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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTENSE MULTIDIRECTIONAL MOVEMENTS IN YOUTH HANDBALL AND SOCCER PLAYERS
Published April 13, 2021
1-10

Modern soccer is characterized by short distance multidirectional movements. Elite level players execute a large number of micromovements of all kinds. Like in handball game situations in soccer usually occur in small areas. We investigated, whether soccer players may be able to perform accelerations, decelerations, intense starting movemen...ts and turns at the same level as handball players. We utilized the Speed Court movement analysis system to prove our hypotheses. We measured youth athletes, they executed two testing protocols. High-quality speed, agility, spatial awareness, and decision-making capabilities were required by the participants. We designed two protocols called the “60-meter chase”, and the “30-second chase” to mimic the situations tend to occur in a game. Each participant was asked to perform the test protocols three-times, we registered the best try, after 12 weeks of practice, the athletes repeatedly executed the two protocols. We also performed a body composition analysis, which demonstrated similar data for the two groups. We concluded that soccer players were able to perform at the same level as handball players, some of them even outperformed their counterparts.       

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NIGHT-TIME DYSPNEA EPISODES AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY
Published April 12, 2021
1-12

Purpose: We wanted to assess the values of expected night-time and day-time variability of the heart rate, in the presence of dyspnea episodes during night-time, recorded by a Holter monitor.

Objective: Our aim was to investigate whether nocturnal breathing disorders affect the HRV indexes.

Method...s: 40 patients participated in our survey. 20 of them experienced episodes of night-time breathing difficulty, and the control group consisted of 20 participants in whose case there were no episodes of night-time breathing difficulty. We were examining the domains of time and frequency of heart rate variability, using day-time and night-time values recorded by a 24-hour Schiller Medilog Holter monitor. We evaluated the distribution of the parameters with a continuous codomain, their typical distribution and expected values on histograms, and summarized them in a table. For the examination of the difference in averages the Two-Sample T- Test was used, where p<0.05.

Results: The vegetative equilibrium ratio and the standard deviation of the R-R intervals showed a significant difference between the apnea patients and the healthy group at night. Examining the severity of apnea, we didn't find significant difference between the two groups in the mean of the time and frequency indices, however, a decrease in the values of the apnea group was observed compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Night differences in the vegetative equilibrium rate and time parameters of the apnea patients and the control group, as well as differences in the HRV index recorded by the change in the severity of the disease, draw attention to the importance of the HRV indicators with HOLTER monitors.

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EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DANCE AND COGNITIVE SKILLS DANCE AND DEMENTIA
Published April 12, 2021
1-10

Introduction: The study of dance and cognitive abilities is a common research topic today, as well as many studies and articles on the aspects of physical activity and cognitive relationships. Studying the topic is essential, as the two components actively influence our performance and quality of life, regardless of gender, age, or... education

Objective: To examine the effect of dancing activities has a beneficial effect on motor and cognitive abilities. Furthermore, to investigate the interaction of dance and dementia. Researching exercise programs that do not worsen or accelerate the processes associated with aging, but help to stagnate dementia at that time.

Method: For analysis, we used an overview of English and Hungarian studies focusing on dance and dementia from Google Scholar and Research Gate.

Results: According to most research articles, various dance therapies have an impact on cognitive abilities, and studies have shown that dancing exercise programs (either in pairs or solo) do not impair the health of people with dementia. Many studies do not provide accurate test data, which would be extremely important as further research is conducted.

Conclusions: First, there is a significant relationship between cognitive function and physical activity. On the other hand, there are no specific procedures, exercise programs, or measurement methods that can improve dementia.

