AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF WAR-ORPHAN STUDENTS AND STUDENTS WITH WAR-DISABLED FATHERS AT HUNGARIAN UNIVERSITIES IN THE 1930S. he thematic focus of the present study is a somewhat neglected phenomenon: the sudden rise in the number of war-orphan university students and students with war-disabled fathers in the irst half of the 1930s. Durin...g and immediately after World War One institutions of higher education were called upon to accept the enrollment of a large number of veterans who returned from the war with physical injuries and psychic scars: often these ”veterans” were returning war-disabled students. By the beginning of the 1930s the focus of relief of disabled servicemen shifted to those whose father had either died or became war-disabled in the Firsts World War. As early as the academic year of 1929/30 this shift was well discernible, by the 1934/35 academic year, however, there came a steep rise in their relative number. he present study ofers a glimpse at those natural causes and administrative measures that will make it more understandable to sort out the factors at work. It will also ofer an insight into the life and social circumstances of war-orphan students and the ones who had a war-disabled father.
Proposal for the Introduction of the Trimester System – Proposal by Faculty of Law of the University of Debrecen to Earl János Zichy, Minister of Religion and Public Education. The Faculty of Law of the University of Debrecen in the last period of the World War I. made a proposal in order to divide the school year to three semester. It was a... strange source of the history of the Hungarian higher education. Based on this document can be cognizable the real life and thinking of the students of the university who came back from the war and of the professors who met with them the first time. The trimestrial system of the higher education was favoured by the students too, but it wasn’t able to come to real because the collapse of the Monarchy.
POSSIBILITIES OF SOCIAL MOBILITY IN THE HIGHER ADUCATION SYSTEM OF THE HORTY-ERA. he living circumstances of academic students were always determined by the prosperity of their parents. he income of parents in prestigous positions with higher qualiications provided for the education of their children, in an era wh...en high expenses deined education as a privilege for a narrow social strata. By the beginning of the 20th century, the democratization of the higher education, the apperance of women and students from lower social strata at the universities had become an international tendency. he increasing number of students in Hungary was also due to the WWI. As students came from various social backgrounds, they received an opportunity to socially rise through education. he study aims at identifying the processes behind the social mobility of academic students between the two WWs.
Articles of the Student Relief Fund (Bursa Academica) of the University of Debrecen. Bursa Academica, the student welfare fund of the University of Debrecen was one of those student welfare institutions between the two world wars whose existence and operation were unknown even to those members of the general public who show interest in the...history of the university. In publishing the full text of the articles of association and by prefixing an introductory essay before it, the author’s objective is to adequately clarify the essence and importance of the institution’s operation. Both in terms of its noble objectives and its activities maintained, the Bursa Academica deserves to be remembered, for it played, together with other similar institutions, an outstanding role in student life.
FOUNDATION FROM THE 20TH CENTURY: THE MEMORANDUM OF GÁRDOS JÁNOS FOUNDATION FOR STUDENT CATERING. At the end of the 19 th century, Mrs. János Gárdos – born as Júlia Andrássy, and died on February 26, 1894, – the widower of Dr. János Gárdos, a doctor from Budapest, ofered a signiicant donation in her la...st will for the future establishment of the dining commons of the third university founded by the state. Following the foundation of the universities in Budapest and Kolozsvar, two universities were being organized in 1912, thus the inancies dedicated to the third university was divided between the universities in Debrecen and Pozsony (later the one in Pécs). he author demonstrates, besides the publication of the official founding document from 1934, the important role of the Gárdos János foundation played in the dining of the university students in the irst two decades of the existence of the university.
The Appearance of the Politicization of the University Life in Debrecen in 1939. A student’s Accusation against Béla Tankó and Bálint Hóman’s response. A very special source of the history of the Hungarian higher education and of the history of the University of Debrecen that accusation which was made in the autumn of 1939 by a stud...ent. This short and nameless letter was an accusation against professor Béla Tankó who had taken a note about the German origin of Bálint Hóman who was the Secretary of Religion and Public Education at that time. One of the students who was the member of the Árpád Comradeship Association wrote a short and modest letter to Hóman about it. This was a clear sign of the radicalization and the politicization of the whole society and of the life in the Hungarian universities. Also had been found the response of Bálint Hóman who sent back this accusation to Béla Tankó with a short letter in which he interpreted this as a wrong deliver. This unpleasant case had been solved by Hóman this way, but the radicalization of the students of the universities and the devaluation of the Hungarian political culture continued.
GÉZA LENCZ AND THE COUNTY FOUNDATION. Géza Lencz is mostly remebered as a theology professor who was a determinant personality in the early history of the University and a legendary teacher of the Calvinist heology Faculty. It is not widely known about him that during his rectorship, while he was persistently fo...ught for the main university building being built, a foundation was established, to support the construction work, collecting the donation of the counties for this noble cause. he county foundation, which was clearly his idea and for which he has sacriied so much, could not fulill its purpose, however it became an eicient support system for the deserving needy students.
the Centenary of the Birth of János Arany and the War. The Message of the Memorial Society from Nagyszalonta to the University of Debrecen about the Cancellation of the Ceremony. One hundred years ago and one hundred years after the birth of Arany the memorial society prepared for a nationwide celebration in Nagyszalonta. They sen...t their official invitation to every literary and scholarly society, with the University of Debrecen among them. Nándor Láng, who was the Rector of the university in the 1916/17. academic year gave the mandate to Károly Pap to attend the ceremony and represent the university. Károly Pap, who was the dean of the faculty of arts, accepted this with pleasure because he was a researcher of the poetry of Arany. But the ceremony was postponed because the train service became unreliable due to the war. The nationwide ceremony had to be cancelled because of the bad traffic conditions and it was never held in Nagyszalonta in 1917. This printed media sources inform us about this and the effect of the Great War on the centenary of the birth of János Arany.
