Vol. 4 No. 2 (2019)

Published June 6, 2019

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Economics

  • Changes in the financing of domestic research and development
    153-161
    Views:
    161

    Nowadays, the fourth industrial revolution is taking place at an incredible speed, with innovation at its heart. Of this, R & D funding is of paramount importance, which is directly or indirectly one of the most important tools for increasing corporate competitiveness. The study examines trends in domestic R & D expenditures over the past one and a half decades. It focuses on the extent to which the financial crisis has affected the amount of funding resources and their structure. From an international comparison, Hungary and the European Union spend much less on research and development than those in the global competition. The impact of the crisis is reflected in the decline in the growth dynamics of R & D expenditures, but it has not been solved solely as a result of the crisis. Changes in the domestic structure of expenditures in recent years are encouraging and are in sync with the change in attitude that is considered desirable in R & D funding. If we examine the domestic statistical data more thoroughly, we can no longer be very satisfied. However, from trends in data from recent years, it becomes apparent that neither Hungary nor the European Union will achieve the 1.8 and 3.0 per cent of GDP R & D spending by 2020.

  • Comparison of R&D innovation indicators of the visegrád group
    162-172
    Views:
    74

    Innovation is a crucial strategic issue not only for businesses to maintain and improve competitiveness, but also has paramount role at a macroeconomic level how a national economy is able to contribute to the national division of labour. Innovation and research and development are particular and even more crucial in post-socialist countries which are trying to catch up with Western Europe in an economic point of view. We compared countries in the Visegrád Group in the study regarding their innovation indexes, R&D indicators and corporate innovations. These indicate that countries in the Visegrád Group are lagging behind the European Union. The Czech Republic ranks the first place in almost each aspect among the countries in the Visegrád Group. As for time series indicators, there is a steadily improving tendency in R&D. Regarding measuring innovation and R&D, it can be concluded that perfect method and scorecard are not available, indexes based on varying methods may generate different results and decision taking only one index into consideration cannot be made in business practice. In my opinion, R&D indicators are dominant to a large extent in comprehensive innovation indexes that might be misleading in the assessment of innovation (particularly in corporate innovation).

Environmental Engineering

  • Opportunities to the urban air quality of characterization by the cost-effective electrochemical sensors
    1-16
    Views:
    93

    The quality of urban is more and more affected by the accelerating urbanization. The efficiency of improving air quality can be increased by providing local information on each pollutant source. The aim of our activity is providing real-time high-spatial reasultion data about air quality of the Hungarian capital city, Budapest. In this paper, results of testing and calibration of different low-cost electrochemical sensors and localization of them are represented. The first selected sensor is suitable for detecting carbon dioxide (CO2), alcohols, benzene (C6H6), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3). The RingAir initiative also aims to involve the urban population in active environmental monitoring activities, therefore in the future we are planning to implement a more detailed and continuously updated monitoring system with the participation of a Budapest bicycle courier service and some of the city's population.

  • Opportunities in circular agriculture
    17-23
    Views:
    237

    Water is the source of life. For the long-term preservation of water resources it is very important to develop sewerage and sewage treatment. Sewage sludge is not primarily a waste that needs to be disposed of but also a secondary raw material or a renewable energy source. Municipal sewage sludge, and sewage sludge composts, contain relatively large quantities of organic matter, so agricultural utilization can be a major potential of its use. The transition to sustainable agriculture is becoming more urgent and increasingly important as it can provide a solution that looks to the future. Sustainable agriculture should work according to natural law, so it should be self-sustaining, that means, cycles, where in to one process the waste created can be used as raw material in the other process. The beneficial effects of sludge on soil include increasing soil organic matter content, increasing soil fertility, nutritional capacity, microbiological activity, and complex fertilizing effects. However, when is applicated, there is always a problem with the occurrence and accumulation of toxic elements and drug residues. The traditional model of economic activity is the linear model. This model ignores the high economic social, and environmental costs of exploiting, transforming and removing of the resources therefore it is not sustainable in the long term. The circular economy offers an alternative model in which the products materials and resources are maintaned as long as possible and the amount of waste is significantly reduced or lost. It is also possible adapt the overtuned ecological, biological balance of agricultural production systems, with a closed loop circular model. According to this model, the development of tillage technologies and the restoration of organic materials and nutrient supply are possible.

