may have wider considerations, since in the case of CHP technology the utilization of by-product thermal energy is not possible, and the whole production cost devolves upon green electric power. I introduce five options f...or the use of the heat energy, based on national and international literature and in-depth interviews.

From the aspect of efficiency, it can be stated that as alternatives, beer production and desiccation may be mentioned, since these two models were appropriate for the utilization of the total quantity of waste heat, and in the given circumstances the lowest reduction of green electric power’s production costs was achieved in these cases utmost.

Show full abstract
109
94
Measuring methods of the efficiency of university technology transfer
21-29

Nowadays, the socio-economic role and function of universities as well as their relationship with the industry, are more than ever in the focus of both the political and the academic spheres. The importance of knowledge and technology transfer is increasingly stressed in various economic development plans and strategies. The increased interest ...is due to the fact that universities are located at the crossroads of education, research and innovation, which might be crucial for the country's economic competitiveness. The commercialization of university research results is a well-defined task of technology transfer offices. Measuring the efficiency and successfulness of such offices is a difficult, but not impossible task. The present article aims to analyze the existing literature on measuring the efficiency of technology transfer activities and to introduce the most commonly used measuring methods of effective technology transfer. The article attempts to answer the question how to measure the efficiency of technology transfer by reviewing the available international literature and by analyzing secondary data.

Show full abstract
64
61
Opportunities and barriers of local products’ sales in rural regions
31-37

Nowadays local economy systems are highlighted in the Hungarian, the European and also in the global economy system. Inhabitants and local products, services created by them are the most important elements of local economy systems. Local products are especially important in areas with special conditions, in the underprivileged rural areas. Sale...s of these products and services on local level and above could give answer to economic and social challenges in these regions. In the same time to become part of the economic system selecting the best marketing channels for these products is very important. In this study, based on a case study in Mezőcsát, possible marketing channels are revealed through quantitative research based on primer and secunder data and SWOT analysis. In the case of Mezőcsát for local sales the best place is the local market, while webshop is the best for sales outside Mezőcsát.

Show full abstract
67
241
Possibilities of biodiversity conservation in agricultural fields
39-45

The biodiversity loss is one of the biggest environmental problems in the world. The objective of this paper is to present some nature conservation practices on agricultural land. Farmlands play a significant role to preserve biodiversity because some highly protected species can only find their needs on agricultural land. The Biodiversity Stra...tegy of the European Union (2010-2020) creates new directives to reduce biodiversity loss, preserve and improve diversity, especially on agricultural land. Furthermore the importance of this subject is that the share of farmland in Hungary is much higher (57%) than in the EU-27 on average (42%). The loss of agricultural land and the increase of land abandonment cause intensification of agricultural production leading to the loss of biodiversity.

Show full abstract
73
64
Setting up the operation of a Science Centre using process management tools
47-55

Nowadays, Science Centres, which have a very long tradition in Europe, are continuously spreading in Hungary. These institutions primarily aim at raising public awareness of science in young people via informal learning (hands-on, minds-on etc.) methods. Based on this phenomenon, the construction of Scientific Adventure Park has been started in... the Debrecen Botanical Garden. In addition, the Municipality of Debrecen established a new organization who will be responsible the reaching the defined goals and sustainability of Debrecen Science Centre according to the Application Form. Therefore, it will be designed a new institution with characteristics of Science Centre and provide innovative and complex services in the segments of culture and education. In this paper, I'm searching for answers to the question if based on this process-oriented method and  management approach; it is possible to design operation system capable of achieving the strategic goals mentioned above.

Show full abstract
66
103
The managerial aspect of the police’s organizational development
57-62

During my research, I have studied the relationships of the organizational development and the managerial functions at a specific governmental agency, the police. The police carry out official activities, but also provide a service which essentially assumes two types of contact systems and modes of management. To meet the demands of the citizen...s and to ensure the effectiveness of the organization, it is necessary to develop the managerial methods applied at the police, on the one hand, and to use certain parts of the organizational development, on the other hand.

The police organization has changed significantly after the integration of the Police and Border Guards. The complexity of the structure and the anomalies in the work load, as well as several researches conducted by myself directed my attention to elaborate an organizational development method that can be applied to the current organization, while it improves the operation of the organization.

The police’s operation and its organizational structure are determined by the laws, thus changing the structure of the organization is placed within relatively narrow limits. The police managers have the soft parts such as human resource development, skills, and management style at their disposal to develop the organization, but their use is isolated and they are not for a long term. The present article aims to present the set-up model related to the organizational development of the police, elaborated by myself, in terms of the leadership and the management styles, whose long-term use may contribute to the efficiency of the operation.

