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IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC SELECTION CRITERIA IN YOUNG BALL SPORT PLAYERS

Background: Our study aimed to analyze body composition and spiroergometric data of young (14-15 years) elite level ball sport players. We suggested three-ball sports (handball, soccer, and basketball) share common performance indicators, as rapid intermittent movements primarily characterize each ball sport.

Methods: We selected one-hundred and ten, handball (n=30), basketball (n=40), and soccer (n=40) players male and female from local clubs in Hungary. Seventy-nine males and thirty-one females participated in our study; their average age was 14.51 and 14.56, respectively. 

 They participated in laboratory testing; the protocol included a body composition analysis and spiroergometric tests. We measured body composition and physiological parameters utilizing an In Body 720 device and a standard Bruce treadmill protocol. Although we were aware of the Bruce protocol limitations in elite athletes, we choose this protocol as a safer alternative for younger inexperienced athletes.

Results and conclusions: We concluded that in young male soccer and basketball players, mean peak /load (W), peak/VE (l), peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), peak/VCO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml) data is a reliable indicator of the sport-specific performance.  We may also suggest that in our male basketball and handball players' population, peak/Vtex (l) is the only variable, which is significantly different. Between groups of male handball and soccer players, peak/VO2/kg (ml/min) may be a valid performance indicator. Among female basketball and handball players, we found a significant difference in three performance variables: peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml).

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EXAMINATION ON THE CHOICE OF SPORT, SELECTION AND TALENT IDENTIFICATION IN THE HUNGARIAN LITERATURE

One of the main motives for finding and selecting talent is to ensure the long-term success of a sport. Fortunately, more and more professionals are researching the aspects of selection and the motives for choosing a sport. However, the issue of suitability is less well addressed. On the one hand, the study examines the motives of choosing a sport and the factors influencing it, as well as the question of success based on the results of Hungarian research.

 

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THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ON FITNESS STATUS of UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

The physical fitness state of university students has deteriorated over the years. Relevant data is needed to investigate this tendency thoroughly. We conducted a longitudinal examination among university students in Debrecen, Hungary. At the first stage of our examinations, we examined sixty male and female participants to assess their physical fitness status. They participated in four different activities (pilates, spinning, wellness-general fitness, body-shaping) once a week. Each exercise session lasted for 90 minutes. We conducted a pre-and post-exercise screening, which consisted of a Beep-test, push-up, and sit-up tests. 

We hypothesized that the different types of activities might alter the exercise response. Aerobic performance, upper-body, and abdominal strength may differ depending on the type of exercise—international recommendations suggesting that 150 minutes of physical activity is necessary for physical fitness benefits. Our results demonstrated that 90 minutes of exercise might significantly improve inactive young adults' physical fitness state once a week.

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QUALITY OF WELLNESS SERVICES IN THE NORTH GREAT PLAIN REGION

Wellness is the philosophy of life in everyday life. In a holistic sense, it is also used as a harmony of physical, mental, and spiritual abilities, basically means prevention, regeneration, relaxation, and fitness. The investigation took place between September and December 2018. Of the 166 participants, 94 were women, and 72 were men. As a result of the research, we can state that respondents are looking for relaxation and relaxation in wellness hotels. Their expectations are related to their age, place of residence, and family status.

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BREAKABLE PERFORMANCE - THE ROLE OF MENTAL TOUGHNESS IN ELITE SPORT, INTERNATIONAL OUTLOOK

Our study aimed to analyze mental toughness and its relationship to sports performance. We reviewed 38 qualitative and quantitative international studies. We performed an in-depth investigation on mental toughness; we also focused on how to improve mental toughness. We hypothesized a significant difference in both genders, suggesting that coaches substantially impact mental toughness. We primarily concentrate on valid, real-time assessments and psychological training in elite sports athletes. Sport psychologists, mental trainers play an essential role in elite sports performance.  Results of related studies demonstrated that these age and gender-specific mental training sessions are effective in improving performance. There is an increasing need for computer-based interactive testing methods to analyze cognitive and psychomotor skills under pressure. 