  • What is worth knowing about the establishment from a work safety point of view
    24-31
    Views:
    114

    Under establishment, we mean the process that results in the creation of a new unit (eg factory, plant, office, etc.), a workplace or an existing one what will be renewed, expanded or restructured, or installed; installed on a machine, plant, appliance, whether or not for productive or non-productive purposes. It is generally true that the design, construction, use and subsequent operation of workplaces, facilities, technology, materials, energy, personal protective equipment; production, distribution, import, transportation, movement, use and use of workplaces; in the absence of these, the requirements of the scientific-technical standard can be expected. An employer, operator, and service provider must adapt to market conditions. Accordingly, it should monitor the expectations of customers, business partners, market changes, trends to adapt to expectations, and therefore constantly develop their products, services, produce reliable quality, ensure that quality meets the market expectations providing personal and material conditions to ensure that employees can effectively and safely meet market expectations. The recognized business perception of the employer is to accomplish the above, the objectives to be achieved must be formulated, priority should be given to the potential risks (with particular regard to occupational safety risks) to be measured, measures to be taken to ensure effectiveness, short-, medium- and long-term planning, investment.

  • Can the local government in Hungary be the appropriate local level framework for environmental sustainability?
    32-45
    Views:
    114

    During the search for the framework for environmental (respectively social and economic) sustainability, the importance of local action / decision-making has been formulated several times. At the same time, the capability of local government structures is questioned from several aspects. Local governments today are not necessarily a proper legal-administrative framework for sustainable development, for example because the population of a sustainable local community (conceptually) and of a larger settlement (by size) does not coincide. However, the (partly networked) environmental policy system of the municipalities transcends the administrative area of the settlement, where appropriate, a larger area (agglomeration, city areas, etc.), connecting several actors and activities. The paper seeks to clarify this issue in two rather different but interrelating ways. The first approach is geographically rooted and examines the local government system and the spatial structure of the Hungarian state through environmental economics and environmental policy. The second question is about structural links, namely the problems of local governments potential for infrastructure development and the structure of the local economy. The paper concludes that municipal functions - administration, ownership, public service organization - are all concerned with environmental protection. Considering that many of the processes that are relevant to sustainability are taking place in settlements, so serious changes are needed at this level as well. In this context, cooperation between local and central government levels and the active involvement of (local) society can not be dispensed with, but the current mechanisms are hindering progress.

  • Determination of the accumulation of heavy metals of river sediment by plants
    46-53
    Views:
    125

    Danube is the main river of Hungary. Danube and its floodplains and oxbow lakes are operating as ecological corridors, although their industrial, logistic and touristic role is not negligible. It is well known, that from the source to the estuary of the river Danube there are many industrial facilities. This heavy industrial pollution had effected on the water quality. The most dangerous components of the sewage water of these facilities are heavy metals, which can be found in the water as well as in the sediment. These toxic elements can cause significant health risks, because they can accumulate in the food-chain. The main aim of our research is to investigate the accumulation rate of the heavy metal content of the river sediment in the different parts of the test plants. The main sampling place of our research was a sediment dump was created by excavation from the Open Beach of Dunaújváros in 2009. During our measurements we analysed the cadmium, nickel, lead, chromium, copper and zinc concentration of the sediment and the plants. The test plants, which are growing on this sampling place, were parella (Rumex patientia), perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne), sedge (Carex riparia), bistort (Persicaria maculosa). The extraction of the heavy metal content of the samples was made according to the MSZ Hungarian standard. The concentration of heavy metals were analysed with AAS (atom absorption spectrometer). According to our results we determined that parella could accumulate cadmium, nickel, chromium and zinc in its upper stem, on the other hand bistort could accumulate these elements mainly in its leaves. These information will be important in the case of the in-situ remediation of a polluted area in the future.

  • The impact of realization of solar power plant installation requests in Mandatory Purchase (KÁT) system on the electricity supply of Hungarian settlements
    54-60
    Views:
    94

    The support system of renewable energy production was changed in Hungary in 2017. The legislator created the Mandatory Purchase (KÁT) system earlier to encourage the electricity production from renewable energy sources and waste. The Renewable Energy Subsidy System (Metár) changed the Mandatory Purchase (KÁT) system from the 1st of January in 2017. It had been known before Metár came into force that the supported period in the Matár would be only 13 years while it was 25 years in the KÁT. Therefore, a real rush started for the KÁT support licenses in 2016 in order to make more beneficial contracts by the investors. At the time, the Hungarian Energy and Public Utility Regulatory Authority (MEKH) released a record amount of licenses (more than 2000 pieces) to build solar power plants under 500 kW performance. This is more than 1000 MW total power. This paper searches the answer how this solar power plants will influence the level of self-sufficiency of the Hungarian settlements in the electricity supply if those are realized. Hereinafter, we will analyze the possible impact of these solar power plants in the settlement electricity self-sufficiency.

