Vol 29 (2023)

Published July 20, 2023

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  • Ecological characteristics of natural and culturated species, their comparison in Prunus genus
    7-16
    Views:
    155

    Plum species are found native throughout the nothern hemisphere, but mostly in the temperate zone. The earliest writings about plum date back some 2000 years (De Candolle, 1894; Cullinan, 1937) puts the age of plums at 2000-4000 years old (Bagenal, 1954). However, the stone core findings suggest a greater past. The question is difficult to conclude because the large number of species of the genus are taxonomically unclear and spread over a wide geographical area. The taxonomic position of stone fruit species and varieties can also be different, especially for Prunus species (Kárpáti, 1967; Terpó, 1974; Raming & Cociu, 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997; Surányi, 2013).  The study analyzes the average relative ecological value measurement numbers of 75 species, including 120 cultivars, in terms of diversity and similarity. It is novel that, based on the sources, the author used the Ellenberg-Borhid values for the European, Asian, North American and other species, expanding them with transitional subgenera (e.g. Microcerasus). It was also possible to pay attention to a North African, Central and South American Prunus/Prunophora species. Following the accounting of economic and fruiting values, the species, subspecies, and varieties of the European and Mediterranean regions are the finalists, but species hybrid plums, rootstocks, or Prunus species whose values have not yet been known can play a role. Although the kéköny is a known species, it can become a cultivated fruit species due to the high antioxidant content of the fruit (Hegedűs & Halász, 2019).

    145
  • Participatory evaluation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties under irrigation conditions at Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara
    17-22
    Views:
    84

    Participatory on-farm evaluation of improved tomato varieties (‘Melka salsa’, 'Roma VF' and 'Kochero’) against the local tomato variety was carried out during the 2019/2020 growing season involving six farmers of Abergelle district, Eastern Amhara. The objective of the experiment was to assess the performance of different tomato varieties for the farmers, then to collect their feedback. Based on the actual and farmers’ preference data, the analysis underscores the better performance of improved tomato varieties over local varieties by most yield-related attributes. Average marketable fruit yields of ‘Melka salsa’, ‘Roma VF’, ‘Kochero’, and the local variety were 4.62, 3.88, 3.64, and 3.10 ton ha-1, respectively. The improved varieties thus had a yield advantage of 72.38%, 37.14%, and 25.72% over the local variety in that order. Among improved tomato varieties, ‘Melka salsa' provided the highest fruit yield on top of owing the highest score of overall preference attributes rank. Scale-wide diffusion of ‘Melka salsa’ tomato variety is therefore suggested for similar and potential agro-ecologies. Biological scientists also should take farmers’ preference attributes and feedback as a backup for future breeding and adaptation studies on tomato varieties.

    95
  • Effects of salinity stress induced by hot spring water on tomato growth, yield and fruit quality under hydroponic cultivation in Japan
    23-28.
    Views:
    107

    The objective of this research was to test hot spring water as a source of salt to improve tomato quality under the hydroponic system. This research was conducted at Yamagata University, in Japan from February to July 2017. Salt stress was induced using salts of hot spring wastewater collected from Yupoka Onsen (Tsuruoka, Japan). The treatments were EC 2, 4, 8 12, and 16 mS/cm which were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. Tomato plants were grown at EC 2 until flowering and then subjected to different EC concentrations until harvesting. The data were collected on plant growth parameters and fruit quality. Fruits were harvested at the red stage until the 5th truss. The results showed that fruits' Soluble Solids Content, organic acid, Nitrate contents and Sugar: Acid ratio increased significantly at EC 16 mS/cm and in the upper trusses compared to EC 2 and in the lower trusses. In contrast, fruit weight significantly decreased at EC 16 mS/cm and in upper trusses. Leaf thickness, size and SPAD, and specific leaf weight significantly declined at EC 16 mS/cm and upper leaves compared to EC 2 and in lower leaves. Plant height started to decline significantly after three weeks of treatment at EC 16 compared to EC 2.