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INVESTIGATION ON THE IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Introduction: Effects of physical activity on immune functions may largely depend on the type of activity, its intensity and duration. However, little information is available regarding the immunological effects of sporting activities in older ages.

The aim of our study was to examine the changes in a wide spectrum of lymphocyte subtypes after a period of regular workout among healthy women of different ages.

Methods: In our study, we enrolled 16 elderly women (between ages of 60-75 years) formerly not engaged in regular physical activity, who took part in lightweight conditioning gymnastic exercise program. Eight young athletes and 26 young adults with sedentary lifestyle served as controls. The percentages of peripheral NK, NKT cells, T and B lymphocyte subtypes were determined by flow cytometry based on the staining of extracellular markers and intracellular cytokines.

Results: Lymphocyte subgroups did not differ between the groups of young athletes and young adults with sedentary lifestyle. However, in elderly women, levels of NKT cells were lower, while ratios of T helper / T cytotoxic cells were higher compared to younger individuals. At the end of exercise program, in elderly women, percentages of naive B cells decreased, while levels of switched-memory B cells increased. Furthermore, proportions of Th2 cells increased, while levels of immunosuppressive CD4+CD127-CD25bright Treg cells decreased as the result of regular exercise.

Conclusion: Differences observed after lightweight exercise programs reflect a presumably enhanced immunoreactivity and increased ability for immune responses in older ages.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTENSE MULTIDIRECTIONAL MOVEMENTS IN YOUTH HANDBALL AND SOCCER PLAYERS

Modern soccer is characterized by short distance multidirectional movements. Elite level players execute a large number of micromovements of all kinds. Like in handball game situations in soccer usually occur in small areas. We investigated, whether soccer players may be able to perform accelerations, decelerations, intense starting movements and turns at the same level as handball players. We utilized the Speed Court movement analysis system to prove our hypotheses. We measured youth athletes, they executed two testing protocols. High-quality speed, agility, spatial awareness, and decision-making capabilities were required by the participants. We designed two protocols called the “60-meter chase”, and the “30-second chase” to mimic the situations tend to occur in a game. Each participant was asked to perform the test protocols three-times, we registered the best try, after 12 weeks of practice, the athletes repeatedly executed the two protocols. We also performed a body composition analysis, which demonstrated similar data for the two groups. We concluded that soccer players were able to perform at the same level as handball players, some of them even outperformed their counterparts.       

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE ABILITIES STRESS TOLERANCE AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN NOVICE AND EXPERIENCED ATHLETES

Introduction: Cognitive skills are essential in team sports. Perception, decision-making (tactical thinking, learning, attention, thinking, emotions), stress tolerance, and even the level of motor and technical-tactical skills all affect performance.

Objective: We found a significant difference in stress tolerance of novice / young and experienced team sport players (BALOGH, DONKA 2020). Our results showed that experienced athletes have higher level of  stress tolerance.  However, as this was a descriptive study, we intended to support our statement involving more number of subjects, and an analysis of cognitive abilities.

Method: A cross-sectional experimental study was performed on 41 male and 13 female team sport (handball, volleyball and football) players. We used the VTS DT software package for cognitive abilities and the MDE Heidelberg StressHolter (gastro, HR, TH, GSR) for stress measurement. During the 35-minute measurement process, a state of rest was measured in the first stage, a response to a 10-minute stress situation (VTS-DT for the cognitive test) in the second stage, and a state of rest and latency in the third stage.

Results: We found a significant relationship between stress tolerance and the cognitive ability of female and male participants. Our results demonstrated that football players had a lower level of  stress tolerance than other team sport players. They also tent to make more mistakes in the VTS-DT test.

Conclusions: The classification into novice and experienced categories need to be done more uniformly in the future. We are aware of it, that the unequal number of participants by sports, is one of the limitations of our study. However, it is encouraging that significant results demonstrate a strong relationship between stress tolerance and the number of appropriate decisions. These results reveal other areas of research for us.

 

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OFFICIALS DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN OPEN SKILL SPORTS, A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

In the ever-accelerating world of sports, decisions are playing a more critical role. The coaches' decisions determine the outcome of the match. The study aimed to review what factors determine the decisions of sports officials in different sports. Today, many former players choose to stay in the sport and continue their activities as coaches. Nonetheless, there is no unified system for determining the experience of coaches. Various factors influence sports officials in their decisions. These can be both external and internal factors. Take the First heuristic leads to more consistent and better decisions. In terms of coaches and referees, the most studied and examined sport is football. Research in other sports appears in minimal numbers.