  • Examination of macro- and micro elements in the artificial bathwater samples
    61-69
    Views:
    131

    During our research, micro- and macro element content of synthetically produced bathwater was examined. Previous studies, which were conducted at the Department of Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Debrecen, proved that the quality of domestic greywater is greatly varied. This diversity can also be observed in the case of greywaters. The examination of bathwater samples covered the contentanalysis of Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Li elements with the application of MP-AES method. The analysis of greywater’s micro and macro content is essential part in the control of irrigation systems, flushing as well as car washing, because its heavy metal content can have a significant effect on the environment. In this study, we would like to present the concentration values of micro and macro elements of the examined greywater samples. Furthermore, we would like to make a comparison among our result, previously examined greywater samples and drinking water samples, too.

  • Numerical analysis of effects of an open-pit coal mine to groundwater
    70-74
    Views:
    110

    In this study we investigated the hydrogeological problems of an open-pit brown coal mine in the Borsod coal basin with Processing Modflow software. The coal mine is located in the valley of the Sajó-river with high transmissivity overburden layer where the traditional dewatering solutions were not encouraging due to inrush risks and low cost-efficiency. A new way of barrier forming was found out and numerically simulated to prove the efficiency of the solution. Since there are several contaminated sites in the surroundings it was a key factor to assure that the new mine dewatering technique has only a negligible effect on the groundwater regime that undisturbs the known contaminant plumes nearby.

  • Comparison of oxidation procedures for removing neonicotinoid insecticides from model solutions
    91-98
    Views:
    87

    The main objective of this study is to remove three neonicotinoid insecticide agents (thiametoxam, acetamiprid, thiakloprid) from model solutions using ferrate and persulfate-based oxidation techniques. In our experiments, an analytical method was developed for HPLC-MS/MS coupled techniques and tests were performed to determine how the molar ratio of the starting target compound/oxidant affects the degree of removal of the target components.

  • Comparison of greywater treatment processes with coagulating agent and oxidizer
    99-106
    Views:
    110

    In our research synthetically produced greywater samples were treated with oxidative and coagulating agents after pre-treatment them by filtration on various filters. We characterised the quality of greywater samples with several parameters. We investigated these parameters on the untreated, pre-treated, and treated samples as well. We evaluated the efficiency of the treatments by measuring the characteristic parameters. The greywater treatment is a very important and effective opportunity for the reasonable freshwater usage. This type of treated water can be suitable for toilet flushing or irrigation. There are a several methods known from the literatures to preparation the greywater samples to reuse. We compared two of these methods in this article.

  • Reducing the use of chemical for biological wastewater treatment by technological modification
    107-113
    Views:
    99

    In the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Debrecen Waterworks, the experts working there fight daily with various problems typical of the Hungarian plant. Suitable denitrification requires the administration of an organic substance in many cases containing biodegradable organic matter. Between January 1 and December 31, 2017, 183.1 t of organic matter was needed. It was important to develop a solution for the site's specialists to ensure efficient biological wastewater treatment without the need for additional carbon input in the technology. We have also supported calculations to ensure stable denitrification irrespective of the fluctuating C/N ratio of incoming sewage. Thus, it would be unnecessary to add up to 200 tonnes of organic matter per year to the technology without which biological wastewater could be achieved.

  • Human security issues of deep wells retraining
    114-123
    Views:
    79

    Nowadays, in the world's energy production structure, fossil fuels dominate and at the same time cause a number of environmental problems. Comparing the use of conventional fossil fuels with geothermal energy, this kind of energy production is extremely beneficial, as there are no pollutants and a renewable energy source. Moreover, if we want to compare geothermal energy with other renewable energy sources (such as wind energy, solar energy, etc.), much of the benefits can also be attributed to geothermal energy becouse it is a stable energy source and the area requirement is low. Due to these extremely favorable properties, the study of the applicability of geothermal energy is gaining ground in renewable energy sources. In addition, it is well known that there are approximately 20 to 30 million abandoned oil wells in the world, plus sealed wells for other purposes, and the final number may be much larger. In the case of abandoned oil wells, the escaping residual oil may be a problem, which can lead to significant environmental problems. Taking these factors into account, research on the recyclability of abandoned wells for geothermal purposes becomes a target for more and more research topics around the world. It is interesting to note that a significant part of the publications are concerned with examining the technological potential of energy utilization, studying heat transport processes, and generating general, energetic or economical evaluations. A publication of a kind that would have evaluated the safety of recyclable abandoned wells in publishing databases was limited. It is therefore an important question that the abandoned wells, from the point of view of human security and environmental protection. How can they be reactive, how can the new technological elements be built up and how much human security factors of the newly created system are affected by the existing elements?