    85
  • Vegetative and micropropagation potential of Piper guineense (Schumach and Thonn)
    29-36
    Views:
    106

    The continuous loss of forest plants due to deforestation, and the increasing demand for Piper guineense because of its medicinal and food value, has put a permanent pressure on its population in the wild where it is collected. A method for conservation and mass propagation is therefore required. This research was undertaken to determine the optimal concentration of auxin needed for vegetative propagation and to investigate the potential of Piper guineense for micropropagation. The auxin optimization study of vegetative propagation was based on the use of two-nodal stem cuttings treated with five different concentrations of indole-butyric acid (IBA). Growth parameters such as the number of sprouted, rooted and survived cuttings among others were determined. To investigate the potential of Piper guineense for micropropagation, nodal explants were subjected to different sterilizing treatments using ethanol, NaOCl, mancozeb, streptomycin and Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM). The effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs) was tested on sterilized nodal explants using full strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) hormone-free media alone as control and MS media supplemented with PGRs (BA, NAA and KIN) at different concentrations and combinations. Significant differences were observed across the treatments for all growth parameters measured. However, 2000 ppm IBA significantly (p<0.05) influenced sprouting and rooting of the stem cuttings. Piper guineense explants have deep tissue contaminants, which cannot be eradicated by surface sterilization alone except double sterilization using PPM. On control media, neither shoot nor root response was observed while the highest percentage of induced roots was obtained from explants cultured on MS +1 mg/L BA + 0.25 mg/L NAA. Shoot induction was only achieved when BA was used alone and when subcultured on media supplemented with NAA, which generated roots.

    79
  • Effects of biochar and inorganic fertiliser on the growth and yield of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) in Kenya
    37-45.
    Views:
    177

    Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a root vegetable packed with many nutritional benefits such as minerals and vitamins. Despite its importance in Kenya, farmers get about 30-35 t/ha which is significantly lower than the potential yield (68 t/ha). This is mostly attributed to low soil fertility. This study aimed to determine the response of the beetroot growth and yield on biochar and NPK. A 3×4 factorial experiment was carried out at Egerton University farm over two seasons to test the effects of biochar and NPK (17-17-17), under supplemental irrigation. Biochar (0, 5, 10 t/ha) was combined with NPK (0, 200, 300, 400 kg/ha). The combination of Biochar and NPK increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) beetroot growth and yield in two seasons. Treatment B10N400 showed the tallest plants (79.2 cm) at 90 days in season two, while the control resulted in the shortest (27.6 cm). Treatment B10N200 showed the biggest (213.2 cm2) leaves at 90 days. The treatment B5N300 recorded the highest marketable yield (84 t/ha) in season two and the lowest was B0N0 with 2.6 t/ha. Sole application of NPK rates (200, 300, 400 kg/ha) increased significantly the growth and yield of beetroot compared to the control in both seasons. In season one, N300 (300 kg/ha) had 61.9 t/ha of the total yield, the control had the lowest. In season two, 300 kg/ha had 83 t/ha of total yield. Biochar increased beetroot growth and yield in season 2. Treatment B5 recorded the highest marketable yield of 61.2 t/ha, while the control showed the lowest of 53 t/ha.

    136
  • Genotypic difference of garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivars for growth, bulb yield and yield related attributes at Tigray Province, Northern Ethiopia
    46-52.
    Views:
    107

    The experiment was conducted at Ofla district from June to October of 2017 and 2018 cropping season to select high yielding and adaptable garlic cultivar(s). Six garlic cultivars namely Chefe, Tsedey, Holeta local, Kuriftu and Bora-4 and one Ofla Local were evaluated. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications. Different growth, phenology, yield and yield related data were collected. Leaf length, leaf width, bulb diameter and length were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by garlic cultivars in both cropping seasons. Bulb weight and number of cloves per bulb were highly significantly (P<0.01) influenced by cultivars in both cropping seasons. Also, marketable yield, unmarketable yield and total yield ha-1 were highly significantly (P<0.01) influenced by cultivars in both seasons. During 2017 and 2018, the highest marketable bulb yield was observed from Ofla Local cultivar with an average value of (8.86 t/ha) and (9.06 t/ha) respectively. During the 2017 cropping year, the maximum and significantly higher total bulb yield of 10.21 t/ha was recorded on the Ofla Local cultivar. Moreover, in 2018, this cultivar provided the maximum total bulb yield of 9.80 t/ha. Therefore, the Ofla Local cultivar showed the greatest performance for growth, yield and yield related attributes. Thus, it is recommended for cultivation in areas having similar agro-ecology. To improve the productivity of garlic, it is important to study and identify the optimum fertilizer level and spacing in the study area.