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INVESTIGATION OF THE MOTIVATION OF THE SUPPORTERS IN SOCCER MATCHES IN THE EXAMPLE OF DEAC

In this study, We’ve been examining the motivation of the fans of the Debreceni Egyetemi Atlétikai Club. We chose the questionnaire as a research method in which We used the SPEED-H scale developed by Kajos et al. (2017). We sent the questionnaire online to the target group by the snowball method, the sample was 40 people, mainly students, workers, and teachers of the University of Debrecen. The majority of the repliers are visiting DEAC matches for 2-10 years. It turned out that the reason for their first visit was the love for the sport and the effect of their friends. According to the SPEED-H scale, the main motivation for the repliers to visit was the excitement and beauty of the game.

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EXAMINING THE KNOWLEDGE OF FUTURE SPORTS PROFESSIONALS IN CONNECTION WITH WATER RESCUE AND LIFE-SAVING

Water drowning is a problem affecting the total population of the Earth. Drowning is a leading cause of death (one of every three deaths). On the planet, a man, a woman or a child drops into the water every two minutes. Every year, 4 million people worldwide are in danger of drowning, either in freshwater lakes or in the sea. Almost 10% of them do not survive the dive, so they die as a result of suffocation. More than half of those drowned in water are children or juveniles. Sports professionals, especially PE teachers, have a prominent role in preventing water accidents, so it is essential to be aware of life-saving and water-saving. The question arises as to what kind of knowledge these experts have on the subject and how they could stand up if it were wrong. The purpose of our research is to reveal the knowledge gaps and fears of students that prevent them from starting a rescue process. In our survey, we chose the questionnaire method, 147 students with PE or sports major participated. The results showed that a significant proportion, 64% of the students did not even see the resuscitation process. Most of them, 90%, did not resume the resuscitation experiment, 88% of them had not yet helped resuscitation. Most of them have no rescue practice, and their knowledge is incomplete for rescue and first aid.

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THE EFFECT OF PROPRIOCEPTIVE TRAINING ON CORE MUSCLES STRENGTH AND SINGLE LEG BALANCING ABILITY IN YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS

 

Core stability and the ability to balance have both a critical role in today’s modern soccer. Majority of injuries originated from the weakness and inefficient strength of core musculature and the kinetic chain. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of a three month proprioceptive training programme on core stability and the ability to balance. We hypothesized that both of the skills might improve by the end of the 12-week exercise program. We set up a group involving 15 players, who regularly participated in a weekly 40 minutes special proprioceptive training routine. The control group hasn’t attended any additional strengthening workout session. The youngsters executed a fitball balancing task, in a seated position, and the so-called Stork-test.  Before the 3-month exercise program, we implemented a pre-, at the end of the program a post-test. According to our results, we may conclude that we had measured a significant difference only in the Fitball-test when players executed the single leg balancing test (Stork-test), we haven’t observed any significant difference.

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AN ANALYSIS OF NUTRITIONAL HABITS AMONG YOUNG HUNGARIAN ADOLESCENTS

In Hungary, malnutrition within the unhealthy lifestyle is one of the main reasons for the high morbidity and mortality rate. In most cases, these attitudes develop in childhood; that is why it is important to feed children properly and educate them to lead a healthy lifestyle. The quantity and quality of meals also affect growth, development, and future health. Improper eating habits play a significant role in developing cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and many cancers. Our goal is to explore the areas where students are most accessible, and prevention programs could reduce the proportion of obese youth, and at the same time, obese adults in the future.

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EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DANCE AND COGNITIVE SKILLS DANCE AND DEMENTIA

Introduction: The study of dance and cognitive abilities is a common research topic today, as well as many studies and articles on the aspects of physical activity and cognitive relationships. Studying the topic is essential, as the two components actively influence our performance and quality of life, regardless of gender, age, or education

Objective: To examine the effect of dancing activities has a beneficial effect on motor and cognitive abilities. Furthermore, to investigate the interaction of dance and dementia. Researching exercise programs that do not worsen or accelerate the processes associated with aging, but help to stagnate dementia at that time.

