Vol 13, No 1-2 (2022): MMXXII vol. XIII. nos 1-2

Published June 26, 2022

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Portraits

ALADÁR KETTESY, PROFESSOR OF PROFESSOR OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, THE RECTOR MAGNIFICUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN DURING THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1949/50.
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Full professor Aladar Kettesy, elected to become rector by the University of Debrecen and confirmed in this position by the Minister of Religion and Education, started on September 1st in 1949 his one year rectorship which could ensure professional developments and preserve traditional values of the institution at a time when the autonomy of th...e university was severely constrained by a sharply changed political system.  In thi difficult historical circumstances he arrived to the university leadership post as a professor of medicine who chaired the ophtalmology clinic for a quarter of a century, represented outstanding professional authority and enjoyed broadly manifested trust in the institution. His internationally recognized clinical and scientific accomplishments of previous as well as later decades, and his fascinating personality made him a legendary figure of the university community.

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GÉZA JUHÁSZ, PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, THE RECTOR MAGNIFICUS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN DURING THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1950/51.
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. In the 1920s and the 1930s, Géza Juhász, a secondary-school teacher, was one of the leading spokesmen of the literary culture of Debrecen. He caught the attention of an interested group of followers and admirers through a considerable output of poetic material, as well as through creating and publishing a body of and the organizati...on of literary projects. His challenging attitude to the political elite of the day made him a supporter of a left-wing ideology. In was primarily due to this latter fact that very soon (November 1945) after the termination of World War Two he was appointed full professor of Hungarian Literature, then in 1950 – sometimes even circumventing standing rules – he was made Rector of the university. His activities as Rector were overshadowed by the tragic events of the communist takeover, in which his leadership was determined by strict regulations and also well-defined expectations – the constant voicing of the justification of power and the glorification of political leaders. Géza Juhász tried to fulfill these tasks as expected, thus becoming an active participant in the elimination of university traditions and overshadowing the reputation of his former laudable literary organizer.

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A FORGATTEN ART SUPPORTER
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With his activities in art collection and patronage, Jenő Gerlőtei played an important role in the first phase of the University of Debrecen's history. He was a private lecturer at the French Institute and a literary historian. His seminars and publications as well as the notes written about him testify to his deep artistic int...erest. His surviving correspondence proves his endeavours as a patron. We also encounter appraisals of fine art exhibitions and artists' biographies in his oeuvre. Unfortunately, we know very little about his life, we have hardly any available sources on him, and even the date of his death cannot be found among the Hungarian databases and the University of Debrecen's documents.

 

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Studies

THE BEGINNING OF THE RENAISSANCE? PHILOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR IN EARLY FRENCH PRE-UNIVERSITIES
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The article will demonstrate how early French pre-universities in the Loire valley began to look at texts written by Roman writers such as Horace, Ovid and Virgil with the aim of interpreting and explaining the text as Roman texts, without trying to search for ‘hidden meanings’. The article will focus on the philological Ovid-commentary by ...William of Orléans (c1200), this being a clear example of this philological way of thinking. This approach to classical ‘pagan’ texts provoked a strong reaction that finally resulted in an allegorising interpretation of the classical texts and often the elimination of such texts from the school curriculum. This was the situation which early humanists protested against.

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„AD PINGUIOREM FORTUNAM” POOR HUNGARIAN STUDENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA UNTIL 1450
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A significant part of the Hungarian scholars at the University of Vienna between 1365/1377–1450 considered as poor students. From the nearly 3200 students almost 800 didn’t pay anything or could promise to be pay, however further 560 young people paid less than the prescribed taxes. In total 42,5% of them can be placed in different stages o...f poverty, but there were significant differences among them. This poverty although does not indicate their actual financial situation, only their financial condition in the time they were enrolled. The noteworthy political, military, or natural conflicts and phenomenon not necessarily affected them in their peregrination, only those which had influence on their financial situation. They can be divided into three groups. In the first can be found the non-paying students (pauper, nihil dedit). The second contains students with a little advantageous situation, namely who promised to pay the taxes (promisit, tenetur), or only asked a delay for fulfilling their obligation or an exemption from the regulated cloth-wearing. The third group concluded those who paid reduced taxes. Knowing their financial situation, the first two can be considered as pauperes, and the last is non bene habentes. Most of them came from the largest cities and towns (53%), however considerable the number of those who had a rural background (18%). Though their geographical origins do not shape a specific pattern, but their social background does.

