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  • THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ON FITNESS STATUS of UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
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    381

    The physical fitness state of university students has deteriorated over the years. Relevant data is needed to investigate this tendency thoroughly. We conducted a longitudinal examination among university students in Debrecen, Hungary. At the first stage of our examinations, we examined sixty male and female participants to assess their physical fitness status. They participated in four different activities (pilates, spinning, wellness-general fitness, body-shaping) once a week. Each exercise session lasted for 90 minutes. We conducted a pre-and post-exercise screening, which consisted of a Beep-test, push-up, and sit-up tests. 

    We hypothesized that the different types of activities might alter the exercise response. Aerobic performance, upper-body, and abdominal strength may differ depending on the type of exercise—international recommendations suggesting that 150 minutes of physical activity is necessary for physical fitness benefits. Our results demonstrated that 90 minutes of exercise might significantly improve inactive young adults' physical fitness state once a week.

  • IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC SELECTION CRITERIA IN YOUNG BALL SPORT PLAYERS
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    252

    Background: Our study aimed to analyze body composition and spiroergometric data of young (14-15 years) elite level ball sport players. We suggested three-ball sports (handball, soccer, and basketball) share common performance indicators, as rapid intermittent movements primarily characterize each ball sport.

    Methods: We selected one-hundred and ten, handball (n=30), basketball (n=40), and soccer (n=40) players male and female from local clubs in Hungary. Seventy-nine males and thirty-one females participated in our study; their average age was 14.51 and 14.56, respectively. 

     They participated in laboratory testing; the protocol included a body composition analysis and spiroergometric tests. We measured body composition and physiological parameters utilizing an In Body 720 device and a standard Bruce treadmill protocol. Although we were aware of the Bruce protocol limitations in elite athletes, we choose this protocol as a safer alternative for younger inexperienced athletes.

    Results and conclusions: We concluded that in young male soccer and basketball players, mean peak /load (W), peak/VE (l), peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), peak/VCO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml) data is a reliable indicator of the sport-specific performance.  We may also suggest that in our male basketball and handball players' population, peak/Vtex (l) is the only variable, which is significantly different. Between groups of male handball and soccer players, peak/VO2/kg (ml/min) may be a valid performance indicator. Among female basketball and handball players, we found a significant difference in three performance variables: peak/Vtex (l), peak/VO2 (ml/min), and peak/ O2 pulse (ml).

  • THE INVOLVEMENT OF ADVANCED COGNITIVE SKILLS IN VARIOUS FOOTBALL – SPECIFIC TESTS A PILOT STUDY
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    24

    Sports professionals should encourage the development of cognitive functions as often as possible in training. Stimulating the brain with alternating stimuli can promote concentration, attention, and the development of situational awareness and decision-making skills. The more and more diverse stimuli the player receives, the faster and more effectively he will react to match situations. Our research examined the effect of exercises requiring advanced cognitive skills on the training load. Changes in cardiovascular data were monitored using Polar Verity Sense 4J and Polarflow systems. The pilot study involved a U-16 football player. Our results demonstrated that in addition to increasing speed, duration, and number of repetitions, the gradual inclusion of decision-making situations can also effectively increase the load. The participant completed two sets of exercises. During the second test, more complex exercises required advanced cognitive skills. The average heart rate for the first test was 130 beats per minute. We experienced an increase in the average value (150 beats per minute) during the completion of the second test. We measured an average 15 percent increase in the participants' heart rate.