Modern soccer is characterized by short distance multidirectional movements. Elite level players execute a large number of micromovements of all kinds. Like in handball game situations in soccer usually occur in small areas. We investigated, whether soccer players may be able to perform accelerations, decelerations, intense starting movemen...ts and turns at the same level as handball players. We utilized the Speed Court movement analysis system to prove our hypotheses. We measured youth athletes, they executed two testing protocols. High-quality speed, agility, spatial awareness, and decision-making capabilities were required by the participants. We designed two protocols called the “60-meter chase”, and the “30-second chase” to mimic the situations tend to occur in a game. Each participant was asked to perform the test protocols three-times, we registered the best try, after 12 weeks of practice, the athletes repeatedly executed the two protocols. We also performed a body composition analysis, which demonstrated similar data for the two groups. We concluded that soccer players were able to perform at the same level as handball players, some of them even outperformed their counterparts.
Purpose: We wanted to assess the values of expected night-time and day-time variability of the heart rate, in the presence of dyspnea episodes during night-time, recorded by a Holter monitor.
Objective: Our aim was to investigate whether nocturnal breathing disorders affect the HRV indexes.
Method...s: 40 patients participated in our survey. 20 of them experienced episodes of night-time breathing difficulty, and the control group consisted of 20 participants in whose case there were no episodes of night-time breathing difficulty. We were examining the domains of time and frequency of heart rate variability, using day-time and night-time values recorded by a 24-hour Schiller Medilog Holter monitor. We evaluated the distribution of the parameters with a continuous codomain, their typical distribution and expected values on histograms, and summarized them in a table. For the examination of the difference in averages the Two-Sample T- Test was used, where p<0.05.
Results: The vegetative equilibrium ratio and the standard deviation of the R-R intervals showed a significant difference between the apnea patients and the healthy group at night. Examining the severity of apnea, we didn't find significant difference between the two groups in the mean of the time and frequency indices, however, a decrease in the values of the apnea group was observed compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Night differences in the vegetative equilibrium rate and time parameters of the apnea patients and the control group, as well as differences in the HRV index recorded by the change in the severity of the disease, draw attention to the importance of the HRV indicators with HOLTER monitors.
Introduction: The study of dance and cognitive abilities is a common research topic today, as well as many studies and articles on the aspects of physical activity and cognitive relationships. Studying the topic is essential, as the two components actively influence our performance and quality of life, regardless of gender, age, or... education
Objective: To examine the effect of dancing activities has a beneficial effect on motor and cognitive abilities. Furthermore, to investigate the interaction of dance and dementia. Researching exercise programs that do not worsen or accelerate the processes associated with aging, but help to stagnate dementia at that time.
Method: For analysis, we used an overview of English and Hungarian studies focusing on dance and dementia from Google Scholar and Research Gate.
Results: According to most research articles, various dance therapies have an impact on cognitive abilities, and studies have shown that dancing exercise programs (either in pairs or solo) do not impair the health of people with dementia. Many studies do not provide accurate test data, which would be extremely important as further research is conducted.
Conclusions: First, there is a significant relationship between cognitive function and physical activity. On the other hand, there are no specific procedures, exercise programs, or measurement methods that can improve dementia.
Introduction: Dementia has now grown to become a "folk disease", making it a very important area of research. After reviewing several studies, it is also accepted that regular physical activity (MAKRA - BALOGH, 2018) (DONKA - BALOGH, 2018) tends to have a positive effect on cognitive abilities and neurodegenerative disorders rather th...an neutrally or negatively. Because this disease involves a decline in cognitive abilities, it is imperative that special attention be given to improving the number of years of life and the quality of treatment.Objective: We would like to get a comprehensive picture of the methods and tools used to measure dementia.Method: Reviewing and summarizing the related articles in the literature according to the criteria we have defined (type of measurement, relation of measurement methods, number of measurements). Review.Results: In our research, we found many measuring tools that are suitable for measuring and testing dementia. Most measurements are made using two or more measuring devices combined to provide more accurate and complex results for dementia. It can also be stated that more practical forms of measurement are used today, and in this topic, paper-pencil tests are only used as accompanying measurements, as a confirmation in most studies.Conclusions: There are many measuring tools available for testing dementia. We have to choose the one that suits us best.
Introduction: Many studies have already shown that, there is connection between physical actitity and cognitive functions. Therefore, the aim of our research is to examine the relationship between cognitive decline (dementia) and physical activity.
Method: The research genre was a secondary method analysis.... The literature review was primarily collected from articles published on international scientific sites.
Results: A total of 11 reviews were examined, examining the relationship between dementia and physical activity, which included 217 articles. Research has supported our hypothesis, that regular exercise has a positive effect on the prevention of dementia by reducing the risk of dementia.
Conclusion: It would be worthwhile to further investigate, which types of exercise at what repetition rate and what intensity achieve the best results in reducing the risk of dementia, or slowing the process of dementia.
The physical fitness state of university students has deteriorated over the years. Relevant data is needed to investigate this tendency thoroughly. We conducted a longitudinal examination among university students in Debrecen, Hungary. At the first stage of our examinations, we examined sixty male and female participants to assess their phy...sical fitness status. They participated in four different activities (pilates, spinning, wellness-general fitness, body-shaping) once a week. Each exercise session lasted for 90 minutes. We conducted a pre-and post-exercise screening, which consisted of a Beep-test, push-up, and sit-up tests.
We hypothesized that the different types of activities might alter the exercise response. Aerobic performance, upper-body, and abdominal strength may differ depending on the type of exercise—international recommendations suggesting that 150 minutes of physical activity is necessary for physical fitness benefits. Our results demonstrated that 90 minutes of exercise might significantly improve inactive young adults' physical fitness state once a week.