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JOHANNES SOMOSI PETKÓ’S GREETING POEMS TO GEORG KOMÁROMI CSIPKÉS (UTRECHT, 1651
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In my paper, I focus on a carmen written by a Hungarian peregrine, Petkó János of Somos, to his fellow student, György Csipkés of Komárom, on the occasion of this latter’s disputation Disputatio Theologica De S. S. Trinitate, in 1651. This carmen is one of those Utrecht poems which were created for György C...sipkés of Komárom in the first part of the 1650s; chronologically it was written after István Ötvös of Szathmár’s and Johannes Leusden’s, and before Jakab Farkas of Alistál’s carmina. In my paper, I publish the poem in a simple and normative transcription and analyze it from orthographic, content, poetic-stylistic, and linguistic point of view. I examine it concerning the sources as well, and since I translate it, I explain also my considerations during the translation procedure and the final solutions. I conclude that linguistically and in terms of the content it is a little bit obscure creation (in this respect not unique in the age) and it shows to some extent the influences of the earlier poem by István Ötvös of Szathmár.

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THE ROLE OF MAYOR SILVESTER SOMOGYI IN THE TRANSLOCATION OF THE EXILED UNIVERSITY OF KOLOZSVÁR TO SZEGED
106-121

After the Romanian occupation of Transylvania and Cluj-Napoca, the Romanian authorities forcibly occupied the buildings of the University of Ferenc József and deprived the professors of their jobs. The deported teachers continued their teaching work in Budapest, and then under the leadership of the Mayor of Szeged, Szilveszter Somogyi, a wide-...ranging campaign was launched to temporarily move the exiled university to Szeged. New Year’s Eve in Somogy removed all obstacles to the university’s location in Szeged, and in 1921 the city became the university's headquarters. For this reason, at the ceremonial meeting of the university on June 29, 1922, he was inaugurated as an honorary doctor of political science.

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THE ORGANISATION OF A TWO-YEAR ARCHIVES TRAINING COURSE BETWEEN 1958 AND 1960
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Due to increased archival and records management tasks, there was an urgent need for higher education in archival education in the second half of the 20th century. After the first initiative, after the end of university archival training between 1950 and 1955, a two-year course organized by the Ministry of Cultural Affairs only partially filled... the gap, and due to its lack of elaboration and accountability, it can only be considered a partial success. Its value can be seen in the fact that it tried to pass on targeted knowledge to participants who had already worked in an archive, so the training was not considered an “elite” course of history. Correction of the errors in the course was delayed due to the reopening of the jigher education of archivist.

 

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Sources

UNSUCCESSFUL RECRUITMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEER ERNŐ ZICHY TO THE UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS AND THE INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR RESEARCH IN 1954
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The decade after the Second World War was the heyday of nuclear research, as it became a field of great power rivalry. Sándor Szalay, head of the Institute of Experimental Physics at the University of Debrecen and head of the Institute of Nuclear Research at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, made good use of the situation and was able to empl...oy many good specialists, including some who had been pushed aside by the state authoroties of time. However, Ernő Zichy, a chemical engineer who had previously been punished by deportation, was not able to get a job at any of his institutes because of his aristocratic background.

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THE IMAGE OF JUNIOR SCHOOL TEACHERS ON THE BASIS OF A LITERARY-CULTURAL EVENT ORGANISED BY A HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTION IN 1965.
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. The source referred to in the title is the script of a literary-cultural event from 1965. At that time, it was customary for higher education teacher training institutions to organise “Institute Days” with the aim of boosting motivation and enthusiasm in students towards their chosen profession. At these events, the emphasis was laid on t...he beauties of a teacher’s job, highlighting their role in shaping future’s society, rather than on the presentation of the real difficulties of the profession. The published script is also a reflection of this intention, for the organisers of the event were trying to reinforce the belief in prospective teachers that they would become respected and highly esteemed members of the society. The programme also recalls the struggle and humiliation that teachers had to endure in the 1920s and 1930s, with the goal of emphasising the fact that, by contrast, teachers of the 1960s were in a much better situation and that they did not need to cope with such problems as their predecessors. In reality, the contrast between the two eras was not that sharp, since the layer of junior school teachers continued to be an underpaid and not particularly esteemed employment group in the society.