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THE ANALYTICAL TOOLS OF DEMENTIA, THE RELATIONSIP BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY – A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Published March 17, 2020
1-16

Introduction: Dementia has now grown to become a "folk disease", making it a very important area of ​​research. After reviewing several studies, it is also accepted that regular physical activity (MAKRA - BALOGH, 2018) (DONKA - BALOGH, 2018) tends to have a positive effect on cognitive abilities and neurodegenerative disorders rather th...an neutrally or negatively. Because this disease involves a decline in cognitive abilities, it is imperative that special attention be given to improving the number of years of life and the quality of treatment.Objective: We would like to get a comprehensive picture of the methods and tools used to measure dementia.Method: Reviewing and summarizing the related articles in the literature according to the criteria we have defined (type of measurement, relation of measurement methods, number of measurements). Review.Results: In our research, we found many measuring tools that are suitable for measuring and testing dementia. Most measurements are made using two or more measuring devices combined to provide more accurate and complex results for dementia. It can also be stated that more practical forms of measurement are used today, and in this topic, paper-pencil tests are only used as accompanying measurements, as a confirmation in most studies.Conclusions: There are many measuring tools available for testing dementia. We have to choose the one that suits us best. 

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMENTIA AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Published March 17, 2020
1-17

Introduction: Many studies have already shown that, there is connection between physical actitity and cognitive functions. Therefore, the aim of our research is to examine the relationship between cognitive decline (dementia) and physical activity.

Method: The research genre was a secondary method analysis.... The literature review was primarily collected from articles published on international scientific sites.

Results: A total of 11 reviews were examined, examining the relationship between dementia and physical activity, which included 217 articles. Research has supported our hypothesis, that regular exercise has a positive effect on the prevention of dementia by reducing the risk of dementia.

Conclusion: It would be worthwhile to further investigate, which types of exercise at what repetition rate and what intensity achieve the best results in reducing the risk of dementia, or slowing the process of dementia.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COGNITIVE ABILITIES STRESS TOLERANCE AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN NOVICE AND EXPERIENCED ATHLETES
Published May 31, 2021

Introduction: Cognitive skills are essential in team sports. Perception, decision-making (tactical thinking, learning, attention, thinking, emotions), stress tolerance, and even the level of motor and technical-tactical skills all affect performance.

Objective: We found a significant difference in stress tolerance of novic...e / young and experienced team sport players (BALOGH, DONKA 2020). Our results showed that experienced athletes have higher level of  stress tolerance.  However, as this was a descriptive study, we intended to support our statement involving more number of subjects, and an analysis of cognitive abilities.

Method: A cross-sectional experimental study was performed on 41 male and 13 female team sport (handball, volleyball and football) players. We used the VTS DT software package for cognitive abilities and the MDE Heidelberg StressHolter (gastro, HR, TH, GSR) for stress measurement. During the 35-minute measurement process, a state of rest was measured in the first stage, a response to a 10-minute stress situation (VTS-DT for the cognitive test) in the second stage, and a state of rest and latency in the third stage.

Results: We found a significant relationship between stress tolerance and the cognitive ability of female and male participants. Our results demonstrated that football players had a lower level of  stress tolerance than other team sport players. They also tent to make more mistakes in the VTS-DT test.

Conclusions: The classification into novice and experienced categories need to be done more uniformly in the future. We are aware of it, that the unequal number of participants by sports, is one of the limitations of our study. However, it is encouraging that significant results demonstrate a strong relationship between stress tolerance and the number of appropriate decisions. These results reveal other areas of research for us.

 

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THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ON FITNESS STATUS of UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Published April 14, 2021
1-10

The physical fitness state of university students has deteriorated over the years. Relevant data is needed to investigate this tendency thoroughly. We conducted a longitudinal examination among university students in Debrecen, Hungary. At the first stage of our examinations, we examined sixty male and female participants to assess their phy...sical fitness status. They participated in four different activities (pilates, spinning, wellness-general fitness, body-shaping) once a week. Each exercise session lasted for 90 minutes. We conducted a pre-and post-exercise screening, which consisted of a Beep-test, push-up, and sit-up tests. 