Show full abstract
103
140
The possibilities and framework of conditions of organisational development at a particular administrative body
63-70

The demand for the recognition, identification and introduction of measures aimed at improving organizational culture and the efficiency of management and leadership plays a crucial role in the life of every organization, including the law enforcement bodies as well. The tasks and responsibilities of the Hungarian Police Force have changed cons...iderably both in terms of quantity and quality since Hungary’s accession into the European Union first, and since the country’s joining the Schengen Zone. We are now facing problems formerly unheard of (e. g. the integration of the police force and the border guard, joining the Schengen Zone, the emergence of new forms of crime). As border control within the Union stopped, organized crime has become more powerful. The changes are by no means over: in order to improve the subjective sense of security of the population and to advance organizational efficiency, a number of changes are being implemented at present. For the internal security of the member states of the Union and for the improvement of the efficiency of police work in the member states, the use of consciously coordinated management methods is indispensable. These efforts are the subject of this essay.

A police force is an partially open system, the work of which is influenced by a number of external processes and factors. The organizational culture of a police force is determined by its traditions on the one hand, and by the demands to develop its functions as an authority and a service provider on the other. It is undeniable that any conscious effort in shaping and developing the organizational culture of the police requires special competences and commitment from the leaders of the organization. Furthermore, it is also necessary to modernize the management tasks. It applies to all the levels of leadership, from the head of a patrol to the supreme commander of the police force.

The organizational scheme of the police force is that of a functional, linear system. Such an organization is characterized by a relatively high degree of inflexibility, a slow and cumbersome reaction to external changes. All these may adversely influence organizational efficiency. It therefore appears to be necessary to examine the present structure of police, and survey the possibilities of modernization. Modernization does not necessarily mean a change in the structure; it may be restricted to changes in organizational culture, the creation of an atmosphere favourable for reforms, and the coordination of diversified structures. In this paper I wish to demonstrate some of the possibilities of improving organizational culture and organization development, based upon the findings of a specific survey.

Show full abstract
61
72
Comparison study of student with special educational need in elementary school
71-76

The aim of this lecture is to observe the status of students with special educational needs (SEN) in Europe and Hungary. The European Union has made tough decisions in financing and educating disabled people, so they can be integrated into the society. According to the European directives, Hungarian jurisdiction and educational politics tend to... follow the pedagogical processes. The relevant juridical and economical laws for SEN students have already been implemented. The number of students with SEN in Europe increases permanently, so it is reasonable to detect their controversy. Despite this fact, differences can be experienced in teaching methods among primary schools, as a result development of SEN students can be different. The aim of this study to compare the motor skills of SEN students in two different primary schools, with different pedagogical program. My research base were the Ferenc Móra primay school and Gyermekház alapítvány primary school in Budapest. My main question was, if a specially developed program targeted SEN students can increase their motor skills. Studying the girls in the 2 age-groups, we have not experienced significant differencies out of the 3 motor tests between the control and the experimental groups.
Studying the boys in the 2 age-groups, we have experienced 3 significant differencies out of the 3 motor tests between the control and the experimental groups. SEN students, who have been taught in segregated form with the help of ’Alapozó Terápia’ – a special therapy – achieved better motor skills. The study makes recommendation to primary shools how to organise trainigs for these students.

Show full abstract
76
81
The online marketing possibilities and judgment of the domestic food-sector
77-84

The theme of my PhD research is the online marketing possibilities and judgment of the domestic food-sector. This article is based on the important bibliography of my research theme. I show the new categorization of the tools of marketing communication. I examine the recent years’ changes of the social approach and the interactivity. Based on... the meeting of the Internet I separate our ages’ generations. Furthermore I examine the transformation of consumers into users in the digital environment. I prove the changes of the Internet’s penetration and the presence of enterprises in the Internet with statistic data. I touch the tendency of information searching in online environment. I present new methods to measure the online marketing activities’ return.

Finally, I define my objectives of research based on my own experience and bibliography overview over and above I draw up my concrete future’s research which I separate seconder and primer section.

Show full abstract
114
117
Comparative analysis in residential property price level and price dynamics in urban and rural areas of Hajdú-Bihar County
85-90

In modern market economies residential real estate prices, price shifts and their correlations with macroeconomic factors are surveyed quite frequently. However, in contrast with the wide scope of foreign examples, so far existing analyses in Hungary have ignored examining relation and extensity of macroeconomic indicators and failed to examine... their effect on real estate pricing. The scope of this survey is to highlight these potential correlations and thus develop new aspects of analysis. Although the examination needs further extension both in time and space, the results of this survey may help to understand the importance of the responsible management of the most precious element of national wealth from the perspective of sustainable rural development.

