Sensorial appraisal of sour cherries grown by environmental technology

Sour cherry samples have been tested by a panel of potential consumers, and the judgments expressed by points given for each attribute. The correlation of individual traits with “general impression” has been explored. Primary raising of data was aimed to evaluate the effect of environmental growing technology upon sensorial impression of fruits for fresh consumption. Organoleptic tests consist of tasting and filling out of forms with numerical data as ratings them regarding taste, flavour and flesh firmness. The values of coefficients of correlation showed that a couple of other attributes as appearance, juiciness and sugar/acids perceived were irrelevant from the point of view of acceptance, i. e. the general impression.

Importance of orchard floor management in organic fruit growing (nutritional aspects)

Worldwide research goals and concerns are to soil conservation and improve. This conception is mostly actual in horticulture where the numbers of high-density plantings are continuously increasing. High-density orchards cause more intensive nutrient and water uptake. So that the preservation of soil moisture and nutrient level are key factors in qualified fruit growing. On the other hand due to the climatic changes the water supply of trees will be satisfied among worse conditions than some decades ago. Appearance of water supply problems and water stress is increased in organic growing, where the number of corrections is limited anyway. Furthermore, floor management is a successful tool in weed management which causes many problems for organic growers due to the prohibition of synthetic herbicides. This paper will mainly focus on the nutritional aspects of methods of orchard floor management for growers adopting organic fruit management to make their production profitable.

The effect of climatic anomalies on the nutrient supply of fruit plantations (Minireview)

Climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements in terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water stresses. Nowadays, we have to know the dark side of the weather events because it is causing more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary. The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake following climatic anomalies and response. These problems are: (i) water supply problems (water-stress); (ii) drought and frost as temperature­ strees. Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:

  • Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
  • The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
  • When developing a fruit orchard, three factors should be taken into consideration: "Location, Location, Location".
  • Moreover, proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of climatic anomalies.
  • Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
  • Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as modifier factors.

Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees.

Another solving is groundcover of soil means a potential opportunity to temper or even avoid climatic anomalies.

Calculation of climatic probability of winter and spring frost damages in the main peach and apricot growing districts of Hungary

The probability of winter and spring frost damages experienced in peach and apricot plantations has been assessed in 5 growing regions of Hungary (Szeged-Szatymaz, around the lake Balaton, Mecsekalja, hills of Buda, Mátraalja) and (Mecsekalja, hills of Buda, Pest­Godo116, Duna-Tisza Mize, Matra-Bükkalja) during the period between 1951 and 2000.

Frost tolerance of flower buds on a given shoot sample is expressed by the mean value assessed after frost damage (LT50), and the meteorological records of the growing sites raised between 1951 and 2000 are used to calculate the probability of frost damage. In peach, the difference between growing sites and between varieties may become two fold as for the chance of repeated frost damage at a probability of 50 %. In apricot, the probability of frost damage may exhibit differences between growing sites up to 20 % as for susceptible varieties, and 16 % for frost tolerant varieties. Frost damage may vary between 4 and 18 % depending on the genuine frost tolerance of the varieties. Peach is afflicted by low temperature causing substantial losses of yield at the highest probability in the region Szeged-Szatymaz and at the lowest in Mátraalja. Apricot is, on the other hand, most endangered in the Duna-Tisza Mize region, while the lowest probability of frost damage is expected around Mecsek and Buda.

The critical period of frost damage in the mid of January in Szeged-Szatymaz region, in Mecsekalja the mid of February showed the highest probability of frost damage. All growing sites are frequented at high chances by frost damages occurring during and closely after the blooming period. Duna-Tisza köze is mainly afflicted in early March, whereas Mátra-Bükkalja in mid of January and each March.

The probability of temperatures below zero degree has been assessed in all the 5 regions observed. Around April 5-8 the probability of freezing temperatures diminishes steeply at all sites, whereas the risk of frost increases again around April 9— 11. That climatic peculiarity of should be taken into consideration in choosing growing sites or varieties.

Postulating the effects of a global warming up of the climate, the chances of avoiding frost damages at different growing sites by delaying the blooming dates are considered. According to our calculations, the delay of blooming by 5 days may diminish the risk of frost damage by 4-20 % at the growing sites examined, whereas a delay of 10 days reduces the risk by 37-85 % in both fruit species.