We hypothesized that the different types of activities might alter the exercise response. Aerobic performance, upper-body, and abdominal strength may differ depending on the type of exercise—international recommendations suggesting that 150 minutes of physical activity is necessary for physical fitness benefits. Our results demonstrated that 90 minutes of exercise might significantly improve inactive young adults' physical fitness state once a week.

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EFFECT OF ELDERLY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON THEIR COGNITIVE SKILLS DANCE AND DEMENTIA
Published April 14, 2021
1-10

For the analysis, we used a review of English and Hungarian theories and systematic studies focusing on aging activity, dementia, successful aging, movement therapies, and its effects from the PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Research Gate databases.

Results: Today, a significant problem is a decline in aging's... cognitive abilities and untreated nature. Thus, many studies report that positive change in life quality can be achieved through physical activity. Studies show that dance exercise programs (either in pairs or solos) do not impair patients' health with dementia.

Conclusions: Physical activity positively affects the decline of cognitive functions; indeed, it does not impair brain function activation during aging. For the elderly with dementia and its variants, music and dance therapy have beneficial consequences, especially memory and reaction speed. Regular physical activity enhances physical and psychological well-being, resulting in an improved quality of life. 

 

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PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS MONITORING USING INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE METHODS IN ATHLETES
Published May 31, 2021

Introduction: The quality of performance is essential both in everyday life and in competition. In sports science (also), we have to think of the man in a complex way as a bio-psycho-social unit. In addition to changes in ECG HR and blood cortisol levels, gastrointestinal tract movements are also associated with stress management (FUKUNAGA ...et al., 2000) (VIANNA - TRANEL, 2006), which plays a crucial role in determining the quality of performance. Several preclinical trials have formed the basis of our research (SZŰCS et al., 2018).

Objective: Based on our earlier research and literature reviews, we would like to test and participate in validating a new method that can monitor the effects of stress on humans in real-time, in a non-invasive way, with quantitative results. In addition to GI monitoring, cortisol levels are measured invasively in the subjects, so we hope to obtain complex results.

Methods: n = 13, athletes, male = 11, female = 2, mean age 22 +/- 1,031 years. Our protocol was 115 minutes, in which we distinguished four stages (rest, stress, latency 1, latency 2). We use two methods to measure stress. One is the blood cortisol level (ELISA), and the other is the MDE Heidelberg Stress Holter (EGG), which is an innovative measurement tool capable of simultaneously examining several parameters (Small Intestine, Colon, Stomach, ECG HR). The VTS DT package was used as a stressor.

Result: Based on the complex results of the EGG, we can conclude that the Small Intestine, Colon, and Stomach motility, as assessed by the Power Spectrum (PS) Fold Change (FC) calculation, increased together under stress, and then latency decreased together over time. However, the rate of change in cortisol levels showed that most participants adapted the stressor as eustress so that its value decreased linearly.

Conclusions: Innovative measurement and evaluation methods are well utilized, as they can communicate many measurement data in a valid, real-time, non-invasive way, with a parallel display. These data and results will be used in athlete selection, mental training, elite sports, neuro-biofeedback, and health preservation.

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OFFICIALS DECISION-MAKING PROCESS IN OPEN SKILL SPORTS, A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Published April 14, 2021
1-10

In the ever-accelerating world of sports, decisions are playing a more critical role. The coaches' decisions determine the outcome of the match. The study aimed to review what factors determine the decisions of sports officials in different sports. Today, many former players choose to stay in the sport and continue their activities as coach...es. Nonetheless, there is no unified system for determining the experience of coaches. Various factors influence sports officials in their decisions. These can be both external and internal factors. Take the First heuristic leads to more consistent and better decisions. In terms of coaches and referees, the most studied and examined sport is football. Research in other sports appears in minimal numbers.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DECISION-MAKING AND GAME INTELLIGENCE WITH BASKETBALL STATISTICS
Published May 31, 2021