Based on my preliminary results, there exists a strong correlation between the number of inhabitants of a settlement and the average real estate prices. Nevertheless, the correlation seems to be significant only for cities. In the case of smaller settlements the correlation still exists but at a lower level. As opposed to the results of former publications and my own expectations, no direct link could be tackled between the amount of income tax paid by private individuals and real estate prices either in the cities or in the villages within the territory and time span examined in my analysis. Although this correlation is measurable on a macro-economic level, my micro-regional analyses revealed the complexity of asset pricing and price volatility. Continuing this survey, my goal is to identify the hidden factors influencing real estate prices, whose thorough mapping may promote conscious rural development.

Show full abstract
59
68
Evaluation of harvesting technology of vineyard pruning based on a Mátra wine region case study
91-100

Wineyard pruning utilization for energy purpose is not only a theoretical possibility, the machine background has also been developed. Economic- and environmental experimentations has made by specialists and they seek to developed the best practice in logistics suitable for local conditions and they propagate the results for the potential users.... Nevertheless, the utilization does not seem to be typical in Hungary and some other wine-grower countries. For example, in Hungary the additional energy from vineyard pruning eventuates – tillage, nutrient supply; – phy+tosanitary, environmental pollution; – energy management and economic questions.

In Hungary the most important problem is practice of the vineyard pruning utilization were mentioned by the users is the establishment of collection system and the high logistic costs as Marczinkó (2007) experiences confirm this. As I experienced in practice, the winegrowers are uninterested in utilization. Most of them burn it at the end of the vineyard in many cases without considering of the relevant statutory prohibition.

As my own several years expriment shows at Mátra wine region it is not the technical background which causes the failure. We can use effectively balers or chippers for collection. The cost of chipping is 14 535–27 000 Ft per hectars with the introduced technologies on Mátra wine region. The cost of 1 GJ of heat production is 606–1125 Ft. We can substitute the fuel with vineyard pruning and it means approximately 115 000 Ft saving for a family household per year.

Show full abstract
66
76
Fresh fruit purchase analysis in the town’s circle in the Nothern Great Plain Region
101-106

In my research I aimed to examine the previous theories about consumer habits and behaviors as well as the preference of different fruit species in the Northern Great Plain Region. Furthermore, I also wanted to know if there are any correlations between the product atributes that influence fruit consumption and different ages, genders and incom...e categories.

The importance of my research field is reflected in the fact that issues in connection with foodstuffs, healty diet and food safety have been highly emphasized recently.

I belive in order to live longer we need to pursue healthy diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables. It seems, however, not every can follow this lifestyle in their every day diet since most people prefer junk food that contains harmful ingridients.

Show full abstract
62
81
Expansion of the small cable television counterparts of market leading commercial channels in view of Hungarian regional and social aspects
107-110

Currently, there are 102 Hungarian-language television channels in Hungary. TV2 Hungary is the second largest commercial television channel. Current trends in the television market in Europe indicate that large channels are expanding their portfolios while at the same time selling their smaller units. This trend has now affected Hungary as well....

After having TV2 for 16 years, MTM-SBS Television Ltd. eventually expanded its portfolio with three new cable channels. The first new channel was FEM3, a channel directed at women, which was launched on January 1, 2010. A year later, the male channel, PRO4, was launched and finally, SuperTV2, primarily a premium entertainment channel, was launched on November 2, 2012. Although the main channel, TV2, remained free, the new pay channels on cable received a significant amount of investment from venture capitalists and Pro7Sat1 for the development of new content.

SuperTV2 is a premium channel. When the channel was launched, the goal was to target those viewers who had turned away from watching the increasingly less-sophisticated content on the commercial channels as well as those who were not drawn to the programming on public television. When the viewer stats were examined, the channel had proven itself. The premium brand of Super TV2 was successful in attracting new viewers and consumers and within a year it had gained a strong foothold over more than 100 other Hungarian-language channels.

Show full abstract
64
74
Agri-environmental schemes in the European Union
111-117

Some details on agri-environmental measures in EU have been presented in this paper. Territorial, financial and regulation-specific aspects have been investigated based on statistics from EUROSTAT and ENFRD reports. It has been concluded, that AES shows a much diversified picture in the EU. For example, by 2009 the old members and new member st...ates of EU had different proportions of agricultural area (25% and 10%, respectively), where AES had been introduced. Differences in AES are remarkable both at the level of member states as well as in the amounts of payments per hectare. The reasons behind this are the different national conditions and approaches on AES as well as differences in time these measures had been introduced in member countries. The final conclusion is that further increases may be expected in the coming years regarding the area involved in different agri-environmental measures and the total amount of AES payments in the EU.