Calculations offered an answer on the question of climatic changes, whether the probability of winter and spring frosts damage changed during the 50 years. The long list of data shows the diminishing chances of winter frosts, while the probability of temperatures risking spring frost damages increased after the early 1970-es up to now.

Floral bud development, blooming time and fertility relations of some Romanian apricot varieties in Hungary

Due to the geographical situation of Hungary the introduction of late ripening apricot varieties holds great interest. In apricot production floral bud development during winter, blooming time, and the fertilisation properties are important factors. These characters were studied in six late ripening Romanian apricot varieties (Callatis, Comandor, Litoral, Selena, Sirena, Sulmona) in Szigetcsép representing the northern site of the lowland growing area. During the mild winter of 1997/98 the dynamics of floral bud development in the Romanian varieties was a few days slower during the whole examination period compared to Gönci magyar kajszi. Their meiotic divisions occurred between 1 and 5 February. Next winter the meiotic division started later at 28 February, due to the cold weather. In these conditions the dynamics of bud development was similar in all the varieties. Averaged over seven years blooming of the Romanian varieties started 1-3 days later than in Gönci magyar kajszi. All the Romanian varieties showed self-fertility to some extent, however, application of other pollen donor sources is necessary for the safety of production, with the exception of Callatis.

Storability of some apricot varieties as affected by storage period

The aim of this study was the estimation of storability of 10 apricot varieties in regard to percentage fruit weight loss, firmness, acidity and T.S.S in fruit during storage periods from one week to 4 weeks. All the variety gave the same trend as all of them loss weight, firmness decreased, acidity and T.S.S decreased but the differences were not the same in all varieties. in case of some varieties the percentage of fruit weight loss reached to about 9 % after 28 days also the differences between varieties in two seasons refer that this character is determined by genetic factors beside effect of environmental and agriculture factors.

Sampling experience in a cherry plantation

Experiments in a cherry plantation were performed to find out that samples taken from various parts of the foliage of the tree what extent represent the whole tree. One tree from three different cherry varieties was selected. In the selection, we tried to form a good representation of the foliage of the orchard. 8 sampling locations were designated on each tree, in two different heights and four different directions according to the points of the compass.We measured the main sizes of the fruits in three orthogonal dimensions with a digital slide gauge with an accuracy of 0.01 mm; the mass of each cherry by an analytical balance, with an accuracy of 0.001 g; the mass of the stones with the same analytical balance, and then calculated the stone-pulp ratio. The measured and calculated data are used to characterize the sample in question.

Effect of variety and cultivation technology on phenols and antioxidant activity of sweet and sour cherry

The goal of the present work was to compare different sweet and sour cherry cultivars and cultivation methods (bio/integrated) with respect to polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The concentration of total polyphenols ranged between 880–1050 mg kg-1 of fresh fruit, whereas antioxidant activity expressed as TEAC was found to be between 5.4 and 10.3 mmol kg-1 for the sweet cherry cultivars examined. In case of sour cherry the level of polyphenols ranged between 1283 and 3490 mg/kg fresh edible part of the fruit. Antioxidant activity was recorded between 15–32 mmol kg-1 for the different sour cherry cultivars included in this work. After one-month storage at low temperature, the total phenols and antioxidant activity decreased by 2–40% in the sour cherry cultivars studied. The anthocyanin content in cherry cultivars was less (131–312 mg kg-1) than the135–1893 mg kg-1 found in sour cherries. Anthocyanin level was higher in samples produced under organic farming conditions than in those produced with integrated cultivation.

The expression of the primigenic dominance in the flowering and fruit set of selected apple cultivars on different growth inducing rootstocks

Authors investigated the expression of the primigenic dominance in the flowering and fruit from open and self pollination of four apple cultivars ('Gala Royal', 'Golden Smoothee', Pink Lady' and 'Vista Bella') during two consecutive years in Western Hungary on three different growth inducing rootstocks (M. 9, MM. 106 and seedling). There were not significant differences in the effect of the rootstocks on the flowering order in a flower cluster. Significant difference in the fruit set in open pollination was found among individual flowers in a cluster, mostly between the king bloom and the second flower. The rate of the fruit set from self-pollination was very low without any significant difference among individual flowers in the cluster.