The Articles of the Student Welfare Committ ee of the University of Debrecen. The textual source material published below is an attempt to acquaint the larger public with the articles and statutes of the Student Welfare Committee of the University of Debrecen, which was presided over by Nándor Láng and which was... the supreme body of the university welfare institutional network united in 1930. The articles were approved by the higher authorities on July 1, 1931. The document offers an insight into the inner composition and concrete activities of the committee which oversaw the respective student welfare institutions and which co-ordinated the whole of the university-level student welfare programme. The most important tasks, as laid down in the articles, included ”the promotion of the educational and material interests of the student body” and ”the support of all sorts respecting poor students making good study progress”. Despite the fact that the committee’s personal composition underwent various changes, it continued to remain faithful to the spirit of the statutes, thus becoming the most significant mainstay of the most indigent students.
The Official Communication of Ministerial Counsellor Zoltán Magyary to the István Tisza University about the New System of the Collection of the Students’ Statistical Datas. In the autumn of 1929 Zoltán Magyary finished his famous memorandum to the Minister of Religion and Education Kuno Klebelsberg about the... social care of the students of the universities. In this work Zoltán Magyary was urging to make a detailed statistical survey about the students of the universities in order to the government could
take steps to solve their social problems. After this he began to work out those special questions which can gave the most important informations to the government. In the end of December in 1929 Magyary sent his official communication to the universities about the new system of statistical datas’ collection. The István Tisza University got very important instructions about the new way of the process of the collection. And this statistical survey was the basis of the famous statistical analysis of Laky Dezső (1930) which was the first detailed work about this. Magyary’s official communication is a very important historical source because this statistical collection system was being used to the end of this period. The evidence of it is the other published source, the official communication of József Asztalos which was sent to the university in 1939.
The influence of the economic crisis to the system of surcharges was so deep, that the Ministry of Religion and Public Education was forced to make a new surcharge from the first semester of the 1931/32. year. This fee must be paid by every student of the university at the beginning of every semester. The state of the Hungarian government’s b...udget was so critical, that three years later must be made another maintenance surcharge which was paid based on the measure of the tuition fee exemption. From the first semester of the 1934/35. year every student had to pay this charge in the rate of their tution fee. All these maintenance surcharges were the part of the Hungarian higher education and the part of the surcharges system of the István Tisza University of Debrecen till the end of the first semester of the 1940/41. year.
The Formation and Development of Physical Education at the University of Debrecen Between the Two World Wars. This study offers an overview of the beginnings, formation, as well as the production of the institutional and human resources of university-level physical education. The reader is provided with informatio...n pertaining to the difficulties relating to the introduction of mandatory university-level physical education and the role Debrecen—and Debrecen’s Gymnastics Association: DTE—played in securing
accommodation for the gymnastics lessons. Thus, we can learn about the changes and shifts, from optional to obligatory, of the university physical education of female students. We can also receive information as to who the first physical education instructors at the university were and additional information concerning those university educators who were the chief supporters of the systematic exercise of students and of university-level sports. It was due to the dedication of these people that it was in Debrecen that a position for sports physician was first created. The duties of the sports physician included the health check-up of students who participated in the gymnastics exercises. In addition, the study also includes information pertaining to how the university sports centre was created and extended as well as how the interest of the student body in exercise was enhanced by the University Athletic Club of Debrecen (DEAC)
In the Footsteps of Kolozsvár. Documents on Students Work at the University of Debrecen and its Connection with the University of Kolozsvár. It’s a well-known historical fact that the foundation of the students’ canteen in the University of Debrecen was one of the first steps to establish a welfare organization...in a hope to support hundreds of students in their studies between the two World Wars in Debrecen. Also widely known that under the guidance of Nándor Láng this students’ canteen gained prosperity. At the
same time, far less attention has been given to networks and relations in higher education underpinning this initiative. Láng asked assistance and information from the University of Kolozsvár which was the only provincial university in Hungary. The letter of Béla Posta which was written to Nándor Láng in December 20, 1916 and all of the attached documents are very rare and valuable sources of the history in both universities. The paper therefore can be considered as a novelty by giving an insight into the partnership of the University of Debrecen and Kolozsvár.
The history of the Debrecen University Sports Club is closely connected with the sport history of Debrecen.
Concerning University Students Forced to Interrupt Their Studies in Hungary in the Middle of the 1930S. This study explores the reasons why in the 1930s—despite the general intent of support, a continuously developing student welfare institutional network, as well as the evolving state student social policy—le...d to a situation in which part of the university student body, owing to welfare conditions, was compelled to discontinue their studies. Those university students who—despite various support programs and because of their social conditions, the financial situation of their parents, high tuition fees, and perhaps because of further expenses pertaining to their studies—were unable to continue their studies, thus they were obliged to interrupt their university student status. Among the further possible causes for the termination of university studies reasons pertaining to health and actual study are also included, with the latter primarily meaning the absence of required preparedness. Statistical data provide a graphic representation of the situation of the university student population in Hungary in the middle of the 1930s.