  • Analysis of the Policy Background of Transport Related Use of Renewable Energy
    124-129
    Views:
    99

    The EU energy policy prioritizes the following principles: sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply and addresses the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as a priority. The related EU policy (including the White Paper on Transport) outlines these principles, identifies goals and opportunities for action. At company level methodological guidelines and standard procedures can be used to assess the carbon footprint of the organization, to generate efficiency goals and to prepare action plans. In the Hungarian policy framework, a comprehensive National Sustainable Development Framework Strategy defines the basic principles for the analysis of the sectorspecific or regional strategies. Sustainable Energy Action and Climate Plans (SECAPs) integrate energy and climate issues and include interventions and improvements for the better use of renewable energy sources in transport at municipal level. As a summary it can be stated that exploration of the policy background would needed to influence the use of renewable energy sources for transport and definition of the development goals can help economic organizations to transform their mobility patterns and reduce related carbon footprint.

  • Changeable requirements & Answers With a dynamic system in order to continual improvement of the environmental performance of a rubber industrial big company
    81-90
    Views:
    108

    The topic of this article is the analysis of the changeable environmental requirements for the Environmental Management Systems (EMS) of the companies. The strengthened environmental criteria of the 21st century creates new challenges for the participants of the business sphere. In order to satisfy the criteria of the stakeholders, it is necessary to build out a - by the top management - preferred and proactive EMS that can contain also a life cycle thinking method. This logic is supported by the new ISO14001:2015 standard, too. In the first part of the article the stakeholder conception and the new standard model is presented based on literature analysis. The second part of the article presents an environmental management tool developed by a multinational, tyre company. The model combines the stakeholder conception, the requirements and the life cycle assessment (LCA) in order to respond to the new environmental management challenges. The last part of the article closes with the new development possibilities of the presented environmental management tool worked out by the author.

Management Sciences

  • The role of the nonprofit economic companies in human resource management in Hungary
    145-152
    Views:
    147

    In the changed labor market structure in the context of economic growth in Hungary, the reintegration of displaced and increasingly differentiated groups into the world of work has become an indispensable necessity, with alternative initiatives aimed at long-term profit maximization. Nonprofit economic companies replacing former public benefit companies not only determine the revenues of the whole nonprofit sector in their operations, their work goes beyond this, as most of them are engaged in socially marginalized, disadvantaged, or even disabled people, and can do other work to improve employability and employment. The aim of my study was to process the latest statistical database of the nonprofit sector issued by the KSH in order to determine the role of nonprofit economic companies in employment, by appying secondary analysis.

Engineering Education

  • Development possibilities of Environmental Engineering Education – SWOT analysis
    75-80
    Views:
    156

    Nowadays we are struggling with many environmental issues that require up-to-date environmental specialists. Amongst the causes of environmental problems, long-standing industrial companies are dominant, for which, on the one hand, the assessment and elimination of existing environmental damage and prevention can be the goal. Universities would be able to provide the necessary knowledge and skills with appropriate educational and research programs. In the research we carried out a comprehensive study of environmental engineering education programs of Hungarian higher education institutions. We analysed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the various educational programs. In addition, on the basis of the analysis we made suggestions on the possible directions of the development of the environmental engineering training.

  • Teacher Career System – Teacher Career Model
    130-138
    Views:
    122

    The Hungarian teacher career model that was introduced on September 1, 2013. In the model the following categories were defined: “Novice Teacher”, “Teacher I”, “Teacher II”, “Master Teacher”, “Researcher Teacher”. At the same time certification and evaluation systems were launched. We introduce the quota and the special requirements set by the Minister of Human Resources.

  • On the Hungarian Vocational Education System – opportunities in practical training
    139-144
    Views:
    96

    The system of Vocational Education in Hungary is a rather complicated and the teaching staff and the students often do not know their way around it. In a new series of articles we intend to introduce the different parts of the national vocational training system. This is the first article of the series where we summarize the ways of practical training in the Hungarian Vocational Education System.

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