Modern soccer is characterized by short distance multidirectional movements. Elite level players execute a large number of micromovements of all kinds. Like in handball game situations in soccer usually occur in small areas. We investigated, whether soccer players may be able to perform accelerations, decelerations, intense starting movemen...ts and turns at the same level as handball players. We utilized the Speed Court movement analysis system to prove our hypotheses. We measured youth athletes, they executed two testing protocols. High-quality speed, agility, spatial awareness, and decision-making capabilities were required by the participants. We designed two protocols called the “60-meter chase”, and the “30-second chase” to mimic the situations tend to occur in a game. Each participant was asked to perform the test protocols three-times, we registered the best try, after 12 weeks of practice, the athletes repeatedly executed the two protocols. We also performed a body composition analysis, which demonstrated similar data for the two groups. We concluded that soccer players were able to perform at the same level as handball players, some of them even outperformed their counterparts.
Introduction: Cognitive skills are essential in team sports. Perception, decision-making (tactical thinking, learning, attention, thinking, emotions), stress tolerance, and even the level of motor and technical-tactical skills all affect performance.
Objective: We found a significant difference in stress tolerance of novic...e / young and experienced team sport players (BALOGH, DONKA 2020). Our results showed that experienced athletes have higher level of stress tolerance. However, as this was a descriptive study, we intended to support our statement involving more number of subjects, and an analysis of cognitive abilities.
Method: A cross-sectional experimental study was performed on 41 male and 13 female team sport (handball, volleyball and football) players. We used the VTS DT software package for cognitive abilities and the MDE Heidelberg StressHolter (gastro, HR, TH, GSR) for stress measurement. During the 35-minute measurement process, a state of rest was measured in the first stage, a response to a 10-minute stress situation (VTS-DT for the cognitive test) in the second stage, and a state of rest and latency in the third stage.
Results: We found a significant relationship between stress tolerance and the cognitive ability of female and male participants. Our results demonstrated that football players had a lower level of stress tolerance than other team sport players. They also tent to make more mistakes in the VTS-DT test.
Conclusions: The classification into novice and experienced categories need to be done more uniformly in the future. We are aware of it, that the unequal number of participants by sports, is one of the limitations of our study. However, it is encouraging that significant results demonstrate a strong relationship between stress tolerance and the number of appropriate decisions. These results reveal other areas of research for us.
Although beach soccer has become increasingly popular in recent years an only a minimal number of scientific research has been conducted in this area. The beach soccer is characterized by high intensity (HR max above 90 %) intermittent movements, which primarily requires the involvement of the anaerobic metabolic system. The objective of this s...tudy was: (i) to analyze the incidence of goals in the Hungarian Beach Soccer Championship in relation to the periods of the game that tend to occur; (ii) to identify the team that scored the first goal of the game, analyzing the influence of this event on the final result (iii) to identify and quantify the periods of the match won by the winner team. We examined all the goals (n = 1.065) in the Hungarian Championship (2016-2017) of beach soccer. We found that nearly 38 percent of goals are scored in the last period of the matches, the team that scores the first goal of the game features an average 74.44 percent probability of winning. We observed, that almost 24 percent of the teams, which achieved overall success also earned the 1st and 3rd periods. Thus, it is suggested that the higher incidence of goals in the 3rd period of the matches is associated mainly with the interaction of physical and psychological factors. Regarding the influence of the first goal on the final result, we assumed that the psychological factor appears to interfere with greater relevance.
Purpose: We wanted to assess the values of expected night-time and day-time variability of the heart rate, in the presence of dyspnea episodes during night-time, recorded by a Holter monitor.
Objective: Our aim was to investigate whether nocturnal breathing disorders affect the HRV indexes.