    75
  • Agromorphological and nutritional quality profiles of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) as influenced by cultivar, growing medium and soil amendment source
    53-59.
    Views:
    94

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook F.) is popular as food and feed around the world. Sixteen treatments were developed from factorial combinations of three factors: cultivar (ugu elu and ugu ala), growing medium (garden soil (GS) and white sand (WS)), and soil amendment source (poultry manure, NPK, supergro and no amendment). A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the agromorphological and nutritional traits of fluted pumpkin obtained from the treatments. Fresh leaves were analyzed for crude protein, crude fibre, crude lipid, total ash, phytate and nitrate concentrations. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. Mean plots were used to explain the effects of the three factors and profiling was done using the GYT biplot. There were significant (p≤0.05/0.01) mean squares for measured traits, suggesting the possibility of selection among the treatments. Plants in GS consistently out-performed those in WS for shoot weight, leaf length, and number of leaves per plant possibly due to greater availability of nutrients in the GS. Inconsistent patterns observed in the proximate concentrations of pumpkin from the 16 treatments showed the role of interaction among the three factors. Principal component analysis identified some traits as contributors to differences among the treatments which can be basis of selection. Treatments 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 might be useful to improve vegetative yield while 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 could improve nutritional values of the fluted pumpkin.

    76
  • Calla lily soft rot causal agents, symptoms, virulence and management: a review
    60-68.
    Views:
    110

    Bacterial soft rot is a polyetiological disease attacking calla lily [Zantedeschia spp (L.) Spreng.]. This disease has reduced the commercial value of this crop. This work aims to review scientific information to give an insight into calla lily soft rot causal agents, symptoms, factors favouring the disease, virulence mechanisms and management strategies. Special emphasis is put on the current progress with regards to understanding calla lily mechanisms of resistance to soft rot and their potential for the development of tolerant/resistant cultivars with commercial traits.

    71
  • Evaluation of vermicompost application and stress of dehydration on mullein medicinal plants
    69-77.
    Views:
    90

    The use of organic fertilizers is one of the suitable solutions in the organic production of medicinal plants due to its good effect in improving soil properties, reducing environmental effects, and better plant growth. To investigate the effect of vermicompost organic fertilizer application and water stress on some morphological and physiological traits of the Mullein medicinal plant, research was conducted at Isfahan Azad University in the form of split plots in the form of a randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The test factors included the application of vermicompost organic fertilizer at three levels of 0, 4, and 8 kg per square meter of soil and water stress at two levels of normal irrigation and irrigation at the time of 50% of the soil's agricultural capacity as the main treatment in research farm conditions. The results of the experiment showed that the application of vermicompost organic fertilizer and water stress improved the morphological and physiological characteristics of the Mullein medicinal plant compared to the control, i.e. no application of organic fertilizers. The results showed that the highest number of secondary branches, number of flowers of the secondary stem, diameter of flowering stem, the diameter of flower, and fresh weight of shoot in the Mullein medicinal plant were obtained by applying vermicompost organic fertilizer at the rate of 4 and 8 kg of soil. The application of vermicompost organic fertilizer at the rate of 8 kg in the soil increased flavonoids compared to the non-use of vermicompost treatment. However, to improve the vegetative growth and increase the reproductive efficiency of the Mullein plant and reduce production costs, the use of vermicompost organic fertilizer is recommended at the rate of 4 and 8 kg of soil, respectively.

    66
  • Effect of training system on the incidence of Stigmina carpophila and fruit size and weight of European plum (Prunus domestica)
    78-80.
    Views:
    79

    In a two-year study (2017-2018), the aim was to determine the incidence of shot hole disease (Stigmina carpophila) on plum cultivar ’Čačanska lepotica’ in four different training systems with tree spacings of 4 x 1.5, 4 x 2, 5 x 2.5 and 6 x 3 m. Fruit size (width and length) and fruit weight were also assessed during harvest of fruit in the four training system. Cultivar ’Čačanska lepotica’ was susceptible to shot hole disease and showed shot hole symptoms in both years and in all training systems. In 2017, the highest disease incidence was observed in the 4 x 1.5 m plot (34% in June and 85% at the end of September). In June and July, the 6 x 3 m training system had the lowest disease incidence. In August and September, the 5 x 2.5 m training system had the smallest incidences of the disease among the training systems. In 2018, except for one assessment date (18 August) the 4 x 1.5 m plot had higher incidences than the other three training systems. Training system and years had almost no effect on fruit size, but there were some differences in fruit weight among the training systems.

    71