Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial rhizomatous herbaceous plant, it has been widespread all over the world by human activities. It is a 2-8 meter high, polyploid, sterile species (not produce viable seeds), it can be propagated only by vegetative methods (rhizomes, stem cuttings, in vitro biotechnological methods). It has considered pr...omising dedicated energy crop thanks to high biomass production (20-40 dry tons per hectare depending on microclimate), adaptability of different kind of soils and environment and low energy input required for its cultivation. It has been utilized for energetic purposes, biogas/bioethanol production, cellulose/paper production and ornamental purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine morphological properties of new ornamental giant reed leaf variants originated from somatic embryogenesis and to evaluate their photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic activities. The most typical changes was the appearance of different colour (white, yellow, light green) longitudinal stripes on leaves (also on petiole and on leaf blade). It was significant differences (p<0.05) between green and leaf variants in case of photosynthetic pigments content and photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm value). There was no detectable chlorophyll a or b content in the white bands of leaves and albino shoots. Total chlorophyll content of the white striped leaf variety was more than twice than the light green leaves. Photosynthetic activity and content of photosynthetic pigments also confirm and determine the morphological characteristics and growth habit of leaf variants.
The influence of increasing concentrations of naphthaleneacetic acid and the antibiotics cefotaxime, timentin, kanamycin, and hygromycin on eggplant (Solantun melongena L. cv. Embil) somatic embryogenesis was investigated. Cotyledon explants were excised from 16 to 20 days old in vitro grown seedlings. NAA promoted somatic emb...ryogenesis, although its concentrations had no influence on the mean number of embryos. Callusing decreaSed significantly with increasing NAA concentrations. Morphogenesis was stopped with 50 to 100 mg L-1 kanamycin and 7.5 to 15 mg L-1 hygromycin. Although early globular embryos were observed up to 15 mg L-1, further embryo development was inhibited at 10 mg L-1. Interestingly, cefotaxime (250 and 500 mg L-1) promoted a marked effect on enhancing fresh weight of calli, accompanied by decrease in embryo regeneration, whereas timentin concentrations (150 and 300 mg L-1) did not affect embryo differentiation as compared to the control treatment.
Nowadays, the world is facing the problem of environmental pollution because of the increase of man’s needs requires development in life activities, progress industrialization, transportation tools, enhancement of agriculture and exploitation of natural resources. Soil and water resources are extremely exposed to pollution from different aspe...cts. Agrochemicals in particular, have created severe problems, since they release thousands of chemicals to the environment. Several studies on the effect of environmental pollutants on agroecosystem have been carried out. On the other hand, the importance of trace elements as environmental pollutants is well known and well documented in literature. Cu contamination to agricultural soils has been accelerated due to its wide and repeated use in agriculture and horticulture as fertilizers or fungicides to protect vines, citrus trees, and other fruit crops against fungus diseases. Applied Cu from different agrochemical sources to agroenvironment may be adsorbed and are transported to the groundwater table and pollute it besides polluting the soils. The use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyard soils is widely documented worldwide. It has been found that many countries contain concentrations in excess of 100 mg kg−1. Importance of study of transport of Cu arises due to the fact that Cu is absorbed in soils and also reaches the groundwater table, thus polluting both soil and ground water. It is often more important to be able to estimate the mobile fraction, the readily soluble fraction, the exchangeable fraction, or the plant available fraction of Cu content of a soil as a more direct indication of the likelihood of deleterious or toxic effects on soils and groundwater. Therefore, the aim of present work was to highlight the behavior and ecotoxicological effects of copper on horticultural soils.
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) being essential for many living organisms, including man, became once more into the focus of interests because of its numerous physiological effects. Its anti-scurvy and anti-oxidant properties have already been recognised since long in the human body, but it turned out gradually that it has many other functions. In...plants, its primary importance is defense against the photo-oxidative stress.
The present review is intended to reveal some details of the artificial synthesis of vitamin C. Emphasis is put on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid in higher plants. Biosynthetic processes, translocation and accumulation are discussed in detail on the basis of recent results published in the scientific literature.
In the continental weather zone, more and more frequently occurring extreme conditions require continuous renewal of the market which generates constant challenge for the ornamental plant breeders. Most of the traditionally used decorative ornamental plants are sensitive to these extreme conditions. In 2001, Department of Plant Biotechnology, D...ebrecen University initiated an interdisciplinary breeding program in collaborations with Zoltan Kovats (he dealt with hungarian drought-tolerant plant species) to produce new or reintroduce forgotten drought-tolerant ornamental species into public parks and roadsides. From ~900 species of Salvia genus, Salvia nemorosa L. has been known as a medical plant, however, because of its high adaptation ability and decorative nature it is a highly recommended ornamental plant as well. Salvia nemorosa L. has a low maintenance, extremely droughttolerant, fast growing plant, generates proper cover, and highly competing weeds on roadsides. Nowadays, 50-60 varieties are available; however this number could be increased by new hybrids. Great morphological and colour variation could be seen within the species, from different white to deep violet. The main goal of this research is the production of elite lines with wide colour and morphological variation in wild sage. We have already obtained 25 different clones for further investigation without eliminating the original plants generating an in vitro gene bank as it has been done by Italian breeders.