Show full abstract
82
92
Examination of the connection between the theoretical framework and practice of workplace integration in the case of American concerns
119-123

The first part of this essay presents the definition of workplace socialization, workplace orientation, workplace integration and onboarding on the basis of English literature. It also illustrates the human resources and management tasks and responsibilities in the process of onboarding.

Considering the literature I set up questions for... a half-structured interview completed with American HR managers by the help of skype program. The results pointed out that the professionals refer only a few elements of definitions, and the onboarding term is used for other HR practices (recruiting, selection), too. Furthermore on the basis of the results the onboarding process in well-organized and managed, and also the related human resources and management tasks and responsibilities are correctly appointed within the examined companies.

Additionally this examination verified our previous results which showed that there is a strong documentation and controlling in the process of onboarding within American enterprises.

Show full abstract
65
86
Managing risk using real options in company’s valuation
125-132

The valuation of company is very important because provides information about the current value/situation of company, and through this, provide the opportunity of choosing the best company’s growth alternatives. The future strategic decisions are characterized by lack of knowledge, information, so all measures of company’s growth are closel...y linked with uncertainty and risk. The company’s valuation process is also related with uncertainty and risk. The risk may result both from the assessed assets and the technique used. In literature, we could find three approaches for risk management: capital budgeting based method, methods based on portfolio analysis and real options approach of risk management. Among them, the real options based methods is the most revolutionary approach for risk management. The advantages of the method, consists in the fact, that the process of establishing strategic decisions integrates the possibility of reversibility, delay and rejections, which isn’t it possible at two previous methods. The method also takes into account the total risk of company, so both the company-specific and systematic risk. In this study, I have used one of the best-known real option based method, the Black-Scholes model, for determining the option’s value. Determination of option value is based on the data of enterprise, which was tested Monte Carlo simulation. One of the basic assumptions of the Black-Scholes model is that the value of option is influenced by several factors. The sensitivity of option’s value could be carried out with so-called “Greeks”.. In the study the sensitivity analysis, was carried out with indicators Delta (Δ), Gamma (Γ) and Vega (ν). The real options based risk management determinations were performed in the R-statistics software system, and the used modules are 'fPortofio' and 'mc2d'. By using of real options method, I have calculated the average value of company capital equal with 38.79 million. By using simulation was carried out 1000 runs. The results of this show a relatively low standard deviation, small interquartile range and normal distribution. In the calculation of indicator Delta, could be concluded the value of company moves in 0.831 proportion to the price of options, the standard deviations of index is low, so the real option based method could be used with success in company’s value estimation. The Gamma index shows the enterprise value is sensitive just for large changes. The result of Vega reflects the value of option, so the company’s value volatility, which is small in this case, but this means a volatility of value. In summary, we can conclude that the call options pricing model, well suited for the determination of company’s value.

Show full abstract
68
73
Structural and concepcional changes related to the University of debrecen and its sport organizations between the period 2000–2013
133-139

The strategic and conceptional approach to sport has brought substantial changes in the sporting life of University of Debrecen during the period between 2005–2013. The restructualisation process aiming at the development of university sport as well as the measures related to creating a more transparent financing system demonstrates elements ...of improvement in comparison to the period prior to the Bologna process. The Sport Concept of the university operates the different areas of sport within a transparent, planed and complex structural framework in accordance with the principles outlined in both the National Sports Strategy (2007) and the legal regulations specified by the Sports Law and its modification (2004, 2011). The conceptional changes of sport at the University of Debrecen followed the main objectives and guidelines of the European Commission that lays a great emphasis on issues such as the integration of athletes into higher education allowing maintenance of parallel educational and athletic carriers for athletes.

Show full abstract
100
150
Changes of legal forms at professional football ventures
141-146

Since the ’90s professional football has been going through an unprecedented economic growth. The football ventures are becoming more and more middle-sized companies. In football there are organizational changes, which are reflected in changes of legal forms of professional football clubs, and in using of modern controlling, planning, risk an...d financial management. In this paper we primarily wish to show the specificities of legal forms in German professional football, because we believe the German model is the best example for the future development of football around the world, and we believe this would be most advantageous towards our future development at home.