Method...s: 40 patients participated in our survey. 20 of them experienced episodes of night-time breathing difficulty, and the control group consisted of 20 participants in whose case there were no episodes of night-time breathing difficulty. We were examining the domains of time and frequency of heart rate variability, using day-time and night-time values recorded by a 24-hour Schiller Medilog Holter monitor. We evaluated the distribution of the parameters with a continuous codomain, their typical distribution and expected values on histograms, and summarized them in a table. For the examination of the difference in averages the Two-Sample T- Test was used, where p<0.05.
Results: The vegetative equilibrium ratio and the standard deviation of the R-R intervals showed a significant difference between the apnea patients and the healthy group at night. Examining the severity of apnea, we didn't find significant difference between the two groups in the mean of the time and frequency indices, however, a decrease in the values of the apnea group was observed compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Night differences in the vegetative equilibrium rate and time parameters of the apnea patients and the control group, as well as differences in the HRV index recorded by the change in the severity of the disease, draw attention to the importance of the HRV indicators with HOLTER monitors.
The physical fitness state of university students has deteriorated over the years. Relevant data is needed to investigate this tendency thoroughly. We conducted a longitudinal examination among university students in Debrecen, Hungary. At the first stage of our examinations, we examined sixty male and female participants to assess their phy...sical fitness status. They participated in four different activities (pilates, spinning, wellness-general fitness, body-shaping) once a week. Each exercise session lasted for 90 minutes. We conducted a pre-and post-exercise screening, which consisted of a Beep-test, push-up, and sit-up tests.
We hypothesized that the different types of activities might alter the exercise response. Aerobic performance, upper-body, and abdominal strength may differ depending on the type of exercise—international recommendations suggesting that 150 minutes of physical activity is necessary for physical fitness benefits. Our results demonstrated that 90 minutes of exercise might significantly improve inactive young adults' physical fitness state once a week.
Increasing athlete performance is an eternal challenge in the world of sports. The success of the training work performed can be checked by performance diagnostics. Proper brain processing is essential for skill learning and the implementation of effective motor performance. It was important for brain mapping technology to improve the capabilit...ies of imaging devices in order to measure cognitive-motor performance in the field. The primary purpose of this review was to summarize the frequency of applications of EEG and its associated neurofeedback in sport. Examine the differences and characteristics of protocols. Assess whether there is this uniform, standardized protocol for each sport and how often it is used among both elite and amateur athletes. Electroencephalography was initially used most in sports in which the stable setting was followed by only minimal movement. These include sport shooting, archery and golf and baseball. Later, it was possible to analyze more complex movements with EEG, such as cycling. One of the most commonly used techniques is neurofeedback training, but despite some research on the topic, the arena of neurotechnology in sports psychology still exists in its rudimentary form and is constrained by a plethora of technological problems.
Introduction: The study of dance and cognitive abilities is a common research topic today, as well as many studies and articles on the aspects of physical activity and cognitive relationships. Studying the topic is essential, as the two components actively influence our performance and quality of life, regardless of gender, age, or... education
Objective: To examine the effect of dancing activities has a beneficial effect on motor and cognitive abilities. Furthermore, to investigate the interaction of dance and dementia. Researching exercise programs that do not worsen or accelerate the processes associated with aging, but help to stagnate dementia at that time.
Method: For analysis, we used an overview of English and Hungarian studies focusing on dance and dementia from Google Scholar and Research Gate.
Results: According to most research articles, various dance therapies have an impact on cognitive abilities, and studies have shown that dancing exercise programs (either in pairs or solo) do not impair the health of people with dementia. Many studies do not provide accurate test data, which would be extremely important as further research is conducted.
Conclusions: First, there is a significant relationship between cognitive function and physical activity. On the other hand, there are no specific procedures, exercise programs, or measurement methods that can improve dementia.
For the analysis, we used a review of English and Hungarian theories and systematic studies focusing on aging activity, dementia, successful aging, movement therapies, and its effects from the PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Research Gate databases.