The hungarian raspberry today and outlooks of its development (Review)

The hungarian raspberry today and outlooks of its development (Review)

Agroclimatological properties of growing sites assigned to apple and pear production in Hungary

Apple and pear growing sites in Hungary are classified into four regions according to the Hydro-thermic Coefficient: dry, moderately dry. moderately humid and humid. Most of the plantations of apple and pear are located in regions considered as moderately dry and moderately humid. Within that category, the two respective species have different preferences, i.e. the ecological features of Hungary give different opportunities for apple and pear growing. Apple is grown almost everywhere in the country, successfully. The selection of cultivar-regions is needed mainly for increasing competitiveness on the market. Main apple growing regions are listed in 3 large groups. For the definition of cultivar-regions, mainly the configurations of soil and precipitation, i.e. conditions of the soil and opportunities of gaining water were decisive. Market factors are also considered. The area assigned to pear is much less than that of apple, in Hungary. Some well known and popular varieties would require high air humidity which cannot be presented in most of Hungary. Therefore, the possibility to establish regions for pear varieties is restricted, we have to create a particular micro-environment. Two groups are potential. The first one comprises sites where the annual precipitation is 700 mm, at least. There, apple and pear production would compete each other. In more dry habitats (less than 700 mm annual precipitation), micro-environments should be found and only drought-resistant, mainly summer-ripe cultivars should be chosen with, preferably, low tendency of sclereid formation. In that case, neither irrigation could help to produce adequate quality in varieties sensitive to low air humidity.


Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content in quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) fruit

Fruits of twelve quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) commercial cultivars and selections were compared in the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) of intact and peeled fruits. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content ranged between 5.99 and 63.10 mmol AA/100 g FW, and 3.92 and 12.83 g GA/100 g FW, respectively. These ranges cover an almost 8-times variation among the tested genotypes in case of antioxidant capacity and also declares two-times variation for total polyphenolic content. Cultivars ‘Aromate’ and ‘Bereczki’ possessed the lowest antioxidant capacity and ‘Román portugál’ and ‘Bereczki’ had the lowest polyphenolic contents. In contrast, cultivars ‘Champion’ and ‘Konstantinápolyi’ possessed the highest antioxidant capacity and ‘Mezôtúri’ and ‘De Husi’ had the highest polyphenolic contents. The Pearson’s coeffi cient was relatively moderate but signifi cant (r=0.51) indicating a weak interdependence between FRAP and TPC values of quince fruits. Our results led us to the conclusion that quince might be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants and polyphenolics.

Effect of hail protecting nets on the quality of apples

Today, successful fruit growing depends largely on the security of production. Among the technological elements of a secure growing system, the use of hail protection nets serves special attention. Components of security are the regularity, conspicuous large yields with excellent quality, which determine the prices and profitability as well (Szabó et al., 2010). In the European Union, most of the apple growing countries produce higher yields by 10-20% than Hungary. The conditions of better yields are partly due to a more favourable ecological milieu, partly to more developed technologies and serious discipline of the operations. Our own competitiveness could be developed first of all in those moments. As a consequence of global climatic changes, excesses of weather, i.e. hail-storms became more frequent. Different methods of protection against hail are developed abroad but also in Hungary. The examination of effects of the hail protection nets compared with the check without nets has been the purpose of our experiments. The growing system was the intensive one with high planting densities. Fruits of the two subsequent years have been compared as grown with and without hail protective nets. It turned out that in one season when shoot growth was stimulated, the shadowing effect of the net increased in addition the growth and at the same time braked the differentiation of flower buds, which exerted negative effects on yield of the next year. Let alone this phenomenon, the quality of fruits was not influenced by the hail protection net.