For the analysis, we used a review of English and Hungarian theories and systematic studies focusing on aging activity, dementia, successful aging, movement therapies, and its effects from the PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Research Gate databases.
Results: Today, a significant problem is a decline in aging's... cognitive abilities and untreated nature. Thus, many studies report that positive change in life quality can be achieved through physical activity. Studies show that dance exercise programs (either in pairs or solos) do not impair patients' health with dementia.
Conclusions: Physical activity positively affects the decline of cognitive functions; indeed, it does not impair brain function activation during aging. For the elderly with dementia and its variants, music and dance therapy have beneficial consequences, especially memory and reaction speed. Regular physical activity enhances physical and psychological well-being, resulting in an improved quality of life.
In the ever-accelerating world of sports, decisions are playing a more critical role. The coaches' decisions determine the outcome of the match. The study aimed to review what factors determine the decisions of sports officials in different sports. Today, many former players choose to stay in the sport and continue their activities as coach...es. Nonetheless, there is no unified system for determining the experience of coaches. Various factors influence sports officials in their decisions. These can be both external and internal factors. Take the First heuristic leads to more consistent and better decisions. In terms of coaches and referees, the most studied and examined sport is football. Research in other sports appears in minimal numbers.
Background: Our study aimed to analyze body composition and spiroergometric data of young (14-15 years) elite level ball sport players. We suggested three-ball sports (handball, soccer, and basketball) share common performance indicators, as rapid intermittent movements primarily characterize each ball sport.
Methods: We s...elected one-hundred and ten, handball (n=30), basketball (n=40), and soccer (n=40) players male and female from local clubs in Hungary. Seventy-nine males and thirty-one females participated in our study; their average age was 14.51 and 14.56, respectively.
They participated in laboratory testing; the protocol included a body composition analysis and spiroergometric tests. We measured body composition and physiological parameters utilizing an In Body 720 device and a standard Bruce treadmill protocol. Although we were aware of the Bruce protocol limitations in elite athletes, we choose this protocol as a safer alternative for younger inexperienced athletes.
Results and conclusions: We concluded that in young male soccer and basketball players, mean peak /load (W), peak/VE (l), peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), peak/VCO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml) data is a reliable indicator of the sport-specific performance. We may also suggest that in our male basketball and handball players' population, peak/Vtex (l) is the only variable, which is significantly different. Between groups of male handball and soccer players, peak/VO2/kg (ml/min) may be a valid performance indicator. Among female basketball and handball players, we found a significant difference in three performance variables: peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml).
Introduction: Effects of physical activity on immune functions may largely depend on the type of activity, its intensity and duration. However, little information is available regarding the immunological effects of sporting activities in older ages.
The aim of our study was to examine the changes in a wide spectrum of lymp...hocyte subtypes after a period of regular workout among healthy women of different ages.
Methods: In our study, we enrolled 16 elderly women (between ages of 60-75 years) formerly not engaged in regular physical activity, who took part in lightweight conditioning gymnastic exercise program. Eight young athletes and 26 young adults with sedentary lifestyle served as controls. The percentages of peripheral NK, NKT cells, T and B lymphocyte subtypes were determined by flow cytometry based on the staining of extracellular markers and intracellular cytokines.
Results: Lymphocyte subgroups did not differ between the groups of young athletes and young adults with sedentary lifestyle. However, in elderly women, levels of NKT cells were lower, while ratios of T helper / T cytotoxic cells were higher compared to younger individuals. At the end of exercise program, in elderly women, percentages of naive B cells decreased, while levels of switched-memory B cells increased. Furthermore, proportions of Th2 cells increased, while levels of immunosuppressive CD4+CD127-CD25bright Treg cells decreased as the result of regular exercise.
Conclusion: Differences observed after lightweight exercise programs reflect a presumably enhanced immunoreactivity and increased ability for immune responses in older ages.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between optimal functioning zone, anxiety, stress, and athletic performance. We conducted a systematic review of the available scientific articles and publications. Related literature was analyzed, relevant, or helpful in understanding the psychological aspects of athletic performance. It discuss...es the method and validity of hypotheses and approaches that have already appeared scientifically. We examined multidimensional approaches, which discuss the suitability and implications of some recent and more complex models of stress and performance. We may conclude that the relationship between stress and athletic performance is multidimensional. We also examined several factors, such as the interaction between the nature of the stressor, the cognitive needs of the task, and the individuals' psychological characteristics. Both physical and mental preparation is critical to successful sports performance. This way, the level of physical skills, mental preparedness significantly determine overall athletic performance. The article aims to provide a historical overview of the implementation, testing, and measurement of IZOF and other applied models.
Introduction: Examining physical activity and cognitive function has become a popular topic of research since the quality of these two components influences our quality of life and performance. It is very important for both sexes, all ages and life situations.
Objective: Determining a type of physical activity (PA) that has... an effect on both cognitive functions (CF) and motor skills and performance. Clarifying or promoting measurement methods, or developing new methods that meet current standards and objectives. The results may be used to help to impove performance in all areas.
Method: Primary purpose of our study was to conduct a review, in order to summarize the relevant literature on the following topics: sex, age, fitness level, possible illness.
Conclusions: We found a significant relationship between cognitive functions and physical activity, which can be transposition in a proper way, both in terms of living standards and performance. On the other hand, there are a lack of uniform, accurate measurement methods. Thhere is a need for specific physical activity routines that specifically improve the level of cognitive function, even at an older age.