Results: Today, a significant problem is a decline in aging's... cognitive abilities and untreated nature. Thus, many studies report that positive change in life quality can be achieved through physical activity. Studies show that dance exercise programs (either in pairs or solos) do not impair patients' health with dementia.
Conclusions: Physical activity positively affects the decline of cognitive functions; indeed, it does not impair brain function activation during aging. For the elderly with dementia and its variants, music and dance therapy have beneficial consequences, especially memory and reaction speed. Regular physical activity enhances physical and psychological well-being, resulting in an improved quality of life.
Introduction: The quality of performance is essential both in everyday life and in competition. In sports science (also), we have to think of the man in a complex way as a bio-psycho-social unit. In addition to changes in ECG HR and blood cortisol levels, gastrointestinal tract movements are also associated with stress management (FUKUNAGA...et al., 2000) (VIANNA - TRANEL, 2006), which plays a crucial role in determining the quality of performance. Several preclinical trials have formed the basis of our research (SZŰCS et al., 2018).
Objective: Based on our earlier research and literature reviews, we would like to test and participate in validating a new method that can monitor the effects of stress on humans in real-time, in a non-invasive way, with quantitative results. In addition to GI monitoring, cortisol levels are measured invasively in the subjects, so we hope to obtain complex results.
Methods: n = 13, athletes, male = 11, female = 2, mean age 22 +/- 1,031 years. Our protocol was 115 minutes, in which we distinguished four stages (rest, stress, latency 1, latency 2). We use two methods to measure stress. One is the blood cortisol level (ELISA), and the other is the MDE Heidelberg Stress Holter (EGG), which is an innovative measurement tool capable of simultaneously examining several parameters (Small Intestine, Colon, Stomach, ECG HR). The VTS DT package was used as a stressor.
Result: Based on the complex results of the EGG, we can conclude that the Small Intestine, Colon, and Stomach motility, as assessed by the Power Spectrum (PS) Fold Change (FC) calculation, increased together under stress, and then latency decreased together over time. However, the rate of change in cortisol levels showed that most participants adapted the stressor as eustress so that its value decreased linearly.
Conclusions: Innovative measurement and evaluation methods are well utilized, as they can communicate many measurement data in a valid, real-time, non-invasive way, with a parallel display. These data and results will be used in athlete selection, mental training, elite sports, neuro-biofeedback, and health preservation.
Introduction: Dementia has now grown to become a "folk disease", making it a very important area of research. After reviewing several studies, it is also accepted that regular physical activity (MAKRA - BALOGH, 2018) (DONKA - BALOGH, 2018) tends to have a positive effect on cognitive abilities and neurodegenerative disorders rather th...an neutrally or negatively. Because this disease involves a decline in cognitive abilities, it is imperative that special attention be given to improving the number of years of life and the quality of treatment.Objective: We would like to get a comprehensive picture of the methods and tools used to measure dementia.Method: Reviewing and summarizing the related articles in the literature according to the criteria we have defined (type of measurement, relation of measurement methods, number of measurements). Review.Results: In our research, we found many measuring tools that are suitable for measuring and testing dementia. Most measurements are made using two or more measuring devices combined to provide more accurate and complex results for dementia. It can also be stated that more practical forms of measurement are used today, and in this topic, paper-pencil tests are only used as accompanying measurements, as a confirmation in most studies.Conclusions: There are many measuring tools available for testing dementia. We have to choose the one that suits us best.
Introduction: Complex scientific work to investigate and develop the factors determining performance is essential to improving sports performance. Creating the neuro-muscular connection is paramount, as it is the cornerstone of movement coordination, and the nervous system is the key to mental components.
Objective: Our stu...dy aims to demonstrate the positive effects of core-proprioceptive training on executive functions.
Method: The DEAC U13 girls' academy basketball players (n=12) participated in a 9-week core-proprioceptive training program. Before and after the program, the players' executive functions were measured with the Vienna Test System.