Incidence of virus fungal diseases on three stone fruits cultivars in Hungary

In this two-year study, incidence of Polystigma rubrum on plum, and Apiognomonia erytrostoma on apricot were evaluated on several stone fruit cultivars in Hungary. Results showed that most apricot cultivars expressed symptoms caused by A. erytrostoma, graded between 2 and 3 (10-50%) by the end of the summer in 2005 and 2006. The most tolerant apricot cultivars were Budapest and Mandulakajszi while the most susceptible ones were ’Magyar kajszi’ and ’Piroska’.Assessments made on plum showed that most of the plum cultivars were tolerant or lowly susceptible to P. rubrum such as ’Ageni’, ’Althann ringló’, ’Bluefre’, ’Cacanska najbolja’, ’Silvia’, ’Ruth Gerstetter’, ’Tuleu gras’ and ’Utility’. The most susceptible plum cultivars to P. rubrum were ’Besztercei clones’ and ’Debreceni Muskotály’.

Sunburn incidence of apples is affected by rootstocks and fruit position within the canopy but not by fruit position on the cluster

Authors investigated sunburn incidence of apples on the combinations of three different growth inducing rootstocks (M.9,MM.106 and seedling) and five varieties (‘Smoothee’, ‘Golden Reinders’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Jonagold Jonica’). Symptoms were classified as sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. The frequency of symptoms was recorded at various parts of the canopy (N, E,W, S, and lower canopy, upper canopy) and on the cluster (terminal, lateral). Cultivar susceptibility varied between 0.30 and 5.65% on M.9 rootstock, ‘Granny Smith’ seemed to be the most susceptible cultivar whereas relatively low percentage of damaged fruit was observed for ‘Gloster’. On MM.106 and seedling rootstocks, damage level was significantly lower than on M.9. Remarkable differences were not observed in the share of the three sunburn types between cultivars. The most common symptom observed was sunburn browning. Far less fruit was affected by sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. Photooxidative sunburn symptoms were not found on ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Gloster’ fruits on MM.106 rootstock. Latter cultivar did not show sunburn necrosis symptoms either. With increasing growing vigor of the rootstocks the share of sunburn browning increased. Fruits with sunburn symptoms were found in a great majority on theW quadrant of the trees. This was true for all cultivars. Remarkable differences in the location within the canopy of affected fruits between the three types of sunburn were not observed. Specific distribution of sunburned fruit was observed along the vertical axis of the canopy, too. Most of the damaged fruit were found in the upper canopy. This is particularly true for trees on vigorous stocks such as MM.106 and seedling. On M.9 rootstock, depending on cultivars 5.9 to 38.9% of sunburned fruit was located in the lower canopy. Most common symptom in the lower canopy was the sunburn browning, however symptoms of sunburn necrosis were not found at lower canopy level. Low rate of photooxidative sunburn was observed such lower canopy conditions. Sunburn incidence was very similar on king or side fruit. Significant differences were not found in the share of each sunburn types between fruit positions on the cluster. This was not influenced by rootstocks either.

Selection of the chance seedlings of `Mézes körte' (Pyrus communis L.) from the gene bank of Keszthely

We have concluded the selection tests of the `Mézes körte' seedlings planted in the spring of 2006, with special emphasis on the cotyledonary, foliage leaf and the height of plant. Out of the 75 seeds planted in rows, there were 40-45 pieces growing out, so during the first cotyledonary test we had to calculate with almost 40% decay. On 12th April 2006, we recorded some of the important characteristics of the seedlings in their cotyledonary stage which characteristics were important from the point of view of selection (cotyledonary form, cotyledonary length, cotyledonary thickness, cotyledonary colour, cotyledonary petiole length, cotyledonary petiole thickness, cotyledonary petiole colour). The above morphological characteristics are shown in Table No. 1-6. We have also tested the seedling in foliage leaf state, paying special attention on the development stage of the plants (colour of foliage leaf , height of plant). We have completed statistical calculations of the two above mentioned characteristics. The result of that is summarised in Table No. 8-9. The variation coefficient show smaller value in the case of the foliage leaf number (15-32%), while the wider range of spread of the data referring to the height of the plant is shown by the 33-61% CV values. On charts No 4-9. we present the relationship between the height of the plant and the number of foliage leaf, as well as the differences between the two graphs. Based on the above charts and graphs it can be defined that the 40% destruction of the developing seedlings during the period till the next measurement reached 70-80% level. In spite of this however some seedlings showed strong and balanced growth (A44, B42, C25, D16, E5, E39, F38), the further testing and selection of those is to be completed in the future.

Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) visitation at the flowers of quince cultivars (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

Studies were made on the bee visitation of 6 quince cultivars and on the foraging behaviour of honeybees at quince flowers for 3 consecutive years. The bee visitation was highly intense because both the plantation and its surrounding was overpopulated by honeybee colonies. Some 5.5 bee visits were counted in average at 50 opening quince flowers in 10 minutes and some 9.7 flowers were visited of the 50 ones observed meanwhile. This equals some 7 bee visits per flower per day per in good weather. Bee visitation, however, was variable and it was greatly different in the three consecutive years with fairly favourable weather. Some cultivars tended to be more and others less visited by honeybees than the others but these differences were not consequent at each occasion. No consequent relationship between the weather and the bee visitation of quince trees could be recognised. It was concluded that .other factors were responsible for the variable nature of the bee activity at quince. Most honeybees tended to collect pollen (51.6% in average for the 3 years) and usually much less gathered for nectar only (19.9%), and the rest of them were mixed behaviour foragers gathering for both (28.5%). There were some slight differences in the foraging behaviour of honeybees at some cultivars but these differences were not always consequent in consecutive years. Also the nectar production of flowers failed to affect the bee visitation and the foraging behaviour of honeybees definitely. For the variable nature of bee visitation and bee behaviour at quince flowers, supplementary pollination is needed to achieve as high set of fruits as high is required to a good crop at quince (at least 20-25% because the flower density is low of this fruit tree species). Since the intensity of bee visitation at the flowers is the only reliable estimate of the necessity of supplementary bee pollination further research is needed to explore the relationship between the number of honeybee visits and the consequent fruit set at quince.


Evaluation of fruit tree waterstress condition and transpiration with heat fl ux sensors
leaf area index, evapotranspiration, water stress

In this study the transpiration properties and response to heat stress of Granny Smith and Jonagold apple species were measured. The examinations were set at an orchard near to Debrecen. The chosen trees were two years old, without fruits, in 20l container, placed in the mixture of mulch matrix, wood chips and sawdust and grown at the same climatic conditions. One of the most important goals was to determine the leaf area of the trees which is a basic data for transpiration modeling. Leaf area was larger (signifi cance level p<0.05) in the upper part of the canopy to achieve larger photosynthetic surface. Jonagold species with less leaf number (–18% compared to Granny Smith) reached almost the same canopy area, than Granny Smith, due to larger leaf area of Jonagold. Another aim was to measure the transpiration rate of the apple trees. The transpiration measurements were carried out by sap fl ow meter. Only a small transpiration difference can be found between species. During the investigation time there were wet and cool as well as dry and extremely hot periods. In the case of dry and extreme hot periods the transpiration is decreased, which causes decrease in transpiration and enhanced the water stress of trees.

Work quality assessment of a cherry sorting machine

The conditions of the cultivation of marketable cherries are diverse. Choosing the production site on the basis of the climatic conditions, selecting the most appropriate variety taking into account the region and the purpose of the production, utilization of the optimal production method, to ensure the required water and nutrients supply, frost and hail protection techniques, modern technology in crop protection, and professional performance of harvesting and handling, to name just a few of the most important issues. The objective of present study is to determine the qualitative characteristics of the UNITEC cherry sorting machine.

Comparison of apples from organic and integrated farming

Prima’, ‘Gala’, ‘Remo’, ‘Topáz’, ‘Idared’, ‘Releika’, ‘Resi’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Florina’ apple cultivars, both from organic and integrated farming, from Pallag and Újfehértó, were compared. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity expressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined at harvest and after cool storage. Organic apples were more acidic, while integrated fruits had mostly higher copper and zinc content. Total polyphenols and TEAC values did not show a significant difference as a function of farming technology. A principal component analysis shows the separation of provenances as well as stored and fresh apples. Results are considered as preliminary.

Impact of boron foliar fertilization on annual fluctuation of B in sweet cherry leaves and fruit quality

The goal of the study was to examine response of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) to boron (B) fertilization. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdorfi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock.

Sweet cherry trees planted on a calcareous chernozem soil. Trees were foliar-fertilized with B. Foliar B sprays were performed: (1) in the spring, at the stage of white bud, beginning of flowering (B1), and (2) repeated 5 weeks after full bloom (B2). In each of spring spray treatments, B was applied at a rate of 0.15 kg ha-I. Trees untreated with B served as a control.