Introduction: basketball is one of the most popular teams sports worldwide. It is generally regarded as the second most popular sport globally, with around 450 million registered players (RÁTGÉBER et al., 2019). The attention, decision-making, interaction with the participants, and recovery of a basketball player are complex. It can be in...fluenced by internal and external factors as well as by different stimuli. The current mental and physical state of athletes affects their performance. Experience, reception and adaptation of developmental stimuli determine performance during the game. Cognitive abilities, executive functions, and inhibition are all psychological processes that can help or hinder concentration. It is essential to assess and measure to enhance sports performance and provide objective support for our subjective assumptions. Many technical and tactical elements characterize basketball, but it is also essential to have relevant motor and affective skills when making decisions. Players need to adapt to sudden and varied stimuli and make the most intelligent and appropriate decision to achieve a positive outcome. Live statistics may indicate the effectiveness of decision-making during the game. In the present study, we analyzed the results of the Color-Word Interference Test and Trail Making Test prior to and after the games.

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IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC SELECTION CRITERIA IN YOUNG BALL SPORT PLAYERS
Published April 14, 2021
1-11

Background: Our study aimed to analyze body composition and spiroergometric data of young (14-15 years) elite level ball sport players. We suggested three-ball sports (handball, soccer, and basketball) share common performance indicators, as rapid intermittent movements primarily characterize each ball sport.

Methods: We s...elected one-hundred and ten, handball (n=30), basketball (n=40), and soccer (n=40) players male and female from local clubs in Hungary. Seventy-nine males and thirty-one females participated in our study; their average age was 14.51 and 14.56, respectively. 

 They participated in laboratory testing; the protocol included a body composition analysis and spiroergometric tests. We measured body composition and physiological parameters utilizing an In Body 720 device and a standard Bruce treadmill protocol. Although we were aware of the Bruce protocol limitations in elite athletes, we choose this protocol as a safer alternative for younger inexperienced athletes.

Results and conclusions: We concluded that in young male soccer and basketball players, mean peak /load (W), peak/VE (l), peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), peak/VCO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml) data is a reliable indicator of the sport-specific performance.  We may also suggest that in our male basketball and handball players' population, peak/Vtex (l) is the only variable, which is significantly different. Between groups of male handball and soccer players, peak/VO2/kg (ml/min) may be a valid performance indicator. Among female basketball and handball players, we found a significant difference in three performance variables: peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml).

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THE ROLE OF DANCE AND MOVEMENT THERAPIES IN STRESS MANAGEMENT
Published May 31, 2021

A popular research topic these days is the relationship between health and physical activity. Countless health maintenance programs help an individual to achieve the benefits provided by physical activity. Numerous articles describe the benefits th...e physical activity. Still, the effect of dance and movement therapies on stress management for children, young adults, middle-aged, and elderly are less likely investigated.

We used English and Hungarian studies to analyze the relationship between stress, dance, and movement therapies for the systematic review. We used PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and Research Gate databases.

One of the major problems today is the stress of everyday life. Untreated pressure may be destructive to health. Thus, it is reported that incorporating dance as physical activity may trigger positive changes in the field of regaining the state of equilibrium (homeostasis). Related studies demonstrated that dance programs (either alone, in pairs, or groups) might help manage stress and the processing of stress responses.

Conclusions: Physical activity may effectively help in the management and processing of stress. While dancing, the individual may step out of one’s comfort zone, activating many coordination abilities and cognitive functions. Taking advantage of the positive effects of movement and music. Dancing may positively affect anxiety, depression, and isolation disorders. After all, dance may bring about many positive changes in the body and the brain. The individual may feel happier and balanced. The overall quality of life significantly improves. 

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Investigation on the Immunological Effects of Regular Physical Activity
Published April 15, 2021
1-15

Introduction: Effects of physical activity on immune functions may largely depend on the type of activity, its intensity and duration. However, little information is available regarding the immunological effects of sporting activities in older ages.