Result: A marked improvement in the measured parameters regarding the evolution of correct and incorrect responses and the reaction time. There is a significant reduction in the number of missed responses.
Conclusions: Core-proprioceptive training also improved nerve-muscle connectivity, affecting the quality of executive functions. The results may be implemented in designing training program.
In the ever-accelerating world of sports, decisions are playing a more critical role. The coaches' decisions determine the outcome of the match. The study aimed to review what factors determine the decisions of sports officials in different sports. Today, many former players choose to stay in the sport and continue their activities as coach...es. Nonetheless, there is no unified system for determining the experience of coaches. Various factors influence sports officials in their decisions. These can be both external and internal factors. Take the First heuristic leads to more consistent and better decisions. In terms of coaches and referees, the most studied and examined sport is football. Research in other sports appears in minimal numbers.
Introduction: basketball is one of the most popular teams sports worldwide. It is generally regarded as the second most popular sport globally, with around 450 million registered players (RÁTGÉBER et al., 2019). The attention, decision-making, interaction with the participants, and recovery of a basketball player are complex. It can be in...fluenced by internal and external factors as well as by different stimuli. The current mental and physical state of athletes affects their performance. Experience, reception and adaptation of developmental stimuli determine performance during the game. Cognitive abilities, executive functions, and inhibition are all psychological processes that can help or hinder concentration. It is essential to assess and measure to enhance sports performance and provide objective support for our subjective assumptions. Many technical and tactical elements characterize basketball, but it is also essential to have relevant motor and affective skills when making decisions. Players need to adapt to sudden and varied stimuli and make the most intelligent and appropriate decision to achieve a positive outcome. Live statistics may indicate the effectiveness of decision-making during the game. In the present study, we analyzed the results of the Color-Word Interference Test and Trail Making Test prior to and after the games.
Introduction: Many studies have already shown that, there is connection between physical actitity and cognitive functions. Therefore, the aim of our research is to examine the relationship between cognitive decline (dementia) and physical activity.
Method: The research genre was a secondary method analysis.... The literature review was primarily collected from articles published on international scientific sites.
Results: A total of 11 reviews were examined, examining the relationship between dementia and physical activity, which included 217 articles. Research has supported our hypothesis, that regular exercise has a positive effect on the prevention of dementia by reducing the risk of dementia.
Conclusion: It would be worthwhile to further investigate, which types of exercise at what repetition rate and what intensity achieve the best results in reducing the risk of dementia, or slowing the process of dementia.
In our research, we compared the effectiveness of the penalty throw, one of the game's main elements that determine the effectiveness of basketball, with the level of mental toughness. In basketball, a penalty throw is a technical element that requires the most concentration in addition to the correc...t execution. The effectiveness of a penalty throw may be a decisive factor in a game. We assume that a skilled penalty thrower has a high degree of mental toughness since the main criteria are the motivation for success and maintaining appropriate self-confidence, even despite occasional failures. Our goal is to find any relationship between the two variables, thus helping the preparation of coaches and athletes.
Background: Our study aimed to analyze body composition and spiroergometric data of young (14-15 years) elite level ball sport players. We suggested three-ball sports (handball, soccer, and basketball) share common performance indicators, as rapid intermittent movements primarily characterize each ball sport.
Methods: We s...elected one-hundred and ten, handball (n=30), basketball (n=40), and soccer (n=40) players male and female from local clubs in Hungary. Seventy-nine males and thirty-one females participated in our study; their average age was 14.51 and 14.56, respectively.
They participated in laboratory testing; the protocol included a body composition analysis and spiroergometric tests. We measured body composition and physiological parameters utilizing an In Body 720 device and a standard Bruce treadmill protocol. Although we were aware of the Bruce protocol limitations in elite athletes, we choose this protocol as a safer alternative for younger inexperienced athletes.
