THE ANALYTICAL TOOLS OF DEMENTIA, THE RELATIONSIP BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY – A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: SYSTEMATIC REVIEWViews:639
Introduction: Dementia has now grown to become a "folk disease", making it a very important area of research. After reviewing several studies, it is also accepted that regular physical activity (MAKRA - BALOGH, 2018) (DONKA - BALOGH, 2018) tends to have a positive effect on cognitive abilities and neurodegenerative disorders rather than neutrally or negatively. Because this disease involves a decline in cognitive abilities, it is imperative that special attention be given to improving the number of years of life and the quality of treatment.Objective: We would like to get a comprehensive picture of the methods and tools used to measure dementia.Method: Reviewing and summarizing the related articles in the literature according to the criteria we have defined (type of measurement, relation of measurement methods, number of measurements). Review.Results: In our research, we found many measuring tools that are suitable for measuring and testing dementia. Most measurements are made using two or more measuring devices combined to provide more accurate and complex results for dementia. It can also be stated that more practical forms of measurement are used today, and in this topic, paper-pencil tests are only used as accompanying measurements, as a confirmation in most studies.Conclusions: There are many measuring tools available for testing dementia. We have to choose the one that suits us best.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTAL TOUGHNESS AND FREE THROW AMONG ELITE YOUTH BASKETBALL PLAYERSViews:196
In our research, we compared the effectiveness of the penalty throw, one of the game's main elements that determine the effectiveness of basketball, with the level of mental toughness. In basketball, a penalty throw is a technical element that requires the most concentration in addition to the correct execution. The effectiveness of a penalty throw may be a decisive factor in a game. We assume that a skilled penalty thrower has a high degree of mental toughness since the main criteria are the motivation for success and maintaining appropriate self-confidence, even despite occasional failures. Our goal is to find any relationship between the two variables, thus helping the preparation of coaches and athletes.
EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND COGNITIVE SKILLSViews:737
Introduction: Examining physical activity and cognitive function has become a popular topic of research since the quality of these two components influences our quality of life and performance. It is very important for both sexes, all ages and life situations.
Objective: Determining a type of physical activity (PA) that has an effect on both cognitive functions (CF) and motor skills and performance. Clarifying or promoting measurement methods, or developing new methods that meet current standards and objectives. The results may be used to help to impove performance in all areas.
Method: Primary purpose of our study was to conduct a review, in order to summarize the relevant literature on the following topics: sex, age, fitness level, possible illness.
Conclusions: We found a significant relationship between cognitive functions and physical activity, which can be transposition in a proper way, both in terms of living standards and performance. On the other hand, there are a lack of uniform, accurate measurement methods. Thhere is a need for specific physical activity routines that specifically improve the level of cognitive function, even at an older age.
EFFECTS OF CORE-PROPRIOCEPTIVE TRAINING ON THE QUALITY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS IN U13 FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERSViews:290
Introduction: Complex scientific work to investigate and develop the factors determining performance is essential to improving sports performance. Creating the neuro-muscular connection is paramount, as it is the cornerstone of movement coordination, and the nervous system is the key to mental components.
Objective: Our study aims to demonstrate the positive effects of core-proprioceptive training on executive functions.
Method: The DEAC U13 girls' academy basketball players (n=12) participated in a 9-week core-proprioceptive training program. Before and after the program, the players' executive functions were measured with the Vienna Test System.
Result: A marked improvement in the measured parameters regarding the evolution of correct and incorrect responses and the reaction time. There is a significant reduction in the number of missed responses.
Conclusions: Core-proprioceptive training also improved nerve-muscle connectivity, affecting the quality of executive functions. The results may be implemented in designing training program.
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS MONITORING USING INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE METHODS IN ATHLETESViews:330
Introduction: The quality of performance is essential both in everyday life and in competition. In sports science (also), we have to think of the man in a complex way as a bio-psycho-social unit. In addition to changes in ECG HR and blood cortisol levels, gastrointestinal tract movements are also associated with stress management (FUKUNAGA et al., 2000) (VIANNA - TRANEL, 2006), which plays a crucial role in determining the quality of performance. Several preclinical trials have formed the basis of our research (SZŰCS et al., 2018).
Objective: Based on our earlier research and literature reviews, we would like to test and participate in validating a new method that can monitor the effects of stress on humans in real-time, in a non-invasive way, with quantitative results. In addition to GI monitoring, cortisol levels are measured invasively in the subjects, so we hope to obtain complex results.
Methods: n = 13, athletes, male = 11, female = 2, mean age 22 +/- 1,031 years. Our protocol was 115 minutes, in which we distinguished four stages (rest, stress, latency 1, latency 2). We use two methods to measure stress. One is the blood cortisol level (ELISA), and the other is the MDE Heidelberg Stress Holter (EGG), which is an innovative measurement tool capable of simultaneously examining several parameters (Small Intestine, Colon, Stomach, ECG HR). The VTS DT package was used as a stressor.
Result: Based on the complex results of the EGG, we can conclude that the Small Intestine, Colon, and Stomach motility, as assessed by the Power Spectrum (PS) Fold Change (FC) calculation, increased together under stress, and then latency decreased together over time. However, the rate of change in cortisol levels showed that most participants adapted the stressor as eustress so that its value decreased linearly.
Conclusions: Innovative measurement and evaluation methods are well utilized, as they can communicate many measurement data in a valid, real-time, non-invasive way, with a parallel display. These data and results will be used in athlete selection, mental training, elite sports, neuro-biofeedback, and health preservation.
INVESTIGATION ON THE IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITYViews:551
Introduction: Effects of physical activity on immune functions may largely depend on the type of activity, its intensity and duration. However, little information is available regarding the immunological effects of sporting activities in older ages.
The aim of our study was to examine the changes in a wide spectrum of lymphocyte subtypes after a period of regular workout among healthy women of different ages.
Methods: In our study, we enrolled 16 elderly women (between ages of 60-75 years) formerly not engaged in regular physical activity, who took part in lightweight conditioning gymnastic exercise program. Eight young athletes and 26 young adults with sedentary lifestyle served as controls. The percentages of peripheral NK, NKT cells, T and B lymphocyte subtypes were determined by flow cytometry based on the staining of extracellular markers and intracellular cytokines.
Results: Lymphocyte subgroups did not differ between the groups of young athletes and young adults with sedentary lifestyle. However, in elderly women, levels of NKT cells were lower, while ratios of T helper / T cytotoxic cells were higher compared to younger individuals. At the end of exercise program, in elderly women, percentages of naive B cells decreased, while levels of switched-memory B cells increased. Furthermore, proportions of Th2 cells increased, while levels of immunosuppressive CD4+CD127-CD25bright Treg cells decreased as the result of regular exercise.
Conclusion: Differences observed after lightweight exercise programs reflect a presumably enhanced immunoreactivity and increased ability for immune responses in older ages.