The author of this article carries out researches on that, how a planning approach from the landscape perspective could support the rural development planning. As a part of the research process the author reviewed the rural development plans on national level from 1999 and on the local level in four pilot areas in the last planning period. As a...n outcome of this review it was found that the landscape is one of the main categories and an often used concept of the rural development planning both on national and on local level in Hungary. However, as the documents reflected, the interpretations of the concept „landscape” are very different, so it needs to be clarified and unified. Nature, society and culture, as well as economy manifest themselves in the landscape. The documents in question deal with landscape mostly as it were only a visual, natural phenomenon. Therefore, following the horizontal principle of sustainability, it seems to be a good approach to develop a planning system, which is able to treat landscape as a whole (nature, society, culture including economy). However, the landscape diversity points out the constraints of application of a general planning method in rural development. The other main outcome of the review is that there is a conflict between the complex national objectives and the mosaic-like projects carried out on the local level. A solution can be an organic application of the national objectives on the local level considering the concrete landscape with its specific attributes where the planned projects were parts of a complex local development plan in a synergic and successive way.
The biotope network has an important role in the case of intensive agricultural landscapes. Our aim was to examine the history of land-use of an intensively managed area – as Kétsoprony village – in the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) region and to study the changes in the biotope network, especially the tree rows in time. The biotope netw...ork and mainly the tree rows may be importance from the aspect of nature conservation because land use has been dominated by arable lands in the research area for centuries. We have identified the main stages of structural changes by studying historical maps and considering quantitative and qualitative features. We have found that the rate of arable lands was continuously growing while the length of tree rows was decreasing in the 19-20th centuries.
While examining soil patterns from low ridges and shallow furrows of untouched forest areas we discovered some traces of antropogenic effects. We found that samples from the ridges are argillaceous, succinct, highly-bound and significantly eroded Luvisol samples with a thin layer of humus and strong acidity. By contrast, the samples of the furr...ows have thin layers of mould and weak acidity. HTM (a pebble, which came from other areas) and other artificial products can be found in both geological sections and they refer to the antropogenic effects and the accumulations and eroding processes resulting from ci-devant, 15-20 cm deep ploughing. Our findings give an evident proof of former cultivations and their soil status-changes in the currently forest-covered areas.
Cumanian mounds, „kurgans” have a great importance in the history of the Carpathian Basin from cultural and nature conservai on, landscape, archaeological, botanical and zoological viewpoints. The kurgans are more thousands years nai onal values heritages. In Hungary these appear with the highest number in the fi eld of Great Hungarian Plai...n. Their size and relai ve height about 1-12 m. Unfortunately, the diff erent agricultural aci vii es resulted in their coni nuous degradai on and their number also decreased over the past centuries. There were remarkable changes in agricultural regulai on concerning Cumanian mounds in the EU – and in Hungary too – in 2010. They were declared protected landscape elements therefore they became part of cross-compliance. In our research we will check the results of the new regulai on in relai on to the changes in the state of Cumanian mounds in Békés County.