Introduction: Dementia has now grown to become a "folk disease", making it a very important area of research. After reviewing several studies, it is also accepted that regular physical activity (MAKRA - BALOGH, 2018) (DONKA - BALOGH, 2018) tends to have a positive effect on cognitive abilities and neurodegenerative disorders rather th...an neutrally or negatively. Because this disease involves a decline in cognitive abilities, it is imperative that special attention be given to improving the number of years of life and the quality of treatment.Objective: We would like to get a comprehensive picture of the methods and tools used to measure dementia.Method: Reviewing and summarizing the related articles in the literature according to the criteria we have defined (type of measurement, relation of measurement methods, number of measurements). Review.Results: In our research, we found many measuring tools that are suitable for measuring and testing dementia. Most measurements are made using two or more measuring devices combined to provide more accurate and complex results for dementia. It can also be stated that more practical forms of measurement are used today, and in this topic, paper-pencil tests are only used as accompanying measurements, as a confirmation in most studies.Conclusions: There are many measuring tools available for testing dementia. We have to choose the one that suits us best.
Introduction: Effects of physical activity on immune functions may largely depend on the type of activity, its intensity and duration. However, little information is available regarding the immunological effects of sporting activities in older ages.
The aim of our study was to examine the changes in a wide spectrum of lymp...hocyte subtypes after a period of regular workout among healthy women of different ages.
Methods: In our study, we enrolled 16 elderly women (between ages of 60-75 years) formerly not engaged in regular physical activity, who took part in lightweight conditioning gymnastic exercise program. Eight young athletes and 26 young adults with sedentary lifestyle served as controls. The percentages of peripheral NK, NKT cells, T and B lymphocyte subtypes were determined by flow cytometry based on the staining of extracellular markers and intracellular cytokines.
Results: Lymphocyte subgroups did not differ between the groups of young athletes and young adults with sedentary lifestyle. However, in elderly women, levels of NKT cells were lower, while ratios of T helper / T cytotoxic cells were higher compared to younger individuals. At the end of exercise program, in elderly women, percentages of naive B cells decreased, while levels of switched-memory B cells increased. Furthermore, proportions of Th2 cells increased, while levels of immunosuppressive CD4+CD127-CD25bright Treg cells decreased as the result of regular exercise.
Conclusion: Differences observed after lightweight exercise programs reflect a presumably enhanced immunoreactivity and increased ability for immune responses in older ages.
Introduction: Examining physical activity and cognitive function has become a popular topic of research since the quality of these two components influences our quality of life and performance. It is very important for both sexes, all ages and life situations.
Objective: Determining a type of physical activity (PA) that has... an effect on both cognitive functions (CF) and motor skills and performance. Clarifying or promoting measurement methods, or developing new methods that meet current standards and objectives. The results may be used to help to impove performance in all areas.
Method: Primary purpose of our study was to conduct a review, in order to summarize the relevant literature on the following topics: sex, age, fitness level, possible illness.
Conclusions: We found a significant relationship between cognitive functions and physical activity, which can be transposition in a proper way, both in terms of living standards and performance. On the other hand, there are a lack of uniform, accurate measurement methods. Thhere is a need for specific physical activity routines that specifically improve the level of cognitive function, even at an older age.