The results showed that B fertilization had effect on B concentration in leaf tissues, mostly after ripening. B was present significantly higher amount in leaf in treated samples after ripening.

Mean fruit weight was slightly increased by B fertilization. Fruit sensitivity to cracking was not influenced by B fertilization. Nevertheless, from our data it can be conclude that the sensitivity of fruit to cracking is improved when the fruit is riper, the fruit density and fruit weight are higher. The soluble solids varied between 15.0 and 15.9% according to the treatments. Our results for the monosaccharides investigated varied between 5.1 and 7.2 as glucose and fructose as well. Galactose and sucrose was detected very small amount in the unprocessed cherries. Applied B treatments increased sugar contents but decreased organic acid contents in sweet cherry fruits.

It is concluded that under conditions of this experiment, B fertilization can be recommended in sweet cherry culture to improve fruit quality and their appearance.

The effect of nitrogen supply on specific yield and fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrogen supply on yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars and to explore the relationships between canopy density and the different fruit quality parameters.

The experiments were carried out at Kálmánháza, in Eastern Hungary in a private orchard in 2003-2004. The response of four apple cultivars ('Elstar', 'Gala Prince', 'Granny Smith', 'Idared') to different nitrogen dosages was studied. The assessed and calculated indices were: yield, fruit diameter, fruit height, shape index, fruit mass, firmness, dry matter content and colouration. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization has a significant effect on the yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars. The calculated specific yield values were reduced by the application of nitrogen via the increase in the volume of the canopy. An opposit trend was observed for fruit diameter, fruit height and fruit weight, which increased with increasing nitrogen supply. The reduced shape index caused flattening of fruits.

However, the improvement of fruit quality via increasing nitrogen dosage is only virtual, since these dosages increase the fruit size, but firmness, dry matter content and colouration are diminished, which decreases the value of the fruits on the market.

The authors also studied the relationships between canopy density responsible for assimilation and light supply of the fruits and the different fruit quality parameters. The closest linear inversely proportional relationship was found in the case of colouration. There was a negative linear relationship between canopy density and firmness or dry matter content. The relationship between canopy density and fruit mass could be described by a quadratic polinomial function.

Morphological and phenological properties of sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary and their inter-incompatibility relations

Regular observations and experiments were performed during a 14 year period on 6 sour cherry varieties. The morphological traits of leaves and fruits were compared, and the phenology of blooming as well as of ripening dates served to start an estimation of the possibilities of mutual pollination and the planning of harvest operations. Experiments involved obligate autogamy, artificially controlled allogamy and open pollination in order to reveal self-fertility, self-sterility or inter-incompatibility relations.

The varietal characters represent, each, different values in the distinction of the items, because of their intra-varietal variability. From that point of view, the most reliable are the data of blooming and ripening time, fruit size and the fertility relations.

Inter-incompatibility was observed between the group of self-fertile, "Pándy type" varieties (`Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’) on one side and the selection of Pándy 7', a self-sterile variety on the other side. Unilateral incompatibility has been detected within the former group of new, self-fertile varieties, the combinations: (`Újfehértói fürtös’ x ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ as well as `Újfehértói fürtös’ x Kántorjánosi’.

Our results prove the close kinship between those three new varieties and the original Pándy variety on the base of being highly similar in their morphology and also of the fact of their inter-incompatibility, though unilateral.


Variation between some apricot varieties in regard to flowering phenology in Boldogkôváralja, Hungary

The aim of this study was the estimation of blossoming of 14 apricot cultivars in Boldogkôváralja in 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons. And this will help growers to select appropriate varieties to their weather conditions. For this target the blooming period of 19 apricot varieties of different origin was observed in three subsequent years. There was no large difference in the beginning of blooming in the different years, and the greatest variation between the start date of flowering was about 1 to 3 days as the place of experiment site near to northern border and also, length of flowering period of apricot trees is also inversely related to date when blooming started. The little differences in flowering dates and flowering periods due to the high temperature through the three seasons of study.

Climatic indicators regarding the rest period of sour cherry

Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quantity. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.

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