Show full abstract
69
77
Methodological questions of the process structure benchmarking analyses planned in relation to the international Airport of debrecen
147-154

From June 2012 continuous traffic has begun between London Luton and Debrecen at the International Airport of Debrecen, which is considered a milestone in the growth of passenger traffic. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the fact that growt of passengers depends, on the visitors satisfaction with services used by them. The research o...f the customer service requires to develop process structure that includes the services used by the passengers from arriving at the airport to leaving the airport. A process structure like this allows us to carry out a benchmarking method to compare the passaenger services of other cities. To build up a structure we have to make segmentation according to the travellers’ motivation because they use different services according to their motivation. A questionnaire of customer satisfaction will be presented which results are the basis of the creation of benchmarking and creation of process structures.

Show full abstract
89
65
Sporting habits of students at the University of debrecen Centre for Agricultural Sciences
155-162

In 2007, a new sport strategy was implemented, (XXI National Sportstrategy), which analyses the current conditions in recreational sports in Hungary and describes its developmental potentials. Additionally, last year a new concept for university sport was introduced (Hajos Alfred Program), having as its most important goal, to develop the recre...ational sporting activities within the universities’ environment. The latter is of high importance, as this is the last period, when, on an institutional level, we can establish and enhance the need for physical activity among young generations. In this study recreational sport is analysed in the University of Debrecen Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development. The purpose of the study was to analyse data on the sporting habits of the faculty students, their preference of where they like to exercise, within or outside of the university campus, and the reasons which can be found behind these preferences. Moreover, this study aimed to evaluate the service quality offered in university recreational sports. Data collection was completed on a paper based questionnaire, 42 closed-type questions were included and a total of 123 students completed it. Based on the results, college students usually complete their competitive level sport activity when they enter college and they continue this activity on a recreational level. Almost two third of them choose to exercise in places outside of the university campus. For those who choose university facilities for their recreational exercise, they do so because; it is usually cheaper and closer to access. In the service quality results we see, that females are less satisfied with teaching staff quality than males, it may be possible that females need more and more effective implementations in order for the universities to better satisfy their needs for physical activity.

Show full abstract
60
69
The situation of the Hungarian apricot farming and its developmental tendencies
163-170

The EC has declared „gönci magyar kajszi” as a product of specific origin with geographicald enomination. The „pálinka”isregistered Hungarian productin the EU. The micro-region of apricot production, named Gönc, has the privilege to utilize the great potential for rural development by its apricot production. To determine the developm...ent potential connected to apricot, needs through investigations on apricot production.This paper investigate apricot production at global, European and national levels. At national level each key aspects of apricot production have been analized. The final conclusions referring to Gönc micro-regionare: Northern Hungary region has got the biggest apricot area(within that Gönc has got outstanding role). The share of apricot cultivars of gönci origin ”has got overwhelming role in the Hungarian Cultivar assortment, the living tradition of production in this micro-region makes it possible, that gönci apricot will contribute to the overall socio-economic development in the region to a remarkable extend.

Show full abstract
64
182
Production and economic risk analysis of pig fattening
171-176

I prepared a “model farm” producing fattening pigs in order to examine the main risk of production and market factors affecting the profitability of fattening pig production. Values of body weight (at the beginning of fattening and at the end of fattening), mortality rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fattening pig as well as the main cos...t and price data were recorded as the input data of the model. Production value per unit, production cost per unit and income per unit were used as output. The Monte-Carlo simulation was used in the model for risk assessment. Based on the results of the analysis, it was concluded that the production value per unit was most affected by the selling price of fattening pig (ß=0.972), the production cost per unit were most influenced by the body weight at the beginning of fattening (ß=0.567) and the feed conversion ratio (ß=0.537), in addition, the change of the income per unit was most determined by the previously factors.

Show full abstract
54
74
Exploration of relations among the members of the supply chain on the basis of relationship indicators
177-190

Today the various business units on the market are not competing individually against each other, but doing this as members of a supply chain, which are delivering the products or services to the customers with coordination. The participants are cooperating in the process of purchasing, production and sale. Their common objective is to deliver ...for the consumer demand. The supply chain approach of the enterprises is a business philosophy, which requires trust, commitment, coordination, shared objectives, support from the management, and the understanding and acceptance of the mutual dependence (Német, 2009). The main objective of our study is to analyse the relationships among the players of the supply chain through several relationship indicators, such as trust, economical satisfaction, social satisfaction, compelling power, non-compelling power, dependence, reputation and conflict. The relationship among the players of the supply chain has been analysed from two aspects, through the position and through the role of the players of the supply chain. This study aims to present the results of the analysis highlighting the critical points.

Show full abstract
62
170
View All Issues