An investigation was conducted on uniform, healthy, eight year old trees of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulata Blanco) at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science at College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during 16 September, 2014 to 1 March, 2015. Various doses of calcium nitrate (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0 %), boric acid (0.2 %, 0.4 %... and 0.6 %) and zinc sulphate (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) were sprayed before harvesting and compared with untreated ones. The results obtained indicated that the trees sprayed with T27 i.e. (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.6 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) showed maximum increase diameter of fruit, fruit weight, fruit volume, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant, estimated yield per hectare, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar, juice per cent, sensory score and reduced peel thickness over control. Further, T24 treatment combination (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.4 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) has also significantly increased number of segments per fruit, TSS, TSS: Acid ratio, ascorbic acid content, and reduced number of seeds per fruit and acidity percent of fruits.
A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrub...s of Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with
woody species (genera) as follows:
- common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
- dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
- native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
- hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
- cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.
The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.
From the wide range of genetic sources available in Hungary, we have chosen as objective the evaluation of those rose taxa, which — on the base of their quality and morphologic features — are suitable for selecting fruit production varieties or parent varieties for further breeding. We examined physical and inner parameters of fruits of ...>Rosa taxa, and evaluated the correlations by mathematical statistic methods. Namely, if a correlation can be found between physical and inner parameters, fruit production value can be determined by less examinations in the future. According to our results, there is a large variability in some physical parameters (weight, diameter of fruits; weight, number of achenes) as well as in inner content values (vitamin C, glucose, fructose, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content) of rosehip, regarding production year, habitat and even the individual of examination. Twice as much ascorbic acid can be found in achene-free fruits, and nearly five times as much in their dry product as in fresh whole fruits. It was established repeatedly, that vitamin C concentrates in fruit flesh, and ascorbic acid content can be preserved better in achene-free flesh. There is no essential difference in citric acid and carbo-hydrate content of whole and achene-free rosehips. However, macro- and microelement content of whole fruits is 30-40% higher than that of achene-free fruit flesh. The connection between fresh weight and diameter, as well as achene number and seed weight of fruits can be described by the function y=axb. A significant relationship can be found in case of K-Fe, Ca-Mg, Ca-B, Ca-Mn and Zn-Cu, between fresh weight and B content of fruits. According to our examinations, fresh weight of rose species with a higher citric acid content is usually higher, while their Fe content is smaller. Glucose content of fruits of rose species is directly proportional to their Ca and Zn contents. Zn content of rose species with higher fructose content is usually smaller.
Sambucus nigra is a very common elder species in Europe. Due to its excellent composition, natural dye content and healing power it can be considered as a biological active plant. In Hungary the cultivation of Sambucus nigra started in the nineties and since that time there is a growing demand for this plant. Sambucus nigr...a is a special fruit due to its sole.-application for processing industry. Partly fruit products are made of it, partly it is used as a natural dye. In both cases the first step is the knowledge and evaluation of the composition of the various elder varieties and candidates. For that reason composition studies of different elder types were performed in several years at the Department of the Canning Technology of the Szent Istvan University.
The most important sample was the Haschberg variety, which is the sole elder type accepted and allowed for propagation by the government. This plant is grown in the Pilot Plant of the Szent István University in Szigetcsép. Among the studied samples there were some varieties cultivated in the Fertőd Research Station. They were the following types: No. 33, 480 and 481. Besides elder collected wild in Szigetcsep and the very promising early-ripened SZ-CS 21-23 variety originated also from Szigetcsép were investigated. One year it was possible to study the Sambu variety, too. Department of the Fruit Culture of the Szent István University helped to obtain the various elder types and candidates. Along our experimental activities, the following components and parameters were studied: the content of pectin, organic acid, carbohydrate, mineral, vitamin C, total acid, aquesoluble dry material, anthocyanin and the pH.
After having obtained a juice, a concentrate from the species has been made and — after freezing — the aquesoluble dry substance and the acid content, as well as the colour parameters were monitored. Studies were performed in two years (1997-98). On the basis of these results classes were established for all compounds, from which an overall ranking was derived.
It was found that in both years the Haschberg variety proved to have the best composition. Therefore regarding to the overall series of order the experiments performed in the second year supported the results obtained in the previous year. Results have shown that Sambucus nigra has excellent composition beside its curative effect. Its mineral content has surpassed that of the other fruits and it had advantageous acid-and carbohydrate composition. The ascorbic acid content of the Haschberg variety is striking. It can be concluded from the experiments that the Haschberg type has the most advantageous composition, therefore it is suitable for making special curative and exclusive products.
Oxygen free radicals play an important role in the development of different disorders like inflammatory-immune injury, carcinogenesis, hepatic toxicity and artherosclerosis. The antioxydant role of a wide spectrum of natural products has been established. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds (proanthocyanidins, rosmarinic acid, hydroxicinnam...ic derivatives, catechines, etc.) of plant origin have been reported as scavengers and inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.
We have studied the antioxidant activity as well as content and composition of natural phenolics in a series of medicinal plants with phytotherapeutical significance. Thus we determined the total phenol contents and studied the composition of flavonoids, polyphenols, phenolic acids of different vegetative and reproductive organs of medicinal plants: Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm., Petroselinum crispum L., Cichorium intybus L., Helichrysum arenarium D.C.„cempervivum tectorum L., Taravacum officinale Web.
Characteristic constituents in the various crude drugs were determined by chromatographic (TLC, HPLC) and spectroscopic (UV, UV-VIS) methods. The non specific scavenger activities of the medicinal plant extracts were studied by the chemiluminometric technique. The changes of chemiluminescence intensity of the H,G,•0H-luminol system at increasing concentrations of the H702/ -OH were measured. Inhibitory effects of selected standardized fractions from plants were tested on ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and homogenates.
The best correlation were established with total phenolics in some medicinal plants (S. tectorum, T. officinale) while activities in other cases seem to be influenced by flavonoids (P. crispum, H. arenarium, A. cerefolium) and by hydroxicinnamic derivatives (C. intybus).
Cucumber leaves have been sprayed with a solution of hydrogen peroxide (H202) or Pharmaplant-turbo combined with organic or inorganic fertilizers under plasic house. Under the influence of H202, leaves exhibited resistant against Podoshaera fusca fungus, the causal agent of cucumber powdery m...ildew. H202 (15 mM) was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 12% in two experiments conducted in two seasons. Pharmaplant-turbo (Turbo) is new chemical compound and used as an antifungal compound. Turbo in 1 ml/L was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 11.5% in the both experiments as well. Both of H202 and Turbo were combined with organic treatment (compost + compost tea + seaweed extracts) which showed significant effect against cucumber powdery mildew fungus and strongly suppressed it as compared to control leaves. Organic treatment produced higher vegetative growth characters and greater early and total yields as compared to inorganic treatment, also organic fruits produced the lower nitrate content and the higher ascorbic acid content as compared to inorganic fruits. Our study have indicated that, H202 and Turbo combined with organic fertilizers play a role in the resistance of cucumber against powdery mildew by decreasing the disease severity. We suggest to give more attention to the direct application of H202 in low concentration and Turbo against powdery mildew diseases and other plant diseases.