Results and conclusions: We concluded that in young male soccer and basketball players, mean peak /load (W), peak/VE (l), peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), peak/VCO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml) data is a reliable indicator of the sport-specific performance. We may also suggest that in our male basketball and handball players' population, peak/Vtex (l) is the only variable, which is significantly different. Between groups of male handball and soccer players, peak/VO2/kg (ml/min) may be a valid performance indicator. Among female basketball and handball players, we found a significant difference in three performance variables: peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml).
A popular research topic these days is the relationship between health and physical activity. Countless health maintenance programs help an individual to achieve the benefits provided by physical activity. Numerous articles describe the benefits th...e physical activity. Still, the effect of dance and movement therapies on stress management for children, young adults, middle-aged, and elderly are less likely investigated.
We used English and Hungarian studies to analyze the relationship between stress, dance, and movement therapies for the systematic review. We used PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and Research Gate databases.
One of the major problems today is the stress of everyday life. Untreated pressure may be destructive to health. Thus, it is reported that incorporating dance as physical activity may trigger positive changes in the field of regaining the state of equilibrium (homeostasis). Related studies demonstrated that dance programs (either alone, in pairs, or groups) might help manage stress and the processing of stress responses.
Conclusions: Physical activity may effectively help in the management and processing of stress. While dancing, the individual may step out of one’s comfort zone, activating many coordination abilities and cognitive functions. Taking advantage of the positive effects of movement and music. Dancing may positively affect anxiety, depression, and isolation disorders. After all, dance may bring about many positive changes in the body and the brain. The individual may feel happier and balanced. The overall quality of life significantly improves.
Introduction: Effects of physical activity on immune functions may largely depend on the type of activity, its intensity and duration. However, little information is available regarding the immunological effects of sporting activities in older ages.
The aim of our study was to examine the changes in a wide spectrum of lymp...hocyte subtypes after a period of regular workout among healthy women of different ages.
Methods: In our study, we enrolled 16 elderly women (between ages of 60-75 years) formerly not engaged in regular physical activity, who took part in lightweight conditioning gymnastic exercise program. Eight young athletes and 26 young adults with sedentary lifestyle served as controls. The percentages of peripheral NK, NKT cells, T and B lymphocyte subtypes were determined by flow cytometry based on the staining of extracellular markers and intracellular cytokines.
Results: Lymphocyte subgroups did not differ between the groups of young athletes and young adults with sedentary lifestyle. However, in elderly women, levels of NKT cells were lower, while ratios of T helper / T cytotoxic cells were higher compared to younger individuals. At the end of exercise program, in elderly women, percentages of naive B cells decreased, while levels of switched-memory B cells increased. Furthermore, proportions of Th2 cells increased, while levels of immunosuppressive CD4+CD127-CD25bright Treg cells decreased as the result of regular exercise.
Conclusion: Differences observed after lightweight exercise programs reflect a presumably enhanced immunoreactivity and increased ability for immune responses in older ages.
Assessing athletes' capabilities has never been as widespread as it is nowadays. Several methods have evolved and developed in recent decades to measure physical or mental skills accurately. However, these assessment protocols became more and more specific. They focused on a certain attribute, as if we forget that athletes' game performance... is not equal to the total of different skills. Since psychomotor skills interact during games, test protocols should be similar and measured comprehensively. Two groups of ball sport players, thirteen soccer players (n=13) and ten handball players (n=10), have been tested on the SpeedCourt training system to find a relationship between the results of two tests (Micromovement Test, MT) and traditional indicators, such as Heart Rate Recovery (HRR), Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat Percentage (BFP). Furthermore, the correlation in performances of the two groups has also been analyzed. We found no significant correlation between the two MT and HRR results (r=0,5132 and r=-0,5588). Similarly, there are significant correlation neither MT and BMI (r=-0.0886 and r=-0.0174) nor MT and BFP results (r=0.0872 and r=-0,2399). A significant difference cannot be found between the MT results of the two groups that indicate that MT applicable for both sports.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between optimal functioning zone, anxiety, stress, and athletic performance. We conducted a systematic review of the available scientific articles and publications. Related literature was analyzed, relevant, or helpful in understanding the psychological aspects of athletic performance. It discuss...es the method and validity of hypotheses and approaches that have already appeared scientifically. We examined multidimensional approaches, which discuss the suitability and implications of some recent and more complex models of stress and performance. We may conclude that the relationship between stress and athletic performance is multidimensional. We also examined several factors, such as the interaction between the nature of the stressor, the cognitive needs of the task, and the individuals' psychological characteristics. Both physical and mental preparation is critical to successful sports performance. This way, the level of physical skills, mental preparedness significantly determine overall athletic performance. The article aims to provide a historical overview of the implementation, testing, and measurement of IZOF and other applied models.