The aim of our study was to examine the changes in a wide spectrum of lymp...hocyte subtypes after a period of regular workout among healthy women of different ages.

Methods: In our study, we enrolled 16 elderly women (between ages of 60-75 years) formerly not engaged in regular physical activity, who took part in lightweight conditioning gymnastic exercise program. Eight young athletes and 26 young adults with sedentary lifestyle served as controls. The percentages of peripheral NK, NKT cells, T and B lymphocyte subtypes were determined by flow cytometry based on the staining of extracellular markers and intracellular cytokines.

Results: Lymphocyte subgroups did not differ between the groups of young athletes and young adults with sedentary lifestyle. However, in elderly women, levels of NKT cells were lower, while ratios of T helper / T cytotoxic cells were higher compared to younger individuals. At the end of exercise program, in elderly women, percentages of naive B cells decreased, while levels of switched-memory B cells increased. Furthermore, proportions of Th2 cells increased, while levels of immunosuppressive CD4+CD127-CD25bright Treg cells decreased as the result of regular exercise.

Conclusion: Differences observed after lightweight exercise programs reflect a presumably enhanced immunoreactivity and increased ability for immune responses in older ages.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AROUSAL ZONE, ANXIETY, STRESS AND SPORTS PERFORMANCE
Published July 21, 2021
1-14

This study aimed to examine the relationship between optimal functioning zone, anxiety, stress, and athletic performance. We conducted a systematic review of the available scientific articles and publications. Related literature was analyzed, relevant, or helpful in understanding the psychological aspects of athletic performance. It discuss...es the method and validity of hypotheses and approaches that have already appeared scientifically. We examined multidimensional approaches, which discuss the suitability and implications of some recent and more complex models of stress and performance. We may conclude that the relationship between stress and athletic performance is multidimensional. We also examined several factors, such as the interaction between the nature of the stressor, the cognitive needs of the task, and the individuals' psychological characteristics. Both physical and mental preparation is critical to successful sports performance. This way, the level of physical skills, mental preparedness significantly determine overall athletic performance. The article aims to provide a historical overview of the implementation, testing, and measurement of IZOF and other applied models.

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BREAKABLE PERFORMANCE - THE ROLE OF MENTAL TOUGHNESS IN ELITE SPORT, INTERNATIONAL OUTLOOK
Published May 31, 2021

Our study aimed to analyze mental toughness and its relationship to sports performance. We reviewed 38 qualitative and quantitative international studies. We performed an in-depth investigation on mental toughness; we also focused on how to improve mental toughness. We hypothesized a significant difference in both genders, suggesting that coach...es substantially impact mental toughness. We primarily concentrate on valid, real-time assessments and psychological training in elite sports athletes. Sport psychologists, mental trainers play an essential role in elite sports performance.  Results of related studies demonstrated that these age and gender-specific mental training sessions are effective in improving performance. There is an increasing need for computer-based interactive testing methods to analyze cognitive and psychomotor skills under pressure. 

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Examination of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Cognitive Skills
Published April 16, 2021
1-15

Introduction: Examining physical activity and cognitive function has become a popular topic of research since the quality of these two components influences our quality of life and performance. It is very important for both sexes, all ages and life situations.

Objective: Determining a type of physical activity (PA) that has... an effect on both cognitive functions (CF) and motor skills and performance. Clarifying or promoting measurement methods, or developing new methods that meet current standards and objectives. The results may be used to help to impove performance in all areas.

Method: Primary purpose of our study was to conduct a review, in order to summarize the relevant literature on the following topics: sex, age, fitness level, possible illness.

Conclusions: We found a significant relationship between cognitive functions and physical activity, which can be transposition in a proper way, both in terms of living standards and performance. On the other hand, there are a lack of uniform, accurate measurement methods. Thhere is a need for specific physical activity routines that specifically improve the level of cognitive function, even at an older age.

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