 

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Repertoire

THE OFFICIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN BETWEEN 1914 AND 1950.
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The compilation of basic data, lists of teachers and officials is essential for the history of the University of Debrecen. As one of the „by-products” of the publication prepared for the centenary of the University of Debrecen, wasa day-by-day list of university officials compiled. As the archives from 1914 to 1950 were extensively scrapped... in the 1950s, it is not always possible to determine the dates of the officials' activities from the surviving archives. In any case, the archontology that has been drawn up taking these into account includes the officials of the Rector’s Office, the Dean’s Offices, the Quaestura („Study Office”), the Economic Office (later the Economic Directorate) and other service institutions between the dates indicated above. The University Library staff have already appeared elsewhere.

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Remembrance

THE DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY, HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY, FACULTY OF MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN WAS FOUNDED 100 YEARS AGO.
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The Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology in collaboration with the Committee for Neuroscience, Cell and Developmental Biology of the Regional Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen organized a festive symposium celebrating the 100 anniversaries of the Department’s foundation. The symposium was held in the audito...rium of the Regional Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen on the 14th of October 2021 at 2 PM. Following the opening remarks of László Mátyus, dean of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen and Dóra Reglődi, president of the Hungarian Anatomical Society, present and former staff members of the Department made presentations about the history of the Department and recollected their joyful memories about the everyday life and the stimulating scientific environment of the Department. The former members talked also about the way how their scientific carrier and personal life have been going after living the Department. In this article we make a short summary of the lectures presented on the symposium in the order of the original program.

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100TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FOUNDATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL CHEMISTRY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF DEBRECEN.
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The year 2021 marked the 100th anniversary of the inception of the Department of Medical Chemistry at the University of Debrecen. The Department’s history goes back to December 15th, 1921, when the Dean of the Medical Faculty Frigyes Verzár proposed to the Faculty Council the establishment of a „Chemistry Department.... Although the Council only approved this proposal in 1922, the Department was established retroactively with a foundation date of 1921. The Department was led by a few short-term and four long-term professors (János Bodnár, János Straub, György Bot and Pál Gergely) and each of them left their marks on the department. They should be credited for the constant development of a department that - besides teaching basic chemistry, introductory biochemistry and molecular biology to generations of medical students – has also pioneered biochemistry-oriented research deeply rooted in medicine.

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Book Reviews

HISTORY OF THE CORVINUS UNIVERSITY FROM THE BEGINNING
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The book reviewed by László Szögi work up the history of the Corvinus University.

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SEMMELWEIS UNIVERSITY 250 ANNIVERSARY
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Education, Tradition, Innovation. 250 years of Semmelweis University. Chief editor Péter Sótonyi, editor László Molnár.

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Actualities

MUSEUM OF THE FACULTY OF DENTISTRY
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. In 2013, the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Debrecen) established a museum. The part of the museum, created primary, deals with the past of the faculty, documenting the establishment of its predecessor, the Stomatology Polyclinic, and later the Clinic itself. Its professors are ranged until the year 2000 and the textbooks and manuals in ...Hungarian-language are presented from 1871 to 1948. The world's first dental journal from 1839 and the first Hungarian-language newspaper from 1892 are also shown. Longstanding tools and instruments are correspondingly on display. Dental posters, recon bills and other old documents can also be seen. The glass-walled contemporary dental office, established in 2017, displays three classical dental units and machinery from the 1880s to the 1930s. A contemporary medical cabinet displays old tools, medications, and dental materials. On the wall besides the original poster, the medical diploma and the old photo, a medical caricature can also be seen. The museum principally collects contemporary dental tools and documents related to Hungary and holds only original resources. One of the largest dental museums in Hungary has been established over the years

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