Our study aimed to analyze mental toughness and its relationship to sports performance. We reviewed 38 qualitative and quantitative international studies. We performed an in-depth investigation on mental toughness; we also focused on how to improve mental toughness. We hypothesized a significant difference in both genders, suggesting that coach...es substantially impact mental toughness. We primarily concentrate on valid, real-time assessments and psychological training in elite sports athletes. Sport psychologists, mental trainers play an essential role in elite sports performance. Results of related studies demonstrated that these age and gender-specific mental training sessions are effective in improving performance. There is an increasing need for computer-based interactive testing methods to analyze cognitive and psychomotor skills under pressure.
Introduction: Examining physical activity and cognitive function has become a popular topic of research since the quality of these two components influences our quality of life and performance. It is very important for both sexes, all ages and life situations.
Objective: Determining a type of physical activity (PA) that has... an effect on both cognitive functions (CF) and motor skills and performance. Clarifying or promoting measurement methods, or developing new methods that meet current standards and objectives. The results may be used to help to impove performance in all areas.
Method: Primary purpose of our study was to conduct a review, in order to summarize the relevant literature on the following topics: sex, age, fitness level, possible illness.
Conclusions: We found a significant relationship between cognitive functions and physical activity, which can be transposition in a proper way, both in terms of living standards and performance. On the other hand, there are a lack of uniform, accurate measurement methods. Thhere is a need for specific physical activity routines that specifically improve the level of cognitive function, even at an older age.
Introduction: In our research, we investigated the components, executive functions, and cognitive abilities underlying decision-making in sports performance using a computer-based test system. To define the athlete experience, we classified athletes according to an exact, unambiguous definition following international terminology, based on...their performance, achievement, playing age, and sport's popularity. We hypothesize that team athlete with significant athletic experience will perform better on the executive function test.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on team athletes N=52. The VTS-DT test was used to measure executive function. The classification of athlete experience was based on an internationally accepted taxonomy defined with scientific precision (SWANNN, 2015).
Results: When classified by athlete experience, the athletes we studied fell into amateur and elite categories. The DT/S2 scores of the two groups were compared based on each factor. We obtained trend-like correlations for the factors 'number of reactions', 'number of stimulations,' and 'number of good responses. Correlation analysis was performed between the factors on a group-by-group basis. When examining the relationship between reaction time, we found that there is a strong relationship with the number of stimulations (amateurs: r = -0.80; elite athletes: r = -0.87) since the faster someone is (i.e., the less reaction time), the more times they can respond to stimulations. Looking at the results for elite athletes, we also observe a moderately strong relationship between reaction time and the number of good responses (r = -0.68). We may suggest that experienced athletes could produce better responses faster than less professional athletes.
Conclusions: Our hypotheses were partially confirmed, as we found a trend-like correlation that elite athletes scored higher on the DT test, which examined athletes' executive functions in a complex, adaptive way. Our research demonstrates that, on the one hand, it is worthwhile for coaches to build on experienced athletes when assembling a team, in addition to the momentum of young athletes, and that the development of executive functions and cognitive skills can improve the performance of athletes.