Nowdays it is generally expressed opinion of the leading scientific circles that the purposefully planned biotechnological actions of the 21st century will be indispensable of realizing the sustainable technical development in the supplementation of the increasing population, especially those who suffer privation, thus the long-distance interes...ts of mankind will be met without impairing the world's ecological integrity. In 1989 Robert Bud gave account of the fact that the father of the term "biotechnology" was the Hungarian agricultural engineer, Karl Ereky. Recently, we have explored and found some important biographical sources and scientific documents which had been published by Károly (Karl) Ereky, the which, however, have already been forgotten. This article expands on that more contextual treatment to explore the man and his doctrine. It draws upon Hungarian and private sources as well as on German publications.
The main goal of this research was to work out programmable, cost-effective and industrial scale technologies of mass propagation from the seeds of rootstock nurseries of undomesticated American populations of Sidahermaphrodita. During our previou`s seed treatment experiments, it was concluded that around 60% of the Virginia fanpetalsseeds coll...ected during the four cropyears can be considered as high quality, infection-free, normally imbibing and germinating seeds (Kurucz et al., 2013a,b). The experiments performed with the nurse-in-tray method developed by us showed that the summer-autumn nurse-in-tray plantlet production and unprotected wintering of Virginia fanpetals with properly pre-treated and fractioned seeds is a promising new method. No weeds appear between the plants, but only on the side of the cases during plantlet production. The investment cost of the method is minimal. There are no heating costs and this phytotechnique can be easily and properly mechanised. Plantlet production can be performed near the large-scale plots. After exploring the root and shoot system, it was concluded that the nurse-in-tray method is suitable for producing plantlets with hardened and strong roots. Scheduled plantlets can be produced in an industrial scale volume by the time of early spring (March) plantlet planting. The excavateof plantlets can be flexibly adjusted to the needs; they may even grow in the plantlet cases for a whole year. We think that these innovative plantlet production and wintering methods which are suitable for large-scale use will make Virginia fanpetals a proper feedstock for the constant supply of the Biomass Supply Chain both in Hungary and in European countries which are in the same climate zone. The comparative analysis of the costs of this procedure calls for further research.
Cotyledon protoplasts were isolated from 16-18-day-old in vitro grown seedlings of 9 Brazilian and 3 Hungarian pepper varieties and hybrids. Large numbers (average 9.59 X 106 protoplasts g 14 fresh weight) of highly viable (average 87.0%) protoplasts were released using a pectocellulolytic enzyme mixture. Protoplasts were cultured in... K8p mediuni using an alginate disc embedding method. The osmotic pressure of the medium surrounding the alginate-embedded protoplasts was reduced by replenishing the liquid medium at K8p:K8 ratios of 1:0. 2:1, 1:1 in the first. second, and third week, respectively. Initial plating efficiency (IPE) average was 38.5% and after 21 days protoplasts reached microcolonies (15-20 cells) stages. Microcolonies were transferred after 3-4 weeks to a MS-based medium supplemented with 1.0 mg I-1 zeatin, 3.0% (w/v) sucrose, 0.24% (w/v) phytagel and pH 5.8, whereupon they formed callus. Final plating efficiency (FPE) average was 0.29% at a plating density of 1.0 x 105 protoplasts Protoplast-derived calli were cultured on a range of MS-based media supplemented with either BAP, IAA, TDZ; and zeatin. No morphogenic response was observed in any genotype investigated.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals. To consumption of selenium could be good sources the vegetables. Many of them are able to convert the inorganic selenium forms to organic forms, which are more effective for health. To enrich onion with selenium is known however some unclear points are remained. A closed fortif...ication system was conducted to compare the difference of selenium tolerance in two onion cultivars in greenhouse environment. This system was well controlled, eliminating a lot of disturbing factors. The comparative analysis of Makói bronz and Makói lila spring onoins showed that there is difference in selenium tolerance and accumulation not only between plant species but inside it between the different cultivars, too. The Makói bronz seemed to more sensitive to the selenate treatment than Makói lila.
Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an economically and ethnobotanically important aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and culinary herb, with a very wide gene pool, that is sensitive to cold and prone to several plant pathogens that can demolish harvest and lessen yield. In this research, the effects of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and TDZ...(Thidiazuron) on different genotypes for in vitro cloning were determined, in order to provide a detailed protocol guide concerning Ocimum basilicum L. propagation. The results from the O. basilicum seed propagations revealed that the best condition for the secondary shoot growth is with 5.0 mg/l TDZ or 1.5 mg/l BAP on all types of explants except the root, the secondary root growth can be obtained on all types explant with any BAP concentration and all cytokinins can induce callus on all types of explants. On the whole, it shows that multiple secondary shoot induction and regeneration in Ocimum basilicum L. is regulated by appropriate cytokinin concentration.
Basil species are highly sensitive to exterior environmental conditions and its consequences lead to great economic and agronomic losses. In this research, a mutation method was optimized out for creating a new variety of Ocimum basilicum L., which could tolerate the extreme/extraordinary climatic circumstances or biotic stresses, such... as fungal diseases. Fast neutron irradiation was performed on the Hungarian commercial variety seeds with doses of 5 to 60 Gray and grown into fully developed plants. Numerous phenotypical changes like deformed congestion, leaf mutation, and low growth occurred, especially at higher dosages. Then to confirm whether the plantlets had mutation or not, and to detect the molecular variation and relationship, fingerprinting profiles of the developed mutant regenerants and donor plant have been assessed using ISSR markers. 115 loci were yielded, ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 kb, out of which 110 loci were polymorphic in nature, representing 95.6% polymorphism. The most suitable primer to determine the genetic diversity within the Ocimum species was the UBC-856 with 0.42 PIC and 4.1 MI values.