Method: For analysis, we used an overview of English and Hungarian studies focusing on dance and dementia from Google Scholar and Research Gate.

Results: According to most research articles, various dance therapies have an impact on cognitive abilities, and studies have shown that dancing exercise programs (either in pairs or solo) do not impair the health of people with dementia. Many studies do not provide accurate test data, which would be extremely important as further research is conducted.

Conclusions: First, there is a significant relationship between cognitive function and physical activity. On the other hand, there are no specific procedures, exercise programs, or measurement methods that can improve dementia.

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THE ROLE OF DANCE AND MOVEMENT THERAPIES IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

A popular research topic these days is the relationship between health and physical activity. Countless health maintenance programs help an individual to achieve the benefits provided by physical activity. Numerous articles describe the benefits the physical activity. Still, the effect of dance and movement therapies on stress management for children, young adults, middle-aged, and elderly are less likely investigated.

We used English and Hungarian studies to analyze the relationship between stress, dance, and movement therapies for the systematic review. We used PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and Research Gate databases.

One of the major problems today is the stress of everyday life. Untreated pressure may be destructive to health. Thus, it is reported that incorporating dance as physical activity may trigger positive changes in the field of regaining the state of equilibrium (homeostasis). Related studies demonstrated that dance programs (either alone, in pairs, or groups) might help manage stress and the processing of stress responses.

Conclusions: Physical activity may effectively help in the management and processing of stress. While dancing, the individual may step out of one’s comfort zone, activating many coordination abilities and cognitive functions. Taking advantage of the positive effects of movement and music. Dancing may positively affect anxiety, depression, and isolation disorders. After all, dance may bring about many positive changes in the body and the brain. The individual may feel happier and balanced. The overall quality of life significantly improves. 

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EFFECT OF ELDERLY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON THEIR COGNITIVE SKILLS DANCE AND DEMENTIA

For the analysis, we used a review of English and Hungarian theories and systematic studies focusing on aging activity, dementia, successful aging, movement therapies, and its effects from the PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Research Gate databases.

Results: Today, a significant problem is a decline in aging's cognitive abilities and untreated nature. Thus, many studies report that positive change in life quality can be achieved through physical activity. Studies show that dance exercise programs (either in pairs or solos) do not impair patients' health with dementia.

Conclusions: Physical activity positively affects the decline of cognitive functions; indeed, it does not impair brain function activation during aging. For the elderly with dementia and its variants, music and dance therapy have beneficial consequences, especially memory and reaction speed. Regular physical activity enhances physical and psychological well-being, resulting in an improved quality of life. 

 

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THE ANALYTICAL TOOLS OF DEMENTIA, THE RELATIONSIP BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY – A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Introduction: Dementia has now grown to become a "folk disease", making it a very important area of ​​research. After reviewing several studies, it is also accepted that regular physical activity (MAKRA - BALOGH, 2018) (DONKA - BALOGH, 2018) tends to have a positive effect on cognitive abilities and neurodegenerative disorders rather than neutrally or negatively. Because this disease involves a decline in cognitive abilities, it is imperative that special attention be given to improving the number of years of life and the quality of treatment.Objective: We would like to get a comprehensive picture of the methods and tools used to measure dementia.Method: Reviewing and summarizing the related articles in the literature according to the criteria we have defined (type of measurement, relation of measurement methods, number of measurements). Review.Results: In our research, we found many measuring tools that are suitable for measuring and testing dementia. Most measurements are made using two or more measuring devices combined to provide more accurate and complex results for dementia. It can also be stated that more practical forms of measurement are used today, and in this topic, paper-pencil tests are only used as accompanying measurements, as a confirmation in most studies.Conclusions: There are many measuring tools available for testing dementia. We have to choose the one that suits us best. 

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NEW POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS FOR MENTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

 

The Hungarian Educational System, the Higher Education also Teacher Education have been constantly changing over the past decades. According to the results of international and domestic examinations, there is an increasing need for new standards and approaches,  in the entire Public Education, especially Teacher Education sector.

The purpose of our study was to examine the key aspects of the mentoring process in physical education. We were trying to identify those special factors and identify new trends in the area of physical education. What is the role of these factors in the process of professional development of a teacher.

 

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Introduction: Many studies have already shown that, there is connection between physical actitity and cognitive functions. Therefore, the aim of our research is to examine the relationship between cognitive decline (dementia) and physical activity.

Method: The research genre was a secondary method analysis. The literature review was primarily collected from articles published on international scientific sites.

Results: A total of 11 reviews were examined, examining the relationship between dementia and physical activity, which included 217 articles. Research has supported our hypothesis, that regular exercise has a positive effect on the prevention of dementia by reducing the risk of dementia.

Conclusion: It would be worthwhile to further investigate, which types of exercise at what repetition rate and what intensity achieve the best results in reducing the risk of dementia, or slowing the process of dementia.

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SELECTION AND TALENT MANAGEMENT IN THE SOCCER ACADEMY OF DEBRECEN, HUNGARY

The aim of this study is to deal with the survey of the selection and the system of talent management through the example of the Debrecen Soccer Academy. In connection with this topic we analyzed international and Hungarian articles, in addition we examined the structure, operation and role of the youth age players. It is not an easy task to recognise the talent of the players. The selection of talented sportsman is a very complex process during which you must consider many aspects such as human biological characteristics, physiological and sociological factors. Psychological and cognitive factors are also decisive. Several studies prove that being successful as an adult can be predicted at a young age.

 

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PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS MONITORING USING INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE METHODS IN ATHLETES

Introduction: The quality of performance is essential both in everyday life and in competition. In sports science (also), we have to think of the man in a complex way as a bio-psycho-social unit. In addition to changes in ECG HR and blood cortisol levels, gastrointestinal tract movements are also associated with stress management (FUKUNAGA et al., 2000) (VIANNA - TRANEL, 2006), which plays a crucial role in determining the quality of performance. Several preclinical trials have formed the basis of our research (SZŰCS et al., 2018).

Objective: Based on our earlier research and literature reviews, we would like to test and participate in validating a new method that can monitor the effects of stress on humans in real-time, in a non-invasive way, with quantitative results. In addition to GI monitoring, cortisol levels are measured invasively in the subjects, so we hope to obtain complex results.

Methods: n = 13, athletes, male = 11, female = 2, mean age 22 +/- 1,031 years. Our protocol was 115 minutes, in which we distinguished four stages (rest, stress, latency 1, latency 2). We use two methods to measure stress. One is the blood cortisol level (ELISA), and the other is the MDE Heidelberg Stress Holter (EGG), which is an innovative measurement tool capable of simultaneously examining several parameters (Small Intestine, Colon, Stomach, ECG HR). The VTS DT package was used as a stressor.

Result: Based on the complex results of the EGG, we can conclude that the Small Intestine, Colon, and Stomach motility, as assessed by the Power Spectrum (PS) Fold Change (FC) calculation, increased together under stress, and then latency decreased together over time. However, the rate of change in cortisol levels showed that most participants adapted the stressor as eustress so that its value decreased linearly.

Conclusions: Innovative measurement and evaluation methods are well utilized, as they can communicate many measurement data in a valid, real-time, non-invasive way, with a parallel display. These data and results will be used in athlete selection, mental training, elite sports, neuro-biofeedback, and health preservation.

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EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE ON IMMUNE FUNCTIONS

Physical activity and exercise are especially important in maintaining health and reducing risk of many diseases. Exercise leads to a pronounced immunomodulation by affecting the elements of innate immune system, as well as the ratio and functions of neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, which are involved in the development, maintenance and elimination of inflammation. In the adaptive immune system, Th1 / Th2 balance shift toward Th2, and high-intensity training causes an increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells, as opposed to the effect of non-strenuous exercise on the Treg cell ratio. In response to exercise, there is a lack of data on B cells, but some studies have reported a decrease in immunoglobulin secretion. In our own research we observed changes in naive and memory B cell ratios. Upon exercise, IL-6, as proinflammatory cytokine, promotes T cell proliferation, activation, and differentiation of B cells into antibody-producing plasma cells. Hormonal factors play an important role in the background of immunological changes. Exercise stimulates the secretion of both adrenaline and noradrenalin, and their concentration in the blood is directly proportional to the duration of exercise. Endurance exercise is associated with increased cortisol levels, while low intensity exercise does not significantly affect cortisol levels. Exercise and physical stress can increase the concentration of endorphins by 3 to 10 times; β-endorphin inhibits T and B cell activity, thus reduces antibody production. Testosterone causes a reduction in antibodies to IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, Ig-M and Ig-G. Based on the above, mild to moderate physical activity contributes to the enhancement of immune reactivity and the immune response. On the other hand, strenuous exercise with increased intensity leads to a deterioration of immune function and impaired immunological defense.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DECISION-MAKING AND GAME INTELLIGENCE WITH BASKETBALL STATISTICS

Introduction: basketball is one of the most popular teams sports worldwide. It is generally regarded as the second most popular sport globally, with around 450 million registered players (RÁTGÉBER et al., 2019). The attention, decision-making, interaction with the participants, and recovery of a basketball player are complex. It can be influenced by internal and external factors as well as by different stimuli. The current mental and physical state of athletes affects their performance. Experience, reception and adaptation of developmental stimuli determine performance during the game. Cognitive abilities, executive functions, and inhibition are all psychological processes that can help or hinder concentration. It is essential to assess and measure to enhance sports performance and provide objective support for our subjective assumptions. Many technical and tactical elements characterize basketball, but it is also essential to have relevant motor and affective skills when making decisions. Players need to adapt to sudden and varied stimuli and make the most intelligent and appropriate decision to achieve a positive outcome. Live statistics may indicate the effectiveness of decision-making during the game. In the present study, we analyzed the results of the Color-Word Interference Test and Trail Making Test prior to and after the games.

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EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND COGNITIVE SKILLS

Introduction: Examining physical activity and cognitive function has become a popular topic of research since the quality of these two components influences our quality of life and performance. It is very important for both sexes, all ages and life situations.

Objective: Determining a type of physical activity (PA) that has an effect on both cognitive functions (CF) and motor skills and performance. Clarifying or promoting measurement methods, or developing new methods that meet current standards and objectives. The results may be used to help to impove performance in all areas.

Method: Primary purpose of our study was to conduct a review, in order to summarize the relevant literature on the following topics: sex, age, fitness level, possible illness.

Conclusions: We found a significant relationship between cognitive functions and physical activity, which can be transposition in a proper way, both in terms of living standards and performance. On the other hand, there are a lack of uniform, accurate measurement methods. Thhere is a need for specific physical activity routines that specifically improve the level of cognitive function, even at an older age.

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WITH THE APPEARANCE OF COVID-19 THE DETERMINATION OF THE „FINISHED” ICE HOCKEY CHAMPIONSHIPS’ FINAL RESULTS – FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF THE THEORIES OF JUSTICE

COVID-19 has long-term effects – solving (or trying to solve) these primary social problems attention can also be focused on sport as a social subsystem. The study examines the competitive sport, including the final results of championships in ice hockey. Most championships were going on when the COVID-19 pandemic broke out. As a result, the most of the championships were suspended – which were either continued after the restrictions, or ended the season. What about the ice hockey tournaments, where the season ended prematurely? In this case, was the final result determined as well? If so, on what basis? At determining the final results, the organizers tried to make the most just decision. However, on what basis is it just to determine the final results of these championships? The study examines several theories of justice which play a (key) role in determining the final result of ice hockey in different championships. The study confirms this theory in several case examples: the organizers (league association) really made a just decision. The only, but the most important question is: which theory of justice was (or theories of justice were) dominated in determining the final results? In each case examined, the principle of meritocracy appeared (at some level). In accordance to the nature (telos) of the competitive sports, at determining of the final results the idea of meritocracy dominated. However, there is also a difference within meritocracy: between the timeliness and actuality of the reached results. In addition to the achievements on the sports field, the egalitarianism has also appeared in many cases, as another theory of justice – as well as the utilitarianism (by Bentham